Survey of Communication Study/Chapter 8 - Mass Communication

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Mass Communication and the Media[edit | edit source]

Chapter Objectives:

Chapter Objectives:

After reading this chapter you should be able to:

  • Define mass communication.
  • Identify key functions of mass communication.
  • Understand prominent theories of mass communication.
  • Understand the role that media plays in your life.
  • Describe pop culture.
  • Identify several key elements of media literacy.
  • Recognize your role in the global community.

You’re sitting in a classroom checking twitter while listening to your favorite music when the clock hits the top of the hour. You take out your headphones and put the phone down when you hear the instructor begin talking. She is referring to a web page projected on the screen in front of class. She welcomes everyone to the start of the school year, but stops to wait for the guy next to you to put down his phone that he's reading. She explains that she will only provide an electronic version of the syllabus, pointing to the course web page. Everyone in the class is to go online and read the syllabus before the next class meeting. She explains that, besides lecture and discussion, you will need to watch CNN, listen to NPR, and watch several clips she’s listed on YouTube to demonstrate and learn key concepts. Suddenly, from the back of the class a cell phone begins ringing. The instructor stops mid-sentence and explains the class policy about turning off cell phones during class. Your classmate never answers the phone but reaches into his pocket and looks at the phone screen. The instructor explains that you will need to read chapter one of the textbook by next week. Included with your textbook is a pass-code that allows you to connect to an online database so you can access articles for your semester project. After she answers student questions, class is over.

As you head out the door you hear music coming from the building sound system playing the student-run FM radio station. You walk to the student union to grab lunch and watch whatever they're playing on the large screen television. On your drive home, you plug in the aux to your Spotify and hear an ad about its Premium Package. While driving, you notice the new billboard advertising Ford trucks. When you get home, you open up your laptop. You check a class web page to see if you have homework, check the day’s current events and sporting scores, then check your email. You read several messages, delete the spam, and get irritated at the pop-up advertisements that keep jumping on your screen. After shutting down your computer you sit on the couch to watch a movie streaming through Netflix. As you lean back on the couch, you clear away a stack of magazines to set down your drink.

The above example is a representation of the amount of mass communication we are exposed to daily. In the U.S. we witness and understand a great deal of our world through mass communication. Remember from Chapter 2 that in the early part of the 20th century, communication scholars began to ask questions about the impact of media as more and more mass communication outlets were developed. Questions then and now include: To what degree does mass communication affect us? How do we use or access mass communication? How does each medium influence how we interpret messages? Do we play an active or passive role when we interact with media? This chapter explores these questions by examining the concept of mass communication, its evolution, its functions, its theories, and its place in society.

Defining Mass Communication[edit | edit source]

Littlejohn and Foss define mass communication as “the process whereby media organizations produce and transmit messages to large publics and the process by which those messages are sought, used, understood, and influenced by audience” (333). McQuail states that mass communication is, “only one of the processes of communication operating at the society-wide level, readily identified by its institutional characteristics”(7). Simply put, mass communication is the public transfer of messages through media or technology-driven channels to a large number of recipients from an entity, usually involving some type of cost or fee (advertising) for the user. “The sender often is a person in some large media organization, the messages are public, and the audience tends to be large and varied” (Berger 121). However, with the advent of outlets like YouTube, Instagram, Facebook, and texting, these definitions do not account for the increased opportunities individuals now have to send messages to large audiences through mediated channels.

mass comm def
mass comm def

Nevertheless, most mass communication comes from large organizations that influence culture on a large scale. Schramm refers to this as a “working group organizer” (115). Today the working groups that control most mass communication are large conglomerates such as Viacom, NewsCorp, Disney, ComCast, Time Warner, and CBS. In 2014, these conglomerates controlled 90% of American Media and mergers continue to consolidate ownership even more. An example of an attempt at such a takeover of power occurred throughout 2014 with Comcast and Time Warner pursuing a merger for $45 billion.

Remember our definition of communication study: “who says what, through what channels (media) of communication, to whom, [and] what will be the results” (Smith, Lasswell & Casey 121)? When examining mass communication, we are interested in who has control over what content, for what audience, using what medium, and what are the results? Media critic Robert McChesney said we should be worried about the increasingly concentrated control of mass communication that results when just a handful of large organizations control most mass communication. “The implications for political democracy, by any standard, are troubling” (23). When interviewed, Ben Bagdikian, media critic and former Dean of the Graduate School of Journalism, University of California, Berkeley, cautiously pointed out that over the past two decades, major media outlets went from being owned by 50 corporations to just five (WGBH/Frontline). Both McChesney and Bagdikian warn about the implications of having so few organizations controlling the majority of our information and communication. Perhaps this is the reason new media outlets like Instagram, Snapchat, YouTube, and Facebook have consistently grown in popularity as they offer alternative voices to the large corporations that control most mass communication.

corp own
corp own

To understand mass communication one must first be aware of some of the key factors that distinguish it from other forms of communication. First, is the dependence on a media channel to convey a message to a large audience. Second, the audience tends to be distant, diverse, and varies in size depending on the medium and message. Third, mass communication is most often profit driven, and feedback is limited. Fourth, because of the impersonal nature of mass communication, participants are not equally present during the process.

As mass communication evolves, it continues to follow trends set by technological advances. This trend has been labeled Diffusion: “the process in which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system’’ (Rodgers). When new technological trends arise, old trends are partially replaced over time. This can be described by the Rogers’ Innovation-Decision Process Model below:

Roger's Decision Innovation Process

In this model, Rogers creates adopter categories: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards. The more early adopters a new media has, the more likely its success. Early adopters are typically younger, more affluent, and better educated.

Diffusion of ideas

Mass communication continues to become more integrated into our lives at an increasingly rapid pace. This “metamorphosis” is representative by the convergence occurring (Fidler) between ourselves and technology, where we are not as distanced from mass communication as in the past. Increasingly, we have more opportunities to use mediated communication to fulfill interpersonal and social needs. O’Sullivan refers to this new use of mass communication to foster our personal lives as “masspersonal communication” where (a) traditional mass communication channels are used for interpersonal communication, (b) traditionally interpersonal communication channels are used for mass communication, and (c) traditional mass communication and traditional interpersonal communication occur simultaneously." Over time, more and more overlap occurs. “Innovations in communication technologies have begun to make the barriers between mass and interpersonal communication theory more permeable than ever” (O’Sullivan). Sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, and Instagram are great examples of new mass communication platforms we use to develop and maintain interpersonal relationships.

