The Computer Revolution/Software/Database
reserved for group 4
Database management system
The Database management system (DBMS)is a collection of interrelated data together with a set of programs to access the data, also called database system, or simply database. A major purpose of a database system is to provide users with an abstract view of the data.That is, the system hides certain details of how the data are stored and maintained. Thereby, data can be stored in complex data structures that permit efficient retrieval, yet users see a simplified and easy-to-use view of the data. The lowest level of abstraction, the physical level, describes how the data are actually stored and details the data structures. The next-higher level of abstraction, the logical level, describes what data are stored, and what relationships exist among those data. The highest level of abstraction, the view level, describes parts of the database that are relevant to each user; application programs used to access a database form part of the view level. []
Free DBMS software
What Is a Database?
It is a collection of related data kept on a computer and organized well enough to be easily retrievable. The data is organized into fields, records, and files. A field/column is a single type of data that is to be stored in a database, like a last name or telephone number. A record/row is a group of related fields, like the name, address, and major of Phyllis Hoffman. A table is a collection of related rows, like all student address data.
The above is an example of a database. A database can contain various columns and rows that consist of data needed to perform a task. The task can be mailing, labels, email blast, etc. Some terms used in composing a database are the following: Tables – rows and columns Record – row Field - column
A database is a collection of related data that is stored and organized in a manner that enables information to be retrieved as needed. There are advantages and disadvantages for DBMS, database management system, which is used to create, maintain, and access a database. The biggest disadvantage is increased vulnerability because the data can be highly integrated. A nice advantage is that the database usually has a faster response time.
A database is a collection of data that is stored and can then be accessed by the designer, developer, administrator or the user. The designer is the person who would work with the analysts and others who are involved in the SDLC. This group would determine what type of data is going to be collected and what output is desired. The database developers will actually create the database based on the information from the designers. The developers also get the database ready for data entry. The database administrators are responsible for managing, maintaining, determine monitoring user access and the security of the database. Then eventually the users are responsible for entering the data. “Understanding Computers, Today and Tomorrow, Edition 13, Deborah Morley and Charles Parker, Page 552"
Evolution of Databases
Databases have evolved greatly since the 1960s. As our reliance on information systems have increased, so has the evolution of databases. Examples of our reliance includes the need to store and retrieve complex data such as multimedia objects. The biggest advances in databases can be expressed in terms of their organization of data. The organization of data has evolved from a collection of flat files with tree levels with a high level of data redundancy to a collection of tables and objects that support multimedia objects with a minimum data redundancy.
Creating a Database
First a files needs to be created, then the objects that the database is going to contain. Every time the Access is launched it gives the user the option of creating a new and blank database file/template or opening an already existing one. These will open in Datasheet view, which shows a table with rows and columns.
One of the easiest ways to create databases is to use Microsoft Access. When the program opens you are in a blank database. In the bottom right corner type the name of your database. After that you are shown in Datasheet View with a blank Database with just the Field ID as the Primary Key. A primary key is a field in a table that is used to relate that table to other tables. A primary key must uniquely identify each record in that table, which means that no two records within a table can have the same value in the primary key field. When selecting a primary key, it is important to pick a field that contains unique data that isn’t likely to change. To change the Primary Key text you double click in the field and type what you desire as the Primary Key. To add fields to the database you right click on the tab that says click to add fields. Then choose one of the field types: Text, Number, Currency, Date & Time, Yes/No, Lookup & Relationship, Rich Text, Memo, Attachments, Hyperlinks, Calculated Field, and Paste as Fields. Once you have chosen what you want to add to the Database you can type that form of data within the cell. To add lines to your database just press the Enter Key. Once you are done with your database you can add all the same formatting that you are used to in any other application within Microsoft. Some of them include Font Color, Background, Table Styles, Conditional Formatting, and Table Formatting. Every time you open the database it automatically updates your information stored within the database.
Shortcuts in Access
Sometimes creating databases can be long and strenuous and even creating multiple databases at one time. That is why Microsoft has included shortcuts in Access to make databases faster and easier to create. There is an extended list of shortcuts posted on the shortcutworld.com web page. Some of these shortcuts can be used in all versions of Access but the majority of the listed shortcuts only pertains to Access 2010. Shortcutworld.com divided all the shortcuts into five different groups with many subgroups. The groups are: Manage Databases, Manage Access Features, Working with Text and Data, Working with Access Views, and The Rest.
Marketing Database and Government Database
Marketing Database contain Marketing and demographic data about people, such as where they live and what products they buy. This type of information is used for marketing purposes, such as sending advertisements flyers by mail or email that fit each individual’s interests or trying to sign people up over the phone for some type of service. For example, when you subscribe a magazine, fill out a sweepstakes entry or any product registration card, or buy any product or service using a credit card, there is a good chance that the information will find its way into a marketing database. Marketing database is also used with Web activities such as social network activity and searches performed via Facebook, MySpace, Twitter etc data can be tracked and used for marketing purposes. Google also collect enormous amounts of data about individuals, worries many privacy advocates. Google may have data stored about your search history via search site, browsing history such as Google Chrome, e-mail – Gmail account, appointments such as Google calendar, telephone messages – Google voice, photos – Picasa Web Albums, reading history – Google books, and media history, and Google health.
Governments provide a few different types of databases depending on the laws that govern the country. Some of the usual databases one might find are property value search databases, vital records search databases, and address number and phone number search databases. For example, if you're listed in the U.S. telephone book, someone can look for you using either your name or telephone number. These particular databases rely heavily on the law because they wouldn't exist at all if they weren't allowed. It is important to know your local and federal laws regarding databases so you know what is allowed and what is not allowed in your area. .
- Understanding Computers 13th Edition- page 608
Information about individuals is also available in Government databases. Some information such as Social Security earnings, income tax returns, is confidential and can legally be seen only by authorized individuals. Other information – such as birth records, marriage certificates, and divorce information, as well as property purchases, assessments, liens, tax values – is available to the public, as well as to marketing companies that specialize in creating marketing databases. Other government databases application is the creation of national ID system that link’s driver’s license databases, I-Pass ID is also linked to the State government databases. There is a big advantage of these online databases and one of them is checking the background of a potential employee or looking up a misplaced phone number etc. And also to keep an eye on hackers who is stealing all these information from these databases. In short, both these databases are useful and helpful to all these organizations.