USMLE Step 1 Review/Pathology

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5 SIGNS OF INFLAMMATION (as described by Celsus)[edit | edit source]

  • Redness/Erythema (Rubor)
  • Raised temperature (Calor)
  • Swelling (Tumor)
  • Pain (Dolor)
  • Loss of Function (Functio Laesa)


Goombs classification: "Anna Cycled Immediately Downhill--Gell & Goombs" or "ACID".

  • Type I Anaphylaxis
  • Type II Cytotoxic-mediated
  • Type III Immune-complex
  • Type IV Delayed hypersensitivity

Coal workers pneumoconiosis is due to the presence of anthracosis. Basically a carbon pigment from coal mining accumulates in macrophages along the pleural lymphatics and interstitium. Usually advances through various stages. Clinical stages (Anthracosis) 1. Asymptomatic 2. Simple CWP(Coal workers pneumoconiosis. Cx(characterized) by coal-dust macules and nodules in upper lobes that produce little pulmonary dysfunction. 3. Complicated CWP. Cx progressive massive fibrosis accompanied by increasing respiratory distress, secondary pulmonary hypertension, and cor pulmonale. 4. Caplan syndrome is CWP accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis.

Terms: Pneumoconiosis, anthracosis, macrophages, pleural lymphatics, interstitium, asymptomatic, pulmonary dysfunction, fibrosis, Secondary pulmonary hypertension, cor pulmonale, rheumatoid arthritis, caplan syndrome.