Spanish by Choice/Novelas Cortas 00/Print version

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Novelas Cortas: Vocabulary

Preface by W.F. Giese

The following stories from Alarcón are offered to the student of Spanish in the belief that the easy style, the interest of the narrative, and the incidental sidelights that they throw on Spanish life and history will make the book a welcome one in the earlier stages of study.

The stories have been very fully annotated, and nothing that seemed to offer any real difficulty has been passed over. All proper names have been explained, with the exception of a few too well known or too insignificant to justify comment. The notes are further reënforced by an Idiomatic Commentary, to be studied in connection with the text. By frequent reviews and by oral drill in translating the idioms from either language to the other, with changes of person, tense, etc., wherever possible, the Commentary should enable the student to attain to a real mastery of the idioms that are here tabulated.

N.B. In studying the commentary the student should underline in the text the idiomatic expressions here indicated, including those to which he is referred back in the Reviews. As irregular verb-forms are introduced with special frequency, it would be well to keep the list of irregular verbs at hand for reference. The italicized words are those that are especially idiomatic.

The vocabulary, while registering all the words in the text, except such as are nearly or quite identical, does not aim at giving, without any labor of adaptation on the part of the student, the precise equivalent required.

The stories are complete, except for a few trifling omissions dictated by class-room proprieties.

Acknowledgment is gratefully made for a number of welcome suggestions due to my esteemed colleague Mr. A.R. Seymour.


N.B. Words alike or nearly alike have in general been omitted.

For all adverbs ending in mente, the corresponding adjective form has been given.

Ch follows c, ll follows l, differing from the English order.

The gender has not been indicated for nouns ending in o which are masculine, nor for those in a which are feminine, nor for those nouns whose gender is inherent. The feminine ending in a has not been indicated for adjectives ending in o. In other cases the feminine has been indicated except in invariable adjectives.

The following abbreviations occur:

adj. adjective

aug. augmentative

dim. diminutive

part. participle

vr. reflexive verb

prep. preposition

m. masculine

f. feminine

n. neuter


a to, at.

abajo under, down, downstairs.

abandonar to abandon.

abastecer to purvey, supply.

abasto provisions.

abatimiento abasement, dejection.

abatir to throw down.

abdicar to abdicate.

abeto fir.

abierto (from abrir) open.

abismar to engulf, plunge.

abismo abyss.

abogado advocate, lawyer.

abono manure, fertilizer.

abrazar to embrace.

abrazo embrace.

abreviar to abridge.

abrigo shelter.

Abril m. April.

abrir to open.

abrumar to overwhelm.

absolutista absolutist, ultra-conservative.

absoluto absolute.

absorber to absorb.

abuelo-a grandparent, ancestor.

abultar to increase, enlarge.

abundancia abundance.

aburrir to weary, bore; vr. be bored,

abuso ill use, abuse.

acá here, hither.

acabar to finish, end; —— de, to have just...

acallar to quiet, hush.

acampar to encamp.

acariciar to caress.

acaso perhaps, by chance.

acceder to accede.

acción f action, battle.

acelerar to accelerate.

acémila beast of burden.

acento accent.

aceptar to accept.

acercar to bring near; vr. to approach.

acero steel.

acertado fit, proper.

acertar to hit the mark, succeed, happen.

acetre m. small bucket.

achacoso infirm, sickly.

achicar to diminish.

aciago unlucky.

acometer to attack.

acomodar to accommodate, suit, fit.

acompañar to accompany.

aconsejar to counsel, advise.

acordar vr. to remember.

acostar to put into bed; vr. go to bed.

acostumbrar to accustom.

acreditar to assure, give credit to.

acribillar to pierce like a sieve.

actitud f. attitude.

acto act; en el ——, instantly.

acudir to run up, succor, have recourse to.

acuñar to coin.

acurrucar vr. to squat.

acusación f. accusation.

acusar to accuse.

adaptar to adapt.

adelantar to advance, profit, get the start of.

adelante forward, henceforth.

ademán m. gesture, attitude.

además besides.

adentro within.

adherir to adhere.

adiestrar to make dexterous.

adiós adieu.

adivinar to divine, guess.

adivino diviner, fortune-teller.

adjunto annexed.

admirable admirable, marvelous.

admiración f. admiration, wonder.

admirar to admire, wonder.

admitir to admit.

adobo pickle sauce.

adolescente a youth.

adorar to adore.

adormidera poppy.

adquirir to acquire.

aduanero-a custom-house officer.

aduar m. ambulatory Arab camp.

advertencia advice, warning.

advertir to warn, notify.

aéreo aërial.

afable affable.

afamado famous.

afán m. anxiety, trouble.

afectar to affect.

afecto affectionate, well affected.

aferrar vr. to grapple, grasp.

afinar to tune.

afirmar to affirm.

aflojar to loosen.

afortunado fortunate.

afrancesado Frenchified Spaniard, Francomaniac, French sympathizer.

afueras f. pl. environs.

agachar vr. to stoop, squat.

agazapar vr. to hide.