As more mass communication mediums develop, Marshall McLuhan states that we can understand media as either hot or cold depending on the amount of information available to the user, as well as the degree of participation. A hot medium “extends one single sense in high definition” (McCluhan 22). Examples of hot media include photographs or music (Spotify, radio, etc.) because the message is mostly interpreted using one sense and requires little participation by participants. An audience is more passive with hot media because there is less to filter. Television is considered a cold medium because of the large amount of multisensory information. Berg Nellis states “Virtual reality, the simulation of actual environment complete with tactile sensory input, might be the extreme in cold media...This and other cutting edge technologies seem to point to increasingly cold media as we move into the digital communication future” (256). Think about online video games, such as the military sci-fi game, Halo. Games like this can be played in teams but the players do not necessarily have to be in close proximity. Simply by logging onto the server gamers can connect, interact, communicate through microphones and play as a team. These games have become so involved and realistic that they represent cold mediums because of the vast amount of sensory input and participation they require.

Perhaps we are turning into a “global village” through our interdependence with mass communication. Suddenly, “across the ocean” has become “around the corner.” McLuhan predicted this would happen because of mass communication’s ability to unify people around the globe. Are you a player in what Hagermas calls the “public sphere” that mass communication creates by posting information about yourself on public sites? If so, be careful about what you post about yourself, or allow others to "tag" you in, as many employers are googling potential employees to look into their personal lives before making decisions about hiring them. As we continue our discussion of mass communication we want to note that mass communication does not include every communication technology. As our definition states, mass communication is communication that potentially reaches large audiences. We will deal with other communication technologies in the last chapter.

Evolution of Mass Communication[edit | edit source]

Societies have long had a desire to find effective ways to report environmental dangers and opportunities; circulate opinions, facts, and ideas; pass along knowledge, heritage, and lore; communicate expectations to new members; entertain in an expansive manner; and broaden commerce and trade (Schramm). The primary challenge has been to find ways to communicate messages to as many people as possible. Our need-to-know prompted innovative ways to get messages to the masses.

Before writing, humans relied on oral traditions to pass on information. “It was only in the 1920s-according to the Oxford English Dictionary-that people began to speak of 'the media’ and a generation later, in the 1950s, of a ‘communication revolution’, but a concern with the means of communication is very much older than that” (Briggs & Burke 1). Oral and written communication played a major role in ancient cultures. These oral cultures used stories to document the past and impart cultural standards, traditions, and knowledge. With the development of alphabets around the world over 5000 years ago, written language with ideogrammatic (picture-based) alphabets like hieroglyphics started to change how cultures communicated.

Still, written communication remained ambiguous and did not reach the masses until the Greeks and Romans resolved this by establishing a syllabic alphabet representing sounds. But, without something to write on, written language was inefficient. Eventually, paper making processes were perfected in China, which spread throughout Europe via trade routes (Baran). Mass communication was not quick, but it was far-reaching (Briggs & Burke). This forever altered how cultures saved and transmitted cultural knowledge and values. Any political or social movement throughout the ages can be traced to the development and impact of the printing press and movable metal type (Steinberg). With his technique, Guttenberg could print more than a single page of specific text. By making written communication more available to larger numbers of people, mass printing became responsible for giving voice to the masses and making information available to common folks (McLuhan & Fiore). McLuhan argued that Gutenberg’s evolution of the printing press as a form of mass communication had profound and lasting effects on culture, perhaps the most significant invention in human history.

Mass Communication Study Then

In 1949, Carl I. Hovland, Arthur A. Lumsdaine, and Fred D. Sheffield wrote the book Experiments on Mass Communication. They looked at two kinds of films the Army used to train soldiers. First, they examined orientation and training films such as the “Why We Fight” that were intended to teach facts to the soldiers, as well as generate a positive response from them for going to war. The studies determined that significant learning did take place by the soldiers from the films, but primarily with factual items. The Army was disappointed with the results that showed that the orientation films did not do an effective job in generating the kind of positive responses they desired from the soldiers. Imagine, people were not excited about going to war.

With the transition to the industrial age in the 18th century, large populations headed to urban areas, creating mass audiences of all economic classes seeking information and entertainment. Printing technology was at the heart of modernization WHICH led to magazines, newspapers, the telegraph, and the telephone. At the turn of the century (1900), pioneers like Thomas Edison, Theodore Puskas, and Nikola Tesla literally electrified the world and mass communication. With the addition of motion pictures and radio in the early 1900s, and television in the 40s and 50s, the world increasingly embraced the foundations of today’s mass communication. In the 1970s cable started challenging over-the-air broadcasting and traditional program distribution making the United States a wired nation. In 2014, there was an estimated 116.3 million homes in America that own a TV (Nielson, 2014 Advance National TV Household Universe Estimate). While traditionally these televisions would display only the programs that are chosen to be broadcast by cable providers, more and more households have chosen to become more conscious media consumers and actively choose what they watch through alternative viewing options like streaming video.

Today, smart T.V.'s and streaming devices have taken over the market. Many American households have multiple devices – especially smartphones. A third of American households have three or more smartphones, compared with 23% that have three or more desktops, 17% that have three or more tablets and only 7% that have three or more streaming media devices. These new forms of broadcasting have created a digital revolution. Thanks to Netflix and other streaming services we are no longer subjected to advertisements during our shows. Similarly, streaming services like Hulu provide the most recent episodes as they appear on cable that viewers can watch any time. These services provide instant access to entire seasons of shows (which can result in binge watching).

Pew Research Center: Survey Conducted September 29-November 6, 2016

The Information Age eventually began to replace the ideals of the industrial age. In 1983 Time Magazine named the PC the first "Machine of the Year." Just over a decade later, PCs outsold televisions. Then, in 2006, Time Magazine named “you” as the person of the year for your use of technology to broaden communication. "You" took advantage of changes in global media. Chances are that you, your friends, and family spend hours engaged in data-mediated communication such as emailing, texting, or participating in various form of social media. Romero points out that, “The Net has transformed the way we work, the way we get in contact with others, our access to information, our levels of privacy and indeed notions as basic and deeply rooted in our culture as those of time and space” (88). Social media has also had a large impact in social movements across the globe in recent years by providing the average person with the tools to reach wide audiences around the world for the first time in history.

If you're reading this for a college class, you may belong to the millennial or Z generation. Free wifi, apps, alternative news sources, Instagram, Snapchat, YouTube and Twitter have become a way of life. Can you imagine a world without communication technology? How would you find out the name of that song stuck in your head? If you wanted to spontaneously meet up with a friend for lunch, how would you let them know? Mass communication has become such an integral part of our daily lives, most people probably could not function through the day without it. What started as email quickly progressed to chat rooms and basic blogs, such as LiveJournal. From there, we saw the rise and fall of the first widely used social media platform, Myspace. Though now just a shadow of the social media powerhouse it once was, Myspace paved the way for social media to enter the mainstream in forms of websites such as Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, Snapchat, and Instagram. Facebook has evolved into a global social media site. It’s available in 37 languages and has over 2.07 billion users--That's 1/4 of the world's population. Mark Zuckerberg created Facebook in 2005 while studying at Harvard University, and it has universally changed the way we communicate, interact, and share our lives with friends, family, and acquaintances. Many people argue about the good and bad qualities of having a Facebook profile, it can be looked at as your “digital footprint” in social media. While Facebook is a platform to connect socially, it has also received tremendous criticism for its use as a platform for influencing geopolitics, including the 2016 US President election. Here's a short YouTube video from rapper/poet Prince Ea about Facebook and the effects of social media on society.

