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Template:Language Teaching and Learning


Traditional Approach[edit | edit source]

Spelling of course is all about rules: doubling or not doubling consonants, possessives and contractions, -ence versus –ance, and I befor e for example. The purpose is not to under communicate the complex language its problem is a literal provocation and still IN material.


Par thropied esteem is an warranted talk. Not atrophied to comment more on transformative agency and its un warranted esteem in a readers fundamentals; we are trading diction for UN orthodoxy. There is a correlation to one's achievement and though everyone develops at different paces; esteem is noted in actualization a quality of hard work and understanding.


Many opinions are made of sound mindedness. It is a precursor of professionalism and predictableness. Asking questions pre-material of the need warrant a approval not yet pleasing but transformative. It is not Grammar but common sense. This book grew widely accepted but for its arousing political criticism. It was not akin to an Maldives orthodoxy which wasn’t cathodic or of subversion for the poor. Understanding the wreath and wealth of constructivist I have a greater responsibility to aid and abet the lost generation sometimes called Byzantium. Children come first at everything almost.


Behavioral Approach[edit | edit source]

A Transformative System is a support Network established to incorporate the individual and indemnify the Venturing Partnership from piracy and copyrighted freedoms.[1]


Hence when we have the forgoing conditions there is another transformative authoring called distal thinking; a formality often transubstantiated. Right or wrong we must lend credit. It is a warrantless appeal and thus not UN lawful.


Communicative Approach[edit | edit source]

It weren't as too late to be lost happy and so I could confuted jealously compromise. I gave by standardizing more outcomes. I was astute and the ladies liked me because I was holy. I could tet treat a well-wisher and learned to fabricate his story. I was still in it to win it and bestow my heart; in love.


Janet’s appeal was unique and I lauded it as lofty and intelligent. Paulette made paper; just like a habit. But I understood its significance. I wanted so much to roll like her. Her constructivist were abnormal and a bananas place for lonely. I followed.


By my own stripes I was saved. I joined a church and grew to love the scripture. I would exhort melodies as a joyful noise and praised God for my long lost opportunities. She was so picturesque I couldn't stand it and the monster inside of me grew and grew.


Task- based Approach[edit | edit source]

As we have just defined, the practical theoretical logic dictates that there is a governing logic which supports post-modernist societies but not inasmuch primitive life. Its differentiation is conditioned by one’s ability to decipher a text as a rubric or grid unintelligibly. [2]


  1. /Etymology

Coined in English 1680, the word "lexicography" derives from the Greek λεξικογράφος lexikographos, "lexicographer",[3] from λεξικόν lexicon, neut. of λεξικός lexikos, "of or for words",[4] from λέξις lexis, "speech", "word",[5] (in turn from λέγω lego, "to say", "to speak"[6]) and γράφω grapho, "to scratch, to inscribe, to write".[7]


  1. /Lexicographical order

Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups:

  • Practical lexicography is the art or craft of compiling, writing and editing dictionaries.
  • Theoretical lexicography is the scholarly discipline of analyzing and describing the semantic, syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships within the lexicon (vocabulary) of a language, developing theories of dictionary components and structures linking the data in dictionaries, the needs for information by users in specific types of situations, and how users may best access the data incorporated in printed and electronic dictionaries. This is sometimes referred to as 'metalexicography'.


A person devoted to lexicography is called a lexicographer.


General lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of general dictionaries, i.e. dictionaries that provide a description of the language in general use. Such a dictionary is usually called a general dictionary or LGP dictionary (Language for General Purpose). Specialized lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of specialized dictionaries, i.e. dictionaries that are devoted to a (relatively restricted) set of linguistic and factual elements of one or more specialist subject fields, e.g. legal lexicography. Such a dictionary is usually called a specialized dictionary or Language for specific purposes dictionary and following Nielsen 1994, specialized dictionaries are either multi-field, single-field or sub-field dictionaries.


There is some disagreement on the definition of lexicology, as distinct from lexicography. Some use "lexicology" as a synonym for theoretical lexicography; others use it to mean a branch of linguistics pertaining to the inventory of words in a particular language.