ágil agile.

agilidad f. agility.

agitar to agitate.

agonía death, death agony.

agonizante dying.

agonizar to be dying.

Agosto August.

agraciado graceful.

agradar to gratify.

agravar to aggravate.

agravio offense, injury.

agrupar to group, cluster, crowd.

agua water.

aguantar to endure, put up with.

aguardar to expect, wait for.

aguardiente m. brandy.

aguja needle.

Agustín Augustine.

ahí there.

ahogar to suffocate, drown.

ahora now; —— bien, well then.

ahorcar to hang.

ahorrar to save, spare.

aire m. air.

ajar to spoil.

ajeno alien, of another; lo —— what belongs to another.

ajuar m. household furniture.

ajustar to adjust.

alacrán m. scorpion.

alargar to extend, hand.

alarido outcry, shout.

alarife architect.

alarmar to alarm.

Alavés-a of Alava.

alba dawn.

albergar to lodge, harbor.

alborada daybreak.

alcalde justice of the peace, mayor.

alcaldía office of an alcalde.

alcanzar to reach, overtake, obtain.

alcázar m. castle, fortress.

alcoba alcove, bedroom.

alcornoque m. cork-tree.

alegar to allege.

alegrar to rejoice.

alegre merry, joyful, gay.

alegría gayety, mirth.

Alejandra Alexandra.

alejar to remove; vr. to go off.

aletargar vr. to fall into a lethargy.

alfombra carpet.

alga seaweed.

algazara confused noise.

algo something, somewhat.

alguacil constable, policeman.

alguien some one.

alguno some, some one.

aliento breath, respiration.

alimentar to feed.

alma soul.

almohada pillow, cushion.

almorzar to breakfast.

alojado lodger.

alojamiento lodging.

alojar to lodge.

alrededor around.

altanería haughtiness.

alterar to change, disturb.

alto high, tall, loud.

altura height.

alumbrado illumination.

alumbrar to light.

alzar to raise.

allá there, thither.

allegar to collect.

allí there.

amable amiable.

amanecer to dawn.

amante loving, fond.

amar to love.

amargo bitter.

amargura bitterness.

amarillear to turn yellow.

amarillento yellowish.

amarillo yellow.

ambiente m. circumambient air.

ámbito circuit.

ambos-as both.

ambulante ambulatory, moving.

amenaza menace.

amenazar to menace.

amigo-a friend.

aminorar to lessen.

amistad f. friendship.

amo-a master, mistress, proprietor.

amor m. love; —— propio self-love.

amotinar to excite to mutiny.

amparar to shelter, protect.

amparo protection, refuge.

amplio ample.

anciano old.

ancho wide.

andaluz-a Andalusian.

andar to go, walk, fare.

anfitrión host.

angosto narrow.

ángulo angle, corner.

angustia anguish.

ánima soul.

animal m. animal, dolt.

animar to animate, enliven.

aniquilar to annihilate.

anoche last night.

anochecer to grow dark.

anotar to note.

antártico antarctic.

ante before, in the presence of.

antemano; de —— beforehand.

antepasado ancestor.

anterior former, previous, preceding.

antes before, rather.

antesala antechamber.

anticuado antiquated.

antiguo antique, old.

antipodas m. pl. antipodes

antojar vr. (with personal dative) to have a fancy or desire.

anudar to knot.

anunciar to announce.

añadidura addition; por —— in addition.

añadir to add.

año year.

apagar to extinguish, dim.

apalear to drub, beat with a stick.

aparatoso ostentatious, magnificent.

aparecer to appear.

aparejar to prepare.

aparente apparent.

aparición apparition, appearance.

apariencia appearance.

apear vr. to alight.

apellido name, surname.

apenas hardly.

apero agricultural implements.

apestar to infect, smell.

apiadar vr. to pity.

aplastar to flatten, crush.

apoderar vr. to take possession.

apodo nickname.

apoplejía apoplexy.

apoplético apoplectic.

aposento room.

apóstol apostle.

apoyar to support; vr. to lean.

apoyo support, prop, protection.

apreciar to appreciate.

aprehensor custodian.

aprender to learn.

apresurar vr. to hasten.

apretar to press, urge.

aprisionar to imprison.

aprovechar to profit, utilize.

apuntar to set down, note.

apurar to drain.

aquel m. aquella f. aquello n. that.

aquí here.

aquilón m. north wind.

