The Computer Revolution/Programming/Programming Languages Used Today
COBOL: The Language of Business
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Screenshot_Eric_4.png COBOL is the most commonly used language for programming large computers in business. The COBOL program is divided into different sections, which are divided into paragraphs, which also are divided into sections. The program is divided into four languages: identification, environment,procedure and data. They each have a function on how the data will be described. Many companies think that COBOL is obsolete. (Williams, Sawyer."Using information technology"
COBOL: (Common Business Oriented Language)
Significant Language Features • automated business • permits both long names (up to 30 characters) and word-connector characters (dashes) • Every variable is defined in detail • File records are also described with great detail, as are lines to be output to a printer • Offers object, visual programming environments • Class Libraries • Rapid Application Capabilities • Integration with the World Wide Web COBOL, long associated with green screens, core dumps, and traditional mainframe connections, may at first glance seem at odds with object technology, push-button graphical interfaces, and interactive development environments. This perceived incongruity, however, is more a reflection of the mainframe’s ability to keep pace with the innovations of desktop and client-server computing than a flaw in the COBOL language
- it is machine- independent, easy to use, easy to read and understand. It can handle a lot of files.
- because it is very simple and easy to read, it tends to be large in length for programmers, it takes longer to design a program and makes the process really slow. Also does not have any mathematical functions like FORTRAN does.
The BASIC (Beginner's All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) computer programming language was developed in 1963. It was designed to provide access to computers for non-science students. BASIC is still popular today.
The BASIC language was developed by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz and under their direction, implemented by a team of Dartmouth College students. It was designed to allow students to write programs for the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System. It did not require that the user have a mathematical background as other languages did.
There were eight design principles of BASIC:
- Easy for beginners to use
- General-purpose programming language
- Keep the language simple for beginners, but allow advanced features to be added for experts
- Clear and user friendly error messages
- Quick response for small programs
- Understanding of computer hardware unnecessary
- Protect the user from the operating system
BASIC became relatively widespread and was implemented by a number of manufacturers. This is because the designers of BASIC made the compiler available without charge and they also put a great deal of effort into promoting the language.
Visual Basic is a version of BASIC that maintains object-oriented programming and uses a visual environment to assist programmers fast and effortlessly create programs. It is used for creating Windows applications and is part of the Visual Studio suite of programming products. When creating a Visual Basic program, the user interface is created first by adding objects to a blank form, and then detailing the suitable properties for each object.
Many newer BASIC versions with improved features were later created. In time, however, BASIC started to recede. The removal of direct access to the language on the hardware allied with the disappearance of the command line in the more popular Operating Systems as the appearance of new languages, all contributed to the decline of programming in general as an activity for the common user.
In the future, further developments in the BASIC computer language will undoubtedly be made to keep up with the ever-changing times, as it is a fairly simple language to develop translators for.
C was first created in 1969 by AT&T Bell Labs. The language was developed for UNIX operating system. It is used mostly for creating system software but also can create application software. The language uses keywords such as "switch, for, while" and many mathematical symbols, as well as a semicolon ( ; ) to indicate the end of a command. C is one of the most popular languages used today for high level programming.
C++ originated in 1983, which is basically a newer object-oriented version of (C). It basically includes all the characteristics related to (C), but beyond that it has additional features for objects, classes, virtual functions, multiple inheritance, templates and other components of an Object-oriented programming. Other than that, there are also visual version of C++ namely, Microsoft Visual C++. It is even most popular programming language for graphical applications, system software, application software, device drivers, embedded software, high-performance server and client application. C++ programming language is also basically suitable of entertainment software such as video games. C++ is even used for hardware design where design is actually described in C++.
C# (pronounced C sharp) is the most recent version of C and was developed as competitor to the Java language. For web purposes, it is mainly used to create applications and XML-based Web services. Similarly, C# is also a well-known and high-level programming language for multimedia applications in video game creation.
Pascal was published by Niklaus Wirth in 1970. It was named in honor of the French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal.
Pascal is based on the ALGOL programming language. In its original form, Pascal is a purely procedural language that includes the traditional array of ALGOL-like structures with reserved words, such as if, then, else, while, for, and so forth. However, Pascal also had many data structuring facilities and abstractions which were not included in the original ALGOL60, like type definitions, pointers, enumerations and sets.
Nowadays Pascal has been updated to be object oriented. It is often viewed as a teaching language, but it does still serve as an effective tool for developing desktop applications. There are a few commercial programs written in Pascal, for example FL Studio, and BeyondCompare. Pascal uses keywords instead of C-style braces and symbols, so it is a bit easier for beginners to understand than languages like C++. Embarcadero, one of the compiler software leaders, has been promoting Delphi as an industrial strength IDE for the Object Pascal programming language. Lazarus is a free open source IDE that uses Free Pascal, a free, open source, cross-platform, object oriented implementation of Pascal that is largely, though not completely, compatible with Object Pascal.
Python is an open-source, object-oriented programming language. It can be used to develop a variety of applications, including gaming, scientific, database, and web applications. The programs run on computers using the Windows, Linux, UNIX, Mac OS X, or OS/2 operating systems. It also works on Palm and Nokia devices. Python was developed in the early 1990s, but is just recently gaining a large following. It is used by large organizations, such as NASA, Google, Honeywell, and the New York Stock Exchange. MIT is also replacing some languages with Python in programming courses.
Ruby is a dynamic open source, object-oriented language that was created in 1995. Its primary focus is productivity of program development. Ruby is used to create web applications and general purpose programming for Mac OS X, including Linux, UNIX, MS-DOS, and Windows. (Understanding Computers 13th edition, Deborah Morley and Charles S. Parker. 2011)
Java is an object-oriented programming language designed by Sun (now Oracle) in the early 1990s. It is an independent platform modeled after C++ and originally designed for use in things like consumer electronics. A great feature of Java is that it’s a “write once – run anywhere” model’ meaning it can be run on one type of server and then moved and run on a different type of server with little or no adjustments needed. When Java is launched on a webpage it’s called an “applet,” on a web server it’s a “servlet” and when Java is run without a web browser, it’s known as a Java “application.” http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t=Java&i=45557,00.asp
References: Morely, Deborah; Parker, Charles. Understanding Computers Today and Tomorrow. Course Technology, 2011. Pages 419-420. Print.