Another example of mainstream social media is Twitter. Twitter allows for quick 280 character or less status updates (called tweets) for registered users. Tweets can be sent from any device with access to internet in a fast, simple way that connects with a number of people, whether they be family, friends or followers. Twitter's microblogging format allows for people to share their daily thoughts and experiences on a broad and sometimes public stage. The simplicity of Twitter allows it to be used as a tool for entertainment and blogging, but also as a way of organizing social movements and sharing breaking news. President Donald Trump is fond of using Twitter as a means of communicating, a first in Presidential politics.

Mass Communication Study Now

With new forms of communication emerging rapidly, it is important to note the corresponding changes to formal language and slang terms. is a famous site that can introduce any newbie to the slang world by presenting them various definitions for a term they don’t recognize, describe its background, and provide examples for how it’s used in context. For example, one of the most popular definitions claims that the word ‘hella’ is said to originate from the streets of San Francisco in the Hunters Point neighborhood. “It is commonly used in place of ‘really’ or ‘very’ when describing something.”

Snapchat is a newer social media platform used by more and more people every day. The function of Snapchat allows the user to send a photo (with the option of text) that expires after a few seconds. It can be looked at like a digital self-destructing note you would see in an old spy movie. Unlike its competitors, Snapchat is used in a less professional manner, emphasizing humor and spontaneity over information efficiency. Contrary to Facebook, there is no pressure to pose, or display your life. Rather, it is more spontaneous. It’s like the stranger you wink at in the street or a hilarious conversation with a best friend.

In this age of information overload, multiple news sources, high-speed connections, and social networking, life seems unimaginable without mass communication. Can you relate to your parents’ stories about writing letters to friends, family, or their significant others? Today, when trying to connect with someone we have a variety ways of contacting them; we can call, text, email, Facebook message, tweet, and/or Snapchat; the options are almost endless and ever-changing. Society today is in the midst of a technological revolution. Only a few years ago families were arguing over landline internet cable use and the constant disruptions from incoming phone calls. Now, we have the ability to browse the web anytime on smart phones. Since the printing press, mass communication has literally changed the ways we think and interact as humans. We take so much for granted as “new technologies are assimilated so rapidly in U.S. culture that historic perspectives are often lost in the process” (Fidler 1). With all of this talk and research about mass communication, what functions does it serve for us?

Mass Communication Now

The expansion of mass media brings new challenges and opportunities to ensure inclusion, so that all have access to the information available through these mediums. Making information accessible to all is important and necessary. Websites have begun using disability accessible features to allow as many people as possible access to online communication. Check out this article on how to make sure your website is disability friendly.


Functions of Mass Communication[edit | edit source]

Mass communication doesn’t exist for a single purpose. With its evolution, more and more uses have developed and the role it plays in our lives has increased greatly. Wright characterizes seven functions of mass communication that offer insight into its role in our lives.

  • Surveillance. The first function of mass communication is to serve as the eyes and ears for those seeking information about the world. The internet, televisions, and newspapers are the main sources for finding out what’s going around you. Society relies on mass communication for news and information about our daily lives. WE can find out about the weather, current issues, the latest celebrity gossip, and even start times for games. Do you remember finding out about the 2016 Presidential Election results? How did you hear about it? Thanks to the internet and smart phones instant access to information is at the users fingertips. News apps have made mass communication surveillance instantly accessible by sending notifications to smartphones with the latest news.
  • Correlation. Correlation addresses how the media presents facts that we use to move through the world. The information received through mass communication is not objective and without bias. People ironically state “it must be true if it’s on the internet.” However, we don’t think that in generations past people must have without a doubt stated it “has to be true” because it was on the radio. This statement begs the question, how credible are the media? Can we consume media without questioning motive and agenda? Someone selects, arranges, interprets, edits, and critiques the information used in the media. If you ask anyone who works for a major reality TV show if what we see is a fair representation of what really happens, the person would probably tell you “no.”
  • Sensationalization. There is an old saying in the news industry “if it bleeds, it leads,” which highlights the idea of Sensationalization. Sensationalization is when the media puts forward the most sensational messages to titillate consumers. Elliot observes, “Media managers think in terms of consumers rather than citizens. Good journalism sells, but unfortunately, bad journalism sells as well. And, bad journalism-stories that simply repeat government claims or that reinforce what the public wants to hear instead of offering independent reporting -is cheaper and easier to produce” (35).
  • Entertainment. Media outlets such as People Magazine, TMZ, and entertainment blogs such as Perez Hilton keep us up to date on the daily comings and goings of our favorite celebrities. We use technology to watch sports, go to the movies, play video games, watch YouTube videos, and listen to music, books, and podcasts on our phones on a daily basis. Most mass communication simultaneously entertains and informs. People often turn to media during our leisure time to provide an escape from boredom and relief from the predictability of our everyday lives. We rely on media to take us places we could not afford to go or imagine, acquaints us with bits of culture, and make us laugh, think or cry. Entertainment can have the secondary effect of providing companionship and/or catharsis through the media we consume.
  • Transmission. Mass media is a vehicle to transmit cultural norms, values, rules, and habits. Consider how you learned about what’s fashionable in clothes or music. Mass media plays a significant role in the socialization process. We look for role models to display appropriate cultural norms, but all too often, not recognizing their inappropriate or stereotypical behavior. Mainstream society starts shopping, dressing, smelling, walking, and talking like the person in the music video, commercial, or movies. Why would soft drink companies pay Kim Kardashian or Taylor Swift millions of dollars to sell their products? Have you ever bought a pair of shoes or changed your hairstyle because of something you encountered in the media? Obviously, culture, age, type of media, and other cultural variables factor into how mass communication influences how we learn and perceive our culture.
  • Mobilization. Mass communication functions to mobilize people during times of crisis (McQuail, 1994). Think back to the Boston Marathon Bombing. Regardless of your association to the incident, Americans felt the attack as a nation and people followed the news until they found the perpetrators. With instant access to media and information, we can collectively witness the same events taking place in real time somewhere else, thus mobilizing a large population of people around a particular event. The online community is a key example of the internet’s proactivity. While the FBI was investigating the bombing, the Reddit community was posting witness’s photos and trying to help identify the culprits. People felt they were making a difference.
  • Validation. Mass communication functions to validate the status and norms of particular individuals, movements, organizations, or products. The validation of particular people or groups serves to enforce social norms (Lazarsfeld & Merton). If you think about most television dramas and sitcoms, who are the primary characters? What gender and ethnicity are the majority of the stars? What gender and ethnicity are those that play criminals or those considered abnormal? The media validates particular cultural norms while diminishing differences and variations from those norms. A great deal of criticism focuses on how certain groups are promoted, and others marginalized by how they are portrayed in mass media.