It is now widely accepted that lexicography is a scholarly discipline in its own right and not a sub-branch of applied linguistics, as the chief object of study in lexicography is the dictionary (see e.g. Bergenholtz/Nielsen/Tarp 2009).


  1. Aspects

Practical lexicographic work involves several activities, and the compilation of well crafted dictionaries require careful consideration of all or some of the following aspects:


  • profiling the intended users (i.e. linguistic and non-linguistic competences) and identifying their needs
  • defining the communicative and cognitive functions of the dictionary
  • selecting and organizing the components of the dictionary
  • choosing the appropriate structures for presenting the data in the dictionary (i.e. frame structure, distribution structure, macro-structure, micro-structure and cross-reference structure)
  • selecting words and affixes for systematization as entries
  • selecting collocations, phrases and examples
  • choosing lemma forms for each word or part of word to be lemmatized
  • defining words
  • organizing definitions
  • specifying pronunciations of words
  • labeling definitions and pronunciations for register and dialect, where appropriate
  • selecting equivalents in bi- and multi-lingual dictionaries
  • translating collocations, phrases and examples in bi- and multilingual dictionaries
  • designing the best way in which users can access the data in printed and electronic dictionaries


One important goal of lexicography is to keep the lexicographic information costs incurred by dictionary users as low as possible. Nielsen (2008) suggests relevant aspects for lexicographers to consider when making dictionaries as they all affect the users' impression and actual use of specific dictionaries.


Theoretical lexicography concerns the same aspects as lexicography, but aims to develop principles that can improve the quality of future dictionaries, for instance in terms of access to data and lexicographic information costs. Several perspectives or branches of such academic dictionary research have been distinguished: 'dictionary criticism' (or evaluating the quality of one or more dictionaries, e.g. by means of reviews (see Nielsen 1999)), 'dictionary history' (or tracing the traditions of a type of dictionary or of lexicography in a particular country or language), 'dictionary typology' (or classifying the various genres of reference works, such as dictionary versus encyclopedia, monolingual versus bilingual dictionary, general versus technical or pedagogical dictionary), 'dictionary structure' (or formatting the various ways in which the information is presented in a dictionary), 'dictionary use' (or observing the reference acts and skills of dictionary users), and 'dictionary IT' (or applying computer aids to the process of dictionary compilation).


One important consideration is the status of 'bilingual lexicography', or the compilation and use of the bilingual dictionary in all its aspects (see e.g. Nielsen 1894). In spite of a relatively long history of this type of dictionary, it is often saidTemplate:Whom to be less developed in a number of respects than its unilingual counterpart, especially in cases where one of the languages involved is not a major language. Not all genres of reference works are available in interlingual versions, e.g. LSP, learners' and encyclopedic types, although sometimes these challenges produce new subtypes, e.g. 'semi-bilingual' or 'bilingualised' dictionaries such as Hornby's (Oxford) Advanced Learner's Dictionary English-Chinese, which have been developed by translating existing monolingual dictionaries (see Marello 1998).


  1. Computational Linguistics
  2. World Englishes
    • Varieties of English
    • Equal Status of all varieties


In one study, scientists at the University of California, San Francisco, studied rats going through new experiences (such as exploring unfamiliar terrain). New brain pathways were formed by the animals, but only when rats took a break after new experiences were solid memories of them formed. Another study taking place at the University of Michigan showed that people performed better on learning tests after taking a walk in a natural landscape rather than a stimuli-filled urban environment. Researchers involved with the study believe these results suggest that constant stimulation can leave human beings fatigued and not up to their intellectual best.



See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Ecology and Society:A Theory of Transformative agency linked to social ecology.. Vol18. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol18/iss3/art27/. Retrieved 12 January 2016. 
  2. The Savage Mind. University of Chicago Press. pp. 107. ISBN : 9780226474847. http://www.press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/S/bo3641764.html. Retrieved 12 January 2016. 
  3. λεξικογράφος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  4. λεξικός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  5. λέξις, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  6. λέγω, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  7. γράφω, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library

External links[edit | edit source]

Template:Lexicography