Verbs[edit | edit source]
General Structure[edit | edit source]
Verbs in general consist of a stem which is flexed mostly by adding affixes. Different types of affixes serve different functions. The following shows the most basic and important categories of affixes. Regular/native verbs end in "-a". Those that do not usually have their origin in another language.
Subject Prefixes (personal)[edit | edit source]
Subject prefixes are (when used) in the first position. They indicate the acting subject (in this case the person) of the sentence.
|First||Ni-||I do||Tu-||we do|
|Second||U-||you do||M-||You do|
|Third||A-||he/she does||Wa-||they do|
For subjects other than persons the respective prefix of the corresponding Noun Class is used, which will be introduced in Nouns.
Negating Prefixes (personal)[edit | edit source]
For each subject prefix there exists another corresponding prefix which use negates the whole sentence. The regular negated form adds "H(a)-" in front of the respective positive subject prefix. (Note that if the prefix begins with a vowel, only an "H-" is added, omitting the "-a-".)
|First||Si-||I do not||Hatu-||we do not|
|Second||Hu-||you do not||Ham-||You do not|
|Third||Ha-||he/she does not||Hawa-||they do not|
Personal Pronouns[edit | edit source]
These prefixes render personal pronouns obsolete except for cases in which one wants to emphasize on the subject.
Example: Mimi sipendi (I do not like)
Tense/TENS[edit | edit source]
After a subject prefix follows a infix, called the TENS-marker, that marks the tense or other mode (for example the conditional) of the verb.
Infinitive[edit | edit source]
The infinitive is built by simply adding the prefix "ku-" to the stem of the verb.
Example: Ku-fanya (To do)
(Technically this is its own Noun Class.)
Present[edit | edit source]
Example: Ni-na-fanya (I do/I am doing)
Other Tenses[edit | edit source]
Others[edit | edit source]
Other infixes and modifier contain