The Computer Revolution/Internet/Languages
Low Level Languages
Machine language and assembly language are considered low-level languages. They received their names from the fact that programmers using these languages must write instructions at a low level so that the computer can easily and quickly understand them. Machine language consist of 0's and 1's while assemble language works with names and and other symbols. Machine language is instructions are typically in binary form. Assembly language instructions typically use mnemonic operating codes.Assembly language has an advantage has over machine language because it has execution efficiency. Low level languages were developed during the 1st generation of programming languages. These two languages are the earliest programming languages.
Programming Languages History
The first programming language developed was FORTRAN in November 1954 which progressed to FORTRAN I in October of 1956, FORTRAN II in 1957 and a form of FORTRAN is still used today. There have been several programming languages that were created from scratch. Fortran was the first one, then there was: B-O in 1957 which transformed into the better known COBOL in 1958, LISP arrived in 1958, APL in 1960, Snobol in 1962, JOSS in 1964 which has morphed into M ANSI ISO, Forth in 1968, sh in 1969, Prolog in 1970, ML in 1973 and B in 1981. (ref#1). All other marketed languages can have their history traced back to one or more of these languages at some point in time.
HTML, or "Hyper Text Markup Language," is a programming language used most often in the creation of Web Pages. A markup language simply denotes a form of programming in which there is text with extra information relating to that text. With HTML this is accomplished by using tags, which are commands encased in brackets (<>). For example, putting a B in the brackets before the text and a /b in brackets after the text will bold that text. HTML gained wide acceptance in the creation of web pages because it is simple to use and easy to understand.
XML or "Extesible Markup Language" is an advancement over HTML. It has had a tremendous impact on the internet, surfing and the transmission of data. It allows two computers to communicate with each other. RSS or Really Simple Syndication allows for applications to update automatically when updated by the webmaster. This incredibly powerful feature has helped the expansion of blogs (web logs) which are frequently used as online diaries and vblogs (video web logs) which are blgs with a video component.
- Understanding Computers Today and Tomorrow 13th edition Morley and Parker