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Verbs[edit | edit source]

General Structure[edit | edit source]

Verbs in general consist of a stem which is flexed mostly by adding affixes. Different types of affixes serve different functions. The following shows the most basic and important categories of affixes. Regular/native verbs end in "-a". Those that do not usually have their origin in another language.

Subject Prefixes (personal)[edit | edit source]

Subject prefixes are (when used) in the first position. They indicate the acting subject (in this case the person) of the sentence.

Person Singular Plural
First Ni- I do Tu- we do
Second U- you do M- You do
Third A- he/she does Wa- they do

For subjects other than persons the respective prefix of the corresponding Noun Class is used, which will be introduced in Nouns.

Negating Prefixes (personal)[edit | edit source]

For each subject prefix there exists another corresponding prefix which use negates the whole sentence. The regular negated form adds "H(a)-" in front of the respective positive subject prefix. (Note that if the prefix begins with a vowel, only an "H-" is added, omitting the "-a-".)

Person Singular Plural
First Si- I do not Hatu- we do not
Second Hu- you do not Ham- You do not
Third Ha- he/she does not Hawa- they do not

Personal Pronouns[edit | edit source]

These prefixes render personal pronouns obsolete except for cases in which one wants to emphasize on the subject.

Example: Mimi sipendi (I do not like)

Tense/TENS[edit | edit source]

After a subject prefix follows a infix, called the TENS-marker, that marks the tense or other mode (for example the conditional) of the verb.

Infinitive[edit | edit source]

The infinitive is built by simply adding the prefix "ku-" to the stem of the verb.

Example: Ku-fanya (To do)

(Technically this is its own Noun Class.)

Present[edit | edit source]

Example: Ni-na-fanya (I do/I am doing)

Other Tenses[edit | edit source]

Others[edit | edit source]

Other infixes and modifier contain