USMLE Step 1 Review/Renal

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Causes of Metabolic Acidosis[edit]

M U D P I L E S

Methanol poisoning

Uremia

Diabetic Keto-acidosis

Para-aldehyde ingestion

Ischemia

Lactic Acidosis

Ethanol poisoning

Salicylate ingestion


Causes of Hyper-Calcemia[edit]

PAM SCHMIDT OR MISHAP


Paget's Disease Malignancy

Amyloid Intoxication (hypervitaminosis)

Multiple Myeloma Sarcoidosis

Sarcoid Hyperparathyroidism

Cancer Alkalai ( Milk ) syndrome

Hormomal (para-thyroid) Paget's Disease bone

Milk-alkali Syndrome

Immobilization

D-vitamin overdose

Thyrotoxicosis

also consider Addison's Disease, thiazide diuretics and simple lab error


Potassium Metabolism[edit]

Presentation of HYPO-kalemia:

ECG S-T wave depression (sometimes with T and U waves)

Arrythmias

Heart block

Muscle weakness

Hypo-reflexia

Mental confusion

Ileus

Anorexia

Nausea and vomiting

Presentation of HYPER-kalemia:

Widened QRS interval

Ventricular tachycardia

Asystole

Muscle weakness (paralysis)

Hypo-reflexia

Mental confusion

Irritability