Case in Point
Validation Through Social Movements

Hair stylist Dupe Talabi, (cropped)

In connection with Black Lives Matter and the recent resurgence in the push for equality, social media has allowed for a much wider accessibility for various social movements. It is common to be scrolling through Twitter and Instagram and see hashtags such as #naturalhairmovement or #blackout. The Natural Hair Movement was created to encourage those whose natural hair does not align with the oppressive eurocentric beauty standards to wear their hair naturally and proud, rather than conforming to those binding standards. #Blackout was started to inspire Black individuals to share their selfies proudly and unapologetically due to the large lack of Black representation in media and was massively influential on what people considered “beautiful.” Movements like these are accessible from the convenience of one’s personal device and can give users the confidence and support of a large network of people. For more information, click here.

Given the power of the various functions of mass communication, we need to be reflective about its presence in our lives (McLuhan & Fiore). We will now turn our attention to the study of mass communication by looking at what mass communication scholars study, and how they study it.

The Study of Mass Communication[edit | edit source]

Continuing with the theme of this book, studying the role of mass communication heightens our awareness, helping us become media literate and strengthen our “ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and communicate messages” (Baran 374). Look around you. Mass communication’s influence in contemporary society is pervasive, as we are all interlaced with it in our daily lives.

watching tv
watching tv

Mass Communication and Popular Culture[edit | edit source]

Culture is comprised of shared behaviors, values, beliefs, and attitudes that are learned through socialization. As Brummett explains, “popular culture are those systems or artifacts that most people share or know about”(27). Using Brummett’s ideas, in order for mass communication to be popular all forms do not have to be consumed or used by everyone. Instead, its place in culture is so pervasive that we at least have some familiarity with it. You may not watch the shows like Grey's Anatomy, Stranger Things, or Game of Thrones, but chances are you know something about them.

Case In Point

In 2017, we have seen a dramatic increase in the amount of Facebook videos we see on our feeds. Not only do we see more videos, but we are making more videos. With the easiness of one swipe and one tap, we can access our own video-making software within Facebook. Facebook live has given us the opportunity to even record and publish our videos in real time to our friends. But is this huge pop culture trend of making and having access to millions of videos dangerous? On October 24, 2017, a Ayhan Uzun, a father in Turkey, took to a Facebook live video upon finding out of his daughter’s unapproved engagement. After banning those who hurt him from his funeral, he held up a gun to his temple and fired. Ayhan has not been the first person to commit suicide over a Facebook or Instagram Live video and he will not be the last. This pop culture trend of making these Facebook videos can unintentionally allow for our children to accidentally stumble upon someone’s final moments.

In contrast to popular culture, high culture consists of those media that are generally not produced for the masses, require a certain knowledge base, and typically require an investment of time and money to experience them. Examples of high culture include opera, poetry, theater, classical music, and the arts. While we generally do not use the term low culture, “Pop culture refers to mass-mediated kinds of ‘low’ art such as television commercials, television programs, most films, genre works of literature, and popular music” (Berger 118).

Keep in mind that popular culture does not necessarily mean poor quality. Popular is not always bad and is often relative to the times. For example, think about baby boomers. Their parents said rock-n-roll music was going to ruin their generation. However, today that very same music is considered classic. In the 1950’s it was said that comic books would corrupt children, and jazz was sinful. It seems like every generation has the opinion that the current pop culture of the time will destroy the moral fiber of young people. But it’s often the case that those cultural references become our most revered and loved cultural icons of the time period. Regardless of how mass communication is perceived, it implants words, behaviors, trends, icons, and patterns of behaviors that show up in our culture. Or, as some ask, is it the other way around?

Mass communication influences all aspects of society, including the language we use (Spitulnik). For example, in the 1980’s, Wendy’s aired the popular television commercial “where’s the beef?” In the 1990s, Jerry Seinfeld’s television show got us saying, “yada, yada, yada.” Saturday Night Live popularized the phrase, “I need more cow bell.” And Who Wants to Be a Millionaire coined the term "phone a friend." It is common for us to personalize words or phrases, especially if they’re funny, and integrate them into our lives relative to our social contexts. The Seattle Times News Service reported that the 2003 version of the Oxford Dictionary of English now contains the catch phrase made famous by the HBO show The Sopranos-“bada bing” meaning an exclamation to emphasize that something will effortlessly and predictably happen. This dictionary now contains words implanted by popular culture such as “counterterrorism” and “bootylicious.” Certain words become a part of our shared understanding through media exposure. Think about other acronyms and language that are now commonplace that were not just a few years ago: iPhone, Instagram, Selfie, Hashtag, Google and Skype (as verbs), sexting, etc.

Grounding Theories of Mass Communication[edit | edit source]

Almost forty years ago Osmo Wiio argued that mass communication does not accurately portray reality. Interesting that all this time later we now have a large number of “reality tv” shows that continue to blur the lines of reality and fiction. Are you always able to tell the difference between fiction and reality in mass communication? Most people tend to rationalize that others are more affected by mass communication than they are (Paul, Salwen, & Dupagne). However, we are all susceptible to the influence of mass communication.

As we discussed in Chapter 5, theories are our best representations of the world around us. “Mass communication theories are explanations and predictions of social phenomena that attempt to relate mass communication to various aspects of our personal and cultural lives or social systems” (Baran 374). We need to be discerning as we examine mass communication (Baran). “The beginning of the television age in the 1950s brought in visual communication as well as stimulated the rise of an interdisciplinary theory of the media. Contributions were made from economics, history, literature, art, political science, psychology, sociology and anthropology, and led to the emergence of academic departments of communication and cultural studies” (Briggs & Burke 2). Mass communication theories explore explanations for how we interact with mass communication, its role in our lives, and the effects it has on us.

Let’s look at six theories of mass communication: 1) the magic bullet theory, 2) two-step flow theory, 3) multi-step flow theory, 4) uses and gratification theory, 5) cultivation theory, and 6) narrative theory.

