# User:LABoyd2/Conditional and Iterator Functions to manual 151002

### For Loop[edit]

Iterate over the values in a range or vector.

for(variable = [start : increment : end] for(variable = [start : end] for(variable = [vector]

**parameters**: for range- Note: For range, values are separated by colons rather than commas used in vectors.

**start**- value for variable on first pass

**increment**or step- amount to increase variable for each pass
**optional**, default = 1

**end**- stop when next value would be past end

**vector**: alternate- variable is assigned each vector member in turn, one for each pass.

**examples**:

for (a =[3:5])echo(a); // 3 4 5 for (a =[3:0]){echo(a);} // 0 1 2 3 start < end deprecated by 2015.3 for (a =[3:0.5:5])echo(a); // 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 for (a =[0:2:5])echo(a); // 0 2 4 a never equals end for (a =[3:-2:-1])echo(a); // 3 1 -1 negative increment requires 2015.3 be sure end < start for (a =[3,4,1,5])echo(a); // 3 4 1 5 for (a =[0.3,PI,1,99]){echo(a);} // 0.3 3.14159 1 99 x1=2; x2=8; x3=5.5; for (a =[x1,x2,x3]){echo(a);} // 2 8 5 for (a =[[1,2],6,"s",[[3,4],[5,6]]])echo(a); // [1,2] 6 "s" [[3,4],[5,6]]

for() is an operator. Operators require braces {} if more than one action is within it scope. Action end in semicolons ,operators do not.

For() loops are not an exception to the rule about variables having only one value within a scope. A copy of loop contents is created for each pass. Each pass is given its own scope, allowing any variables to have unique values for that pass. No, you still can't do a=a+1;

**Nested loops**

When loops are nested, all ranges may be include in the same for().

for ( variable1 = <range or vector> , variable2 = <range or vector> ) <do something using both variables>

example for() nested 3 deep color_vec = ["black","red","blue","green","pink","purple"]; for (x = [-20:10:20] ) for (y = [0:4] )color(color_vec[y]) for (z = [0,4,10] ) {translate([x,y*5-10,z])cube();}shorthandnesting for same result color_vec = ["black","red","blue","green","pink","purple"]; for (x = [-20:10:20], y = [0:4], z = [0,4,10] ) translate([x,y*5-10,z]){color(color_vec[y])cube();}

**Examples using vector of vectors**

example 1 - iteration over a vector of vectors (rotation) for(i = [ [ 0, 0, 0], [ 10, 20, 300], [200, 40, 57], [ 20, 88, 57] ]) { rotate(i) cube([100, 20, 20], center = true); }

example 2 - iteration over a vector of vectors (translation) for(i = [ [ 0, 0, 0], [10, 12, 10], [20, 24, 20], [30, 36, 30], [20, 48, 40], [10, 60, 50] ]) { translate(i) cube([50, 15, 10], center = true); }

example 3 - iteration over a vector of vectors for(i = [ [[ 0, 0, 0], 20], [[10, 12, 10], 50], [[20, 24, 20], 70], [[30, 36, 30], 10], [[20, 48, 40], 30], [[10, 60, 50], 40] ]) { translate([i[0][0], 2*i[0][1], 0]) cube([10, 15, i[1]]); }

### Intersection For Loop[edit]

Iterate over the values in a range or vector and create the intersection of objects created by each pass.

Besides creating separate instances for each pass, the standard `for()`

also groups all these instances creating an implicit union.
`intersection_for()`

is a work around because the implicit union prevents getting the expected results using a combination of the standard `for()`

and `intersection()`

statements.

`intersection_for()`

uses the same parameters, and works the same as a For Loop,
other than eliminating the implicit union.

example 1 - loop over a range:
| ||

```
intersection_for(n = [1 : 6])
{
rotate([0, 0, n * 60])
{
translate([5,0,0])
sphere(r=12);
}
}
``` |

example 2 - rotation :
| ||

```
intersection_for(i = [ [ 0, 0, 0],
[ 10, 20, 300],
[200, 40, 57],
[ 20, 88, 57] ])
{
rotate(i)
cube([100, 20, 20], center = true);
}
``` |

In

### If Statement[edit]

Performs a test to determine if the actions in a sub scope should be performed of not.

If (test) scope1 If (test){scope1} If (test) scope1 else scope2 If (test){scope1} else {scope2}

**Parameters**

**test**: Usually a boolean expression, but can be any value or variable.- See here for true or false state of values.
- See here for boolean and logical operators
- Do not confuse the assignment operator '=' with the equal operator '=='

**scope1**: one or more actions to take when test is**true**.**scope2**: one or more actions to take when test is**false**.

if (b==a) cube(4); if (b<a) {cube(4); cylinder(6);} if (b&&a) {cube(4); cylinder(6);} if (b!=a) cube(4); else cylinder(3); if (b) {cube(4); cylinder(6);} else {cylinder(10,5,5);} if (!true){cube(4); cylinder(6);} else cylinder(10,5,5); if (x>y) cube(1, center=false); else {cube(size = 2, center = true);}

Since version 2015.03, variables can now be assigned in any scope. Note that assignments are only valid within the scope in which they are defined - you are still not allowed to leak values to an outer scope. See Scope of variables for more details.

### Conditional Operator[edit]

A function which uses a test to determine which of 2 values to return.

a = test ? TrueValue : FalseValue ; echo( test ? TrueValue : FalseValue );

**Parameters**

**test**: Usually a boolean expression, but can be any value or variable.- See here for true or false state of values.
- See here for boolean and logical operators
- Do not confuse the assignment operator '=' with the equal operator '=='

**TrueValue**: the value to return when test is**true**.**FalseValue**: the value to return when test is**false**.- A value in OpenSCAD is either a Number (like 42), a Boolean (like true), a String (like "foo"), a Vector (like [1,2,3]), or the Undefined value (undef). Values can be stored in variables, passed as function arguments, and returned as function results.

This works like the `?:` operator from the family of C-like programming languages.

**Examples**

a=1; b=2; c= a==b ? 4 : 5 ; // 5 a=1; b=2; c= a==b ? "a==b" : "a!=b" ; // "a!=b" TrueValue = true; FalseValue = false; a=5; test = a==1; echo( test ? TrueValue : FalseValue ); // false L = 75; R = 2; test = (L/R)>25; TrueValue = [test,L,R,L/R,cos(30)]; FalseValue = [test,L,R,sin(15)]; a1 = test ? TrueValue : FalseValue ; // [true, 75, 2, 37.5, 0.866025]

#### Recursive function calls[edit]

Recursive function calls are supported. Using the Conditional Operator "... ? ... : ... " it's possible to ensure the recursion is terminated. Note: There is a built-in recursion limit to prevent the application to crash. If the limit is hit, the result of the function call is undef.

**example**

// recursion - find the sum of the values in a vector (array) by calling itself // from the start (or s'th element) to the i'th element - remember elements are zero based function sumv(v,i,s=0) = (i==s ? v[i] : v[i] + sumv(v,i-1,s)); vec=[ 10, 20, 30, 40 ]; echo("sum vec=", sumv(vec,2,1)); // calculates 20+30=50

### Assign Statement[edit]

Set variables to a new value for a sub-tree.

Since 2015.03 assign() is unneeded, as variables can now be assigned anywhere.

**Parameters**

- The variables that should be (re-)assigned

**example:**

```
for (i = [10:50])
{
assign (angle = i*360/20, distance = i*10, r = i*2)
{
rotate(angle, [1, 0, 0])
translate([0, distance, 0])
sphere(r = r);
}
}
```