árabe Arab.

arábigo Arabic.

arado plow.

arar to plow.

arbitrariedad f. arbitrariness, arbitrary act.

árbol m. tree.

arca chest, wooden box, ark.

arco, arc, arch; —— iris rainbow.

arder to burn.

ardiente ardent.

ardor m. ardor, heat.

arena sand.

arenal m. sandy ground.

argentino silvery.

argumento argument.

arma arm, weapon.

armar to arm, to dub (a knight).

armonía harmony.

arnés m. harness, trapping.

arcancar to pull up, wrest, force out.

arranque m. pulling up, impulse, vehemence.

arrastrar to drag.

arrebatar to snatch, carry off, fling.

arrepentir vr. to repent.

arriba up, above.

arriero muleteer.

arrimar to draw near.

arrodillar vr. to kneel.

arrojar to throw.

arrollar to roll up.

arroyo brook, rivulet, stream.

arroyuelo (dim.) brooklet.

arruga wrinkle.

arruinar to ruin, demolish.

arrullo cooing.

arte m. f. art, artfulness; malas artes evil practices.

articular to articulate.

artista m. artist.

asador m. turnspit.

asalto assault, storm.

ascendiente forefather.

ascético ascetic.

asco nausea.

asegurar to secure, assure.

asemejar vr. to be like.

asasinar to assassinate.

asesinato assassination.

asesino assassin.

asesor assessor, counselor.

asestar to aim.

asfixiar to asphyxiate.

asi thus, so; —— como as well as, —— que as soon as.

asiento seat, chair.

asimilable capable of assimilation.

asir vr. to seize.

asistente m. orderly.

asistir to be present.

asno ass.

asolador-a destructive, racking.

asomar to show; vr. to appear, begin to appear.

asombrar to amaze.

asombro amazement.

asombroso astonishing.

áspero rough.

aspirar to aspire.

astilla splinter.

astro star, luminous body.

asturiano of the province of Asturias (in N. Spain.)

asunto subject, matter.

asustar to frighten.

atacar to attack.

atalaya watchtower.

atar to tie.

ataúd m. coffin.

atención f. attention.

atender to be attentive, heed.

atentado attempt, offense.

atento attentive.

atenuar to diminish.

ateo atheist.

aterir vr. to grow numb.

aterrador-a terrible.

aterrar to prostrate, terrify.

átomo atom.

atonía weakness.

atraer to attract.

atrapar to catch, overtake,

atrás back, backwards.

atravesar to traverse, cross, pierce, pass through.

atrever vr. to dare, venture.

atribuir to attribute.

atributo attribute.

atronador-a thundering.

atrepellar to trample.

atropello outrage.

audiencia audience, hearing.

augusto august, majestic.

aumentar to augment.

aun or aún still, yet, even.

aunque although.

ausencia absence.

austero austere.

austriaco Austrian.

autómata m. automaton.

autor-a author.

autoridad f. authority.

auxiliar to aid, assist, attend a dying person.

auxilio aid.

avanzar to advance.

avaro avaricious.

ave f. bird.

avecindar to make a neighbor or fellow-citizen.

avergonzar to shame, abash; vr. to be ashamed.

averiguar to investigate, find out.

avío preparation, provision, apparatus.

avisado sagacious.

avisar to inform, notify.

ay alas!

ayer yesterday.

ayuda aid, help.

ayudar to aid.

ayuno fast, abstinence.

ayuntamiento town council.

azafate m. flat (osier) basket.

azotea platform on roof.

azul blue.

azulejo painted tile.


bagaje m. baggage.

bahía bay.

bailar to dance.

baile m. dance.

bajar to lower, descend.

bajo low; prep. under.

bala ball, bullet.

balancear to balance.

balbucear to stammer.

balcón m. balcony.

balde; de —— gratis, for nothing.

ballena whale.

ballenero whaler.

bambolear vr. to totter.

banco bank.

banda band.

bandera banner.

bandido highwayman.

bando faction, party, proclamation.

bandolero bandit, highwayman.

baqueta ramrod.

baratura cheapness.

barba chin, beard.

bárbaro barbarous.

barco boat.

barra crowbar.

barranco ravine; barranquillo (dim.).

barreno hole made with a borer or pick.

barriga abdomen, belly; barrigón (aug.)

barrilla alkali.

barro clay, mud.

barrunto conjecture.

base f. base.