  • Magic Bullet Theory. The magic bullet theory (also called the hypodermic needle theory) suggests that mass communication is like a gun firing bullets of information at a passive audience. “Communication was seen as a magic bullet that transferred ideas or feelings or knowledge or motivations almost automatically from one mind to another” (Schramm 8). This theory has been largely discredited by academics because of its suggestion that all members of an audience interpret messages in the same way, and are largely passive receptors of messages. This theory does not take into account intervening cultural and demographic variables such as age, ethnicity, gender, personality, or education that cause us to react differently to the media messages we encounter. However, many people hold the assumption that media, like television news outlets, simply release information that doesn’t encourage audience engagement and critical thinking. Rather than give a story with an unbiased message, that would allow a consumer create an opinion for themselves, media news outlets present stories to audiences that are attractive to them. Those who believe reality television shows actually portray reality hold some assumptions of the magic bullet theory.

Take a few minutes to view this [ Hypodermic Needle Theory Video] that further summarizes and explains the theory.

Mass Communication Study Now

One of the things that has occurred in mass communication is the conscious manufacturing of personality or performance to reflect that of someone you want to be perceived as. We can alter our photos, edit our videos, and retake the same photo 100 times to ensure we are putting out the best version of ourselves. When we put out the “best” or most relatable version of ourselves, we potentially attract more followers and more attention. We see an example of this taking place in the show “Parks and Recreation.” Howard Tuttleman is one of the most popular radio broadcasters in the show. However, he doesn’t go by Howard Tuttleman. He goes by “The Douche." Along with this new name, he has developed a new personality that includes making fart noises, being loud, and a bit obscene. We see that this in fact is not his real self when he is trying to court Ann. He speaks articulately on a certain author and his views on politics, but then when someone recognizes him as “The Douche/" he flips his personality and becomes his obnoxious radio personality.

  • Two-Step Flow Theory. After World War II, researchers began noticing that not all audiences react in the same ways to mass communication. Media had less power and relatively less affect than previously assumed (Klapper). The two-step flow theory suggests that mass communication messages do not move directly from a sender to the receiver (Katz & Lazarsfeld). Instead, a small group of people, gatekeepers, screen media messages, reshape these messages, and control their transmission to the masses. Opinion leaders initially consume “media content on topics of particular interest to them” and make sense of it based upon their own values and beliefs (Baran). In the second step, the opinion leaders filter and interpret the messages before they pass them along to individuals with shared ideologies who have less contact with the media, opinion followers. An example of this theory occurs during political campaigns. Research has shown that during an election, media influence your voting preferences (Lazarsfeld, Berelson, & Gaudet) through the information they choose to show about a candidate. This research can still be applied to current political campaigns. Pope Francis has over 4 million followers on Twitter and is one of the most re-tweeted social leaders. He uses social media to engage and influence his followers about what’s going on in the world. Also, President Trump frequently uses Twitter to communicate with his base voters. Conservatives often argue that they are marginalized by the “liberal media,” while liberals argue that they are marginalized because wealthy conservatives own and control the media. Either way, research reveals that media dependency becomes increasingly important for the public especially during political campaigns (Jeffries). You can watch a short video on the Two-Step Flow Theory.
  • Multi-step Flow Theory. This theory suggests that there is a reciprocal nature of sharing information and influencing beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors (Troldahl; Troldahl & Van Dam). The idea is that opinion leaders might create media messages, but opinion followers might be able to sway opinion leaders. Thus, the relationship to media becomes much more complex. Some believe that the role of the opinion leader in our changing culture is diminishing (Baran; Kang) particularly with the ability for average people to reach potentially millions of people through social media. You've likely heard the term "going viral" which is something that could not have happened even ten-fifteen years ago. This mediated diffusion de-bunks the notion of an all-powerful media but still recognizes that media have some effect on the audience.

Mass Communication Study and You

Do you do most of your research using search engines like google or yahoo? There had been an assumption that today’s younger generation is the most web-literate. However, a study carried out by the CIBER research team at the University College London states today’s youth “rely heavily on search engines, view rather than read and do not possess the critical and analytical skills to assess the information that they find on the web.” The same study showed that people of all ages who use the internet have a low tolerance for any delay in obtaining information. These researchers called on libraries and educational institutions to keep up with the digital age in order to provide people with quick access to information. They also stress the importance of having good research skills, rather than doing quick and simple google searches, without thinking critically about the information and its sources. Does your campus require an sort of “information literacy” training for you to graduate?

-The British Library

  • Uses and Gratification Theory. The uses and gratification theory suggests that audience members actively pursue particular media to satisfy their own needs. “Researchers focus their attention, then, on how audiences use the media rather than how the media affect audiences” (Berger 127). The reciprocal nature of the mass communication process no longer sees the media user as an inactive, unknowing participant but as an active, sense-making participant that chooses content and makes informed media choices. We tend to avoid media that do not agree with our values, attitudes, beliefs, or pocketbooks. Schramm argued that we make media choices by determining how gratified we will be from consuming a particular media. Is it easier for you to read a newspaper, or would you rather watch YouTube or listen to Spotify? Even with all the information on the internet, there are still some people who consider it too time consuming and complex. Yet, many of our students do not have television sets, but instead watch all television, movies, and videos online. Streaming shows online helps us avoid commercials and media content in which we choose not to participate. Netflix, for example, requires a monthly fee in order for you to be commercial free during your shows, but usually you have to wait a season to watch shows. Whereas, Hulu charges a nominal fee for their services and share 2-5 commercials per episode, but you can watch the shows during the original season they are aired. You can even choose to pay a higher monthly fee and have no commercials. These new ways of watching television have allowed the consumer to make active choices about what media the use and consume.
  • Cultivation Theory. Cultivation theory questions how active we actually are when we consume mass communication. For example, the average American views between three and five hours of television a day for an average of 21 hours per week (Hinckly). According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, by age 18, the average American child will have watched 200,000 acts of violence on television. This statistic does not even take into account the violence a child has access through YouTube videos, Instagram, Facebook, music videos or any other media distribution. When violence is shown on television, rarely are the negative consequences of it acknowledged-47% of victims show no evidence of harm and 73% of perpetrators were not held accountable for their violent actions (Huston et al.).

What kind of impact does all of this have? Is it possible to tell when the average viewer becomes desensitized to violent content, or does it serve as an outlet for normal aggression? Why doesn’t all violent content affect every viewer in the same manner? Does too much consumption of violent media cause violent behavior from viewers? People who consume a lot of media see the world as a more violent and scary place because of the high levels of violence they see (Gerbner).

The theory has been extended to address the more general influences of media on human social life and personal beliefs (Lowery; DeFleur). Media present cultural realities such as fear of victimization (Sparks & Ogles), body image, promiscuity, religion, families, attitudes toward racism (Allen & Hatchett), sex roles, and drug use. Kilbourne states, “Advertising doesn’t cause eating problems, of course, any more than it causes alcoholism. [However,] Advertising does promote abusive and abnormal attitudes about eating, drinking, and thinness” (261). Gerbner developed the three B’s which state that media blurs people’s traditional distinctions of reality, blends people’s realities into one common cultural mainstream, and bends the mainstream to fit its institutional interests and the interests of its sponsors.

