Tajik/Lesson 3

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This is the grammar of the Tajik language.

Ҷонишинҳои шахсӣ (Personal pronouns)

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Singular Plural
1st person Ман Мо
2nd person Ту Шумо
3rd person Вай, ӯ Онҳо

Now we will create simple phrases with the pronouns and the words хона - house and доштан (асоси замони ҳозира: дор) - have.

Ман хона дорам - I have a house

Мо хона дорем - We have a house

Ту хона дорӣ - You have a house

Шумо хона доред - You (pl.) have a house

Вай хона дорад (Ӯ хона дорад) - He has a house

Онҳо хона доранд - They have a house

Асосҳои феълӣ (Verb stems)

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Масдар (Infinitive)

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The infinitive in Tajik consists of the past tense stem and the infinitive ending -ан.

пухтан - to bake

рафтан - to go

кардан - to do

харидан - to buy

омадан - to come

бурдан - to carry

гирифтан - to take

доштан - to have

додан - to give

рақсидан - to dance

гуфтан - to say

хӯрдан - to eat

афтидан - to fall

нӯшидан - to drink

давидан - to run

мондан - to lay (transitive verb)

Асоси замони гузашта (Past tense stem)

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The past tense stem indicates the singular 3rd person past simple verb (he did, etc.). To form the past tense stem, the -ан ending is detached from the infinitive. However, some verbs are irregular.

афтод - he fell

Асоси замони ҳозира (Present/future tense stem)

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The present/future tense stem is mostly irregular. It indicates the imperative.

паз - bake!

рав - go!

кун - do!

хар - buy!

ой - come!

бар - carry!

гир - take!

дор - have!

деҳ - give!

рақс - dance!

гӯй - say!

хӯр - eat!

афт - fall!

нӯш - drink

дав - run!