The Computer Revolution/Computer Graphics/Information Systems
Information system is a collection of elements and procedures that interact to generate information needed by users in an organization. Information systems are usually computerized used to support a variety of activities. Businesses use information systems which are created and modified based on changes in environment or new feature the company may have to offer. Enterprise architecture is a comprehensive framework used to describe and manage an organizations business functions and systems. Allows managers to better organize and maximize the use of information technology, can be a complicated and time consuming process but can be a valuable tool once stable. Business intelligence is the process of gathering, storing, accessing, and analyzing data about a company in order to make better decisions. BI can help businesses manage inventory and increase sales at the same time. Data mart and data warehouse help BI collect data for companies. Data mart is a collection of data related to a particular subject or department. Data warehouse is a collection of data about the company and customers. Data mining is the use of intelligent software to analyze patterns and relationships between data, which can help improve sales by following customer sales and suggesting products they would be likely to purchase.
Information systems can be used by many or as little as one individual. Enterprise system is a system used by the entire business. Inter-enterprise system is a system that links multiple enterprises, such as a business and its suppliers. Information systems are usually used by managers; they can be classified as a pyramid with the executive at the top with more authority, then middle manager in the center, then the operational manager greater in number and towards the bottom of the pyramid.
Source: Understanding Computers; Today and Tomorrow-Deborah Morley, Charles S. Parker
Types of Information Systems
• Office and user productivity systems: increases productivity and facilitates communication in the office
• Transaction processing systems: processes and records data created by a business such as payroll or accounts receivable
• Decision making support systems: help individuals make decisions
• Integrated enterprise systems: separate systems that work together with other systems
• Design and manufacturing systems: improves productivity at the product design and manufacturing stage
• Artificial intelligence systems: computers performing intelligently like a human, independently
Decision Support System
Decision support systems assist decision makers gather a variety of information to be assessed for a solution needed. The variety of information that can be used include: inventory required to fill store, salaries to pay employees and stay within budget, or revenue that a company makes on different products.
Information System Users
Information systems can be created specifically for one type of user or for a particular sector in an establishment and it can also be designed to be used by all members in an organization. Information systems that are made to be operated by an entire institution are called, enterprise systems. Some information systems are made to accommodate all existing levels in an organization, while other information systems are built to assist only managers by providing them with the information they need to make a decision. There are four main categories when referring to internal organization information system users and it's called the management pyramid. These users are categorized by the job they operate and the kind of decisions they make. The management pyramid consists of, executive managers, middle managers, operational managers, and non-management workers.
(Morley, Deborah and Parker, Charles. Understanding Computer: Today and Tomorrow 13th Edition. Course Technology: Boston, MA, 2011)