  • Narrative Theory. Narrative Theory is the idea that people use stories to understand and interact with the world around them. These narratives change with each subject, but generally support one another cognitively. These are called Narrative Clusters. Dominant Narratives serve as a lens through which history is written by any culture’s dominant society, and can be created and disseminated through mass communication. Narrative Clusters enable peoples of different narratives to develop Narrative Empathy. A classic example of this would be if a person wished to receive sympathy from a less than hospitable group, they could tell a uniting story which we all may have experienced in some capacity or another. This is why politicians will tell stories of their youth. Childhood experiences are likely to be functionally similar in geographic regions. Those who find themselves empathetic to the struggle of a person are more likely to be receptive to their other messages.

Mass communication theories are outlined into three categories:(1) theories about culture and society, (2) theories of influence and persuasion and (3) media use theories (Littlejohn and Foss). Understanding a few of the theories on mass communication, let’s look at some skills that will help you become a better and more critical consumer of mass communication.

Media Literacy[edit | edit source]

Studying how we use and consume mass communication allows us to scrutinize the conflicts, contradictions, problems, or even positive outcomes in our use of mass communication. With so much to learn about mass communication, how informed are you? Our consciousness of our media consumption is vital to understanding its effects on us as members of society. Media literacy is our awareness regarding our mediated environment or consumption of mass communication. It is our ability to responsibly comprehend, access, and use mass communication in our personal and professional lives. Potter states that we should maintain cognitive, emotional, aesthetic, and moral awareness as we interact with media. Baran suggests a number of skills we can develop in order to be media literate.

  • Understand and respect the power of mass communication messages. An important skill for media literacy is to acknowledge just how dominant mass communication is in our lives and around the globe. Through mass communication, media shape, entertain, inform, represent, reflect, create, move, educate, and affect our behaviors, attitudes, values, and habits in direct and indirect ways. Virtually everyone in the world has been touched in some way by mass communication, and has made personal and professional decisions largely based on representations of reality portrayed though mass communication. We must understand and respect the power media have in our lives and understand how we make sense of certain meanings.
  • Understand content by paying attention and filtering out noise. As we learned in Chapter 1, anything that hinders communication is noise. Much of the noise in mass communication originates with our consumption behaviors. How often do you do something other than pay complete attention to the media that you’re accessing? Do you listen to music while you drive, watch videos while you eat, or text friends while you’re in class? When it comes to mass communication we tend to multitask, an act that acts as noise and impacts the quality of the messages and our understanding of their meanings. We often turn ourselves into passive consumers, not really paying attention to the messages we receive as we perform other tasks while consuming media.

Case In Point

The Tao of Media Literacy

How do media affect us? Are we media literate? Werner Heisenberg in The Physicist’s Conception of Nature relates a timeless, allegorical story about the role of technology in our lives and questions if our interactions are mindful or thoughtless in regards to change. In Heisenberg’s analogy, the wise old, Chinese sage warns us about the delicate balance between humans, nature, and technology.

In this connection it has often been said that the far-reaching changes in our environment and in our way of life wrought by this technical age have also changed dangerously our ways of thinking, and that here lie the roots of the crises, which have shaken our times and which, for instance, are also expressed in modern art. True, this objection’s much older than modern technology and science, the use of implements going back to our earliest beginnings. Thus, two and a half thousand years ago, the Chinese sage Chuang-Tzu spoke of the danger of the machine when he said: As Tzu-Gung was [traveling] through the regions north of the river Han, he saw an old man working in his vegetable garden. He had dug an irrigation ditch. The man would descend into the well, fetch up a vessel of water in his arms and pour it out into the ditch. While his efforts were tremendous the results appeared to be very [meager]. Tzu-Gung said, “There is a way whereby you can irrigate a hundred ditches in one day, and whereby you can do much with little effort. Would you not like to hear of it?” Then the gardener stood up, looked at him and said, “And what would that be?” Tzu-Gung replied, “You take a wooden lever, weighted at the back and light in front. In this way you can bring up water so quickly that it just gushes out. This is called a draw-well.” Then anger rose up on the old man’s face, and he said, “I have heard my teacher say that whoever uses machines does all his work like a machine. He who does his work like a machine grows a heart like a machine, and he who carries the heart of a machine in his breast loses his simplicity. He who has lost his simplicity becomes unsure in the strivings of his soul. Uncertainty in the strivings of the soul is something which does not agree with honest sense. It is not that I do not know of such things: I am ashamed to use them.”

  • Understand emotional versus reasoned reactions to mass communication content in order to act accordingly. A great deal of mass communication content is intended to touch us on an emotional level. Therefore, it’s important to understand our emotional reactions to mass communication. Advertising often appeals to our emotions in order to sell products (Jhally). “Sex sells” is an old advertising adage, but one that highlights how often we make decisions based on emotional reactions, versus reasoned actions. Glance through magazines like Maxim or Glamour and you’ll quickly realize how the emotions associated with sex are used to sell products of all kinds. Reasoned actions require us to think critically about the mass communication we consume before we come to conclusions simply based on our emotional responses.
  • Develop heightened expectations of mass communication content. Would you consider yourself an informed consumer of mass communication? Do you expect a lot from mass communication? You may like a mystery novel because it’s “fun,” or a movie might take your mind off of reality for a few hours. However, Baran challenges us to require more from the media we consume. “When we expect little from the content before us, we tend to give meaning making little effort and attention” (57). It depends upon you what you’re willing to accept as quality. Some people may watch fewer and fewer mainstream movies because they think the current movies in theaters are low culture or are aimed at less educated audiences. They may begin to look for more foreign films, independent films, and documentaries rather than go to see the popular movies released by Hollywood. We’ve even seen a backlash against television programming in general. With the rise of services like Netflix, Hulu and Amazon On-Demand, many media consumers have chosen to become what’s known as “cord cutters” and cancel their cable subscriptions. These new services often offer popular tv shows and sometimes even the most current episodes available to watch at your own leisure.
  • Understand genre conventions and recognize when they are being mixed. All media have their own unique characteristics or “certain distinctive, standardized style elements” that mark them as a category or genre (Baran 57). We expect certain things from different forms of mass communication. Most of us believe, for example, that we are able to tell the difference between news and entertainment. But, are we? Television news shows often recreate parts of a story to fill in missing video of an event. Do you always catch the “re-enactment” disclaimer? Shows such as The Daily Show or Last Week Tonight effectively blurred the lines between comedy and news, and both became recognized as credible sources for news information. Even eighty years ago, Walter Lippmann recognized that media are so invasive in our lives that we might have difficulty distinguishing between what is real and what is manipulated by the media. The “reality tv” genre is now blurring these lines even more. Another example is the election of Arnold Schwarzenegger as governor of California. He, and others, often referred to him as the “governator," a blurring of his fictional role as the Terminator and his real role as California’s governor.
  • Think critically about mass communication messages, no matter how credible their source. It is essential that we critically consider the source of all mass communication messages. No matter how credible a media source, we can’t always believe everything we see or hear because all mass communication is motivated by political, profit, or personal factors. Publicists, editors, and publishers present the information from their perspective--informed by their experiences and agendas. Even if the motive is pure or the spin is minimal, we tend to selectively interpret meanings based on our own lived experiences. Audiences do not always hold similar perceptions regarding mediated messages.

Case In Point

Fake News

Donald Trump coined the term “Fake News” to refer to news that he deemed as conjured up by media outlets to make him look bad and not credible. More often than not, the artifacts he refers to as fake news do not shed good light on him, so it’s his attempt to discredit any information that goes against him. It's critical in cases like these that we do our own research so we can come to an appropriate understanding of what is happening in the world.
Donald Trump threatens to shut down NBC and other TV news networks that criticize him

  • Understand the internal language of mass communication to understand its effects, no matter how complex. This skill requires us to develop sensitivity to what is going on in the media. This doesn’t just refer to whether you can program a DVR or surf the internet. This means being familiar with the intent or motivation behind the action or message. “Each medium has its own specific internal language. This language is expressed in production values--the choice of lighting, editing, special effects, music, camera angle, location on the page, and size and placement of headline. To be able to read a media text, you must understand its language” (Baran 58). What effect do these have on your interpretive or sense making abilities? Most news coverage of the Iraq war included background symbols of American flags, eagles, as well as words like “Freedom,” and “Liberation.” What is the impact of using these symbols in “objective” coverage of something like war? Shows like Scandal makes editorial choices to glamorize and demoralize politics while making it appear provocatively thrilling. On the surface, we might not realize the amount of effort that goes into dealing with political scandals, but shows like Scandal shed a light on these unspoken issues.

Summary[edit | edit source]

Societies have always needed effective and efficient means to transmit information. Mass communication is the outgrowth of this need. If you remember our definition of mass communication as the public transfer of messages through media or technology driven channels to a large number of recipients, you can easily identify the multiple forms of mass communication you rely on in your personal, academic, and professional lives. These encompass print, auditory, visual, interactive media, and social media forms. A relatively recent mass communication phenomenon known as mass-personal communication combines mass communication channels with interpersonal communication and relationships, where individuals are now gaining access to technology that allows them to reach large audiences.

While mass communication is vital to the success of social movements and political participation it has seven basic functions. The first of which is surveillance, or the “watch dog” role. Correlation occurs when an audience receives facts and usable information from mass media sources. When the most outrageous or fantastic stories are presented we are witnessing the sensationalization function of media. Needing an escape from routines or stress we turn to media for its entertainment value. As a cultural institution, mass communication transmits cultural values, norms and behaviors, mobilizes audiences, and validates dominant cultural values.

As media technology has evolved, so have the scholarly theories for understanding them. The five theories we discussed are different primarily in the degree of passivity versus activity they grant the audience. The magic-bullet theory assumes a passive audience while the two-step-flow and multi-step-flow theories suggest that there is a reciprocal relationship between the audience and the message. The theory of uses and gratification suggests that audiences pick and choose media to satisfy their individual needs. Gerbner’s cultivation theory takes a long-term perspective by suggesting that media is one of many cultural institutions responsible for shaping or cultivating attitudes.

Because of mass communication’s unquestionable role in our lives, media literacy skills are vital for any responsible consumer and citizen. Specifically, we can become media literate by understanding and respecting the power of mass communication messages, understanding media content by paying attention, understanding emotional versus reasoned responses to mass communication, developing heightened expectations of mass communication content, understanding genre conventions and recognizing when they’re mixed, understanding the internal language of mass communication, and above all—thinking critically!

Discussion Questions[edit | edit source]

  1. What is the role of the oral tradition in today’s society?
  2. Does media directly influence individuals?
  3. What determines what media an individual will use?
  4. Is it the form of the media or its content that most deeply influences us?
  5. Which mass communication theory do you feel most accurately portrays your media experiences? Why?
  6. With constantly changing technology, what do you see as the future of mass communication?
  7. How involved should the government be in protecting us from media effects? Where do you draw the line between free speech and indecency? Is censorship ever warranted?
  8. How many social media sites are you apart of and actively participate in? Does one site take priority over the other?

Key Terms[edit | edit source]

  • cold media
  • correlation
  • cultivation theory
  • entertainment
  • gatekeepers
  • global village
  • hot media
  • magic bullet theory
  • mass communication
  • masspersonal communication
  • media literacy
  • mobilization
  • multi-step flow theory
  • opinion followers
  • opinion leaders
  • popular culture
  • sensationalization
  • surveillance
  • youth
  • transmission
  • two-step flow theory
  • uses and gratification theory
  • validations

References[edit | edit source]

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2004). "Some things you should know about media violence and media literacy," [web page]. Available: [2004, March 25th].

Allen, R. L., & Hatchett. (1986). "The Media and Social Reality Effects: Self and System Orientations of Blacks." Communication Research, 13, 97-123. Print.

Baran, Stanley J. Introduction to Mass Communication: Media Literacy and Culture. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2002. Print.

Berger, Arthur Asa. The Mass Comm Murders: Five Media Theorists Self-destruct. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002. Print.

Briggs, Asa, and Peter Burke. A Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet. Cambridge: Polity, 2009. Print.

Brummett, Barry. Rhetoric in Popular Culture. Fourth ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publ., 2015. Print.

Click. Video Game. Digital image. MourgeFile. N.p., Sept. 2004. Web. 15 Dec. 2014.<>.

Elliott, Deni. "Essential shared values and 21st century journalism." The handbook of mass media ethics (2009): 28-39.

Fidler, Roger F. Mediamorphosis Understanding New Media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge, 1997. Print.

Gerbner, George. "Epilogue: Advancing on the Path of Righteousness (Maybe)." Cultivation Analysis: New Directions in Media Effects Research. By Nancy Signorielli and Michael Morgan. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1990. 249-62. Print.

Gordon, Daphne. "Redtailblogger: October 2004." Redtailblogger: October 2004. The Toronto Star, 28 Jan. 2003. Web. 15 Oct. 2014.

Habermas, Jürgen. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1989. Print.

Heisenberg, Werner. The Physicist's Conception of Nature. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1958. Print.

Heyman, Rob, and Jo Pierson. "Blending Mass Self-Communication With Advertising In Facebook And Linkedin: Challenges For Social Media And User Empowerment." International Journal Of Media & Cultural Politics 9.3 (2013): 229-245. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Web. 15 Oct. 2014.

Hinckley, David. "Average American Watches 5 Hours of TV per Day." NY Daily News. N.p., 5 Mar. 2014. Web. 17 Dec. 2014.

Huston, Aletha C. Big World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln: U of Nebraska, 1992. Print.

Irvine, Martha. "Corporate America Tries-and Sometimes Fails-when Using Slang Aimed at Young People." Editorial. Gadsded Times 13 Nov. 2002: A10. Gadsden Times - Google News Archive Search. Web. 15 Oct. 2014.

Jeffries, Leo W., and Richard M. Perloff. Mass Media Effects. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland, 1997. Print.

Jhally, Sut. The Codes of Advertising: Fetishism and the Political Economy of Meaning in the Consumer Society. New York: Routledge, 1990. Print.

Johnsense. Magazine Stand. Digital image. N.p., Sept. 2006. Web. 9 Dec. 2014. <>.

Kang, Minjeong. "Media Use and the Selective Individual." Communication Theories for Everyday Life. By John R. Baldwin, Stephen D. Perry, and Mary Anne Moffitt. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, 2004. 201-11. Print.

Katz, Elihu, and Paul F. Lazarsfeld. Personal Influence; the Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communications. Glencoe, IL: Free, 1955. Print.

Kilbourne, Jean. Deadly Persuasion: Why Women and Girls Must Fight the Addictive Power of Advertising. New York, NY: Free, 1999. Print.

Klapper, Joseph T. The Effects of Mass Communication. New York: Free of Glencoe, 1960. Print.

Lazarfeld, Paul F., and Robert K. Merton. "Mass Communication, Popular Taste, and Organized Social Action." The Process and Effects of Mass Communication. By Wilbur Schramm and Donald F. Roberts. Urbana: U of Illinois, 1971. 554-78. Print.

Lazarsfeld, Paul Felix, Bernard Berelson, and Hazel Gaudet. The People's Choice How the Voter Makes up His Mind in a Presidential Campaign. New York: Columbia U Pr., 1944. Print.

Lee, Vanna. "Global 2000: The World's Largest Media Companies Of 2014." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 07 May 2015. Web. 29 Oct. 2014.

LeFleur, Melvin L. "Where Have the Milestones Gone? The Decline of Significant Research on the Process and Effects of Mass Communication." Mass Communication & Society. 2nd ed. Vol. 1.1. Boston: College of Communication, Boston U, 1998. 85-98. Print.

Lippmann, Walter. Public Opinion. New York: Greenbook Publications, 2010. Print.

Littlejohn, Stephen W., and Karen A. Foss. Theories of Human Communication. 10th ed. Long Grove, Ill.: Waveland, 2011. Print.

Lowery, Shearon, and Melvin L. DeFleur. Milestones in Mass Communication Research Media Effects. 3rd ed. White Plains, N.Y.: Longman USA, 1995. Print.

Lutz, Ashley. "These 6 Corporations Control 90% Of The Media In America." Business Insider. Business Insider, Inc, 14 June 2012. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.

McChesney, Robert Waterman. Corporate Media and the Threat to Democracy. New York: Seven Stories, 1997. Print.

Mcleary, Paul., “Blogging the Long War.” Columbia Journalism Review. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Aug. 2015.

McLuhan, Marshall. The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1962. Print.

McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1964. Print.

McLuhan, Marshall, and Quentin Fiore. The Medium Is the Massage. New York: Random House, 1967. Print.

McLuhan, Marshall. Essential McLuhan. Ed. Eric McLuhan and Frank Zingrone. New York, NY: Basic, 1995. Print.

McQuail, Denis. "With the Benefit of Hindsight: Reflections on Uses and Gratifications Research." Critical Studies in Mass Communication,1984. Print.

McQuail, Denis. (1994). Mass Communication: An Introduction (2nd). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Print.

"Mobile Technology Fact Sheet." Pew Research Centers Internet American Life Project RSS. Pew Research Center, 27 Dec. 2013. Web. 21 Nov. 2014.

Nellis, B. Kelly “Technology and Social Change: The Interactive Media Environment.” In J. Baldwin, S. Perry, & M. Moffat (Eds.). Communication Theories for Everyday Life 244-258. New York: Pearson. 2004. Print.

"Newswire ." Nielsen Estimates 116.3 Million TV Homes In the U.S., Up 0.4%. Nielson, n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2014

O’Sullivan, Patrick. B. (2003). “Masspersonal Communication." Unpublished Paper, Illinois State University. Print.

Paul, Bryant., Salwen, Micheal., & Dupagne, Micheal. (2000). "The Third-person Effect: A Meta-analysis of the Perceptual Hypothesis." Mass Communication & Society, 3, 57-85." Print.

Potter, W. James. (1998). Media Literacy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage." Print.

Quicksandala. Beachfront newspaper stand. Digital image. N.p., Oct. 2013. Web. 9 Dec. 2014. <>.

Romero, Aaron. A. (2003). "Identity: Collectivity and the Self in IRC." PsychNology Journal, 1 (2), 87-130." Print.

Sanders, J. (2003, January 19). "Advertisers, the Middle-aged Dis Youth with Slang." The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 10, 2003 from Lexis-Nexis Database." Print.

Schramm, Wilbur. Mass Communications: A Book of Readings Selected and Edited by the Director of the Institute for Communication Research at Stanford University. Urbana: U of Illinois, 1949. Print.

Smith, Bruce Lannes, Harold D. Lasswell, and Ralph D. Casey. Propaganda, Communication, and Public Opinion; a Comprehensive Reference Guide. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1946. Print.

Sparks, Glenn G., and Robert M. Ogles. "The Difference between Fear of Victimization and the Probability of Being Victimized: Implications for Cultivation." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 34.3 (1990): 351-58. Print.

Spitulnik, Debra. "The Social Circulation of Media Discourse and the Mediation of Communities." Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 6.2 (1996): 161-87. Print.

Steinberg, S H, and John Trevitt. Five Hundred Years of Printing. London: British Library, 1996. Print.

Troldahl, Verling C. "A Field Test of a Modified "Two-Step Flow of Communication" Model." Public Opinion Quarterly 30.4 (1966): 609-29. Print.

Troldahl, Verling C., and Robert Van Dam. "Face-To-Face Communication About Major Topics in the News." Public Opinion Quarterly 29.4 (1965): 626-34. Print.

WGBH/Frontline. "Interview: Ben Bagdikian." PBS. PBS, 1999. Web. 15 Dec. 2014.

Wiio, Osmo. (1978). Wiio’s Laws-and Some Others. Espoo, Finland: Welin-Goos.Print.

Wiio, Osmo. (1990). In G. M. Goldhaber (Ed.), Organizational Communication 5th Ed., Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers. Print.

Wright, Charles R. "Functional Analysis and Mass Communication." Public Opinion Quarterly 24.4 (1960): 605-20. Print.