Basilio Basil.

bastante enough.

bastar to suffice.

batalla battle.

batallón m. battalion.

batir to beat vr. to fight.

bautismo baptism.

bautizar to baptize.

bayonetazo thrust with a bayonet.

beato blessed, devout, fanatic, obscurantist.

beber to drink.

bebida drink, beverage.

belleza beauty.

bendecir to bless.

bendición f. blessing.

bendito blessed.

besar to kiss.

beso kiss.

bey (Turkish) governor.

biblia bible.

bíblico biblical.

bicho insect.

bien well, right, else; m. good, utility, benefit, property, riches;

no ——, no sooner; —— que, although.

bienhechor-a benefactor.

bigote m. mustache.

billar m. billiards.

billete m. note.

bizarría bravery.

blanco white.

blancura whiteness.

blandir to brandish.

blando soft, smooth.

blanquear to whiten, whitewash.

blanquecino whitish.

blasfemar to blaspheme.

blasfemia blasphemy.

bobo stupid, silly.

boca mouth.

bola ball, globe.

boleta soldier's billet.

bolsillo pocket, purse.

bondadoso kindly.

Bonifacio Boniface.

bonito pretty.

boquerón m. anchovy.

boquete m. gap, narrow entrance.

bordar to embroider.

bordo board (of ship).

borrar to blot, efface.

borrego lamb.

borrico donkey.

borroso indistinct.

bota boot.

bote m. glazed earthen vessel.

botella bottle.

botica apothecary's shop.

boticario apothecary.

bóveda vault, arch.

brazo arm.

breña craggy, broken surface.

breñal briery or brambly ground.

bribón m. rascal.

brillante brilliant.

brillar to shine.

brillo brilliancy.

brindar to toast (with wine), vr. to offer.

brindis m. toast.

brisa breeze.

brocal m. curbstone of a well.

brotar to germinate, break out.

bruma haziness, mist.

buenamente easily, by fair means.

buenaventura fortune-telling.

bueno good.

buey m. ox.

buitre m. vulture.

bullicioso noisy.

buque m. vessel.

burgomaestre burgomaster.

burla jest, mockery.

burlar to jest, mock, hoax; vr. to jest, mock, laugh at.

burro donkey.

busca search.

buscar to seek, search.

butaca easy-chair.


ca why! why no! really!

cabal exact, perfect, accomplished.

caballería cavalry, horses.

caballero horseman, knight, gentleman, sir.

caballo horse.

cabaña cabin, hut.

cabello hair.

caber to be contained, find room, —— duda to be doubtful.

cabeza head.

cabo chief, leader, corporal, end, stem, cape.

cabra goat.

cabrero goatherd.

cada each, every; —— cual each one.

cadáver m. corpse.

cadena f. chain.

caer to fall; vr. to fall; —— en algo to understand.

café m. coffee, coffee-house.

caid (Arabic) commander of a fort.

calabacera pumpkin vine.

calabaza pumpkin.

calabozo dungeon.

calavera skull.

calceta stocking, thread under-stocking.

calcular to calculate.

cálculo calculation.

calentar to warm, heat.

calentura fever.

calidad f. quality.

caliente hot, fiery.

calma calmness.

calmoso calm.

calor m. heat.

calumniador slanderer.

caluroso warm, hot.

calva bald spot.

calzón m. breeches.

callar to keep silence, to pass over in silence, vr. to be silent.

calle f. street.

callejón m. lane, alley.

callejuela lane, alley.

cama bed.

camarada comrade.

cambalache m. exchange, barter.

cambiar to change, exchange.

cambio change, exchange; en —— instead.

camilla (dim. of cama) pallet.

caminante wayfarer.

caminar to travel, walk, march.

caminata long walk, journey.

camino road, way; —— real, highway

campamento camp, encampment.

campana bell.

campanada sound of a bell.

campaña campaign.

campar to encamp.

campear to excel, be eminent.

campeón champion.

campesino-a rustic, peasant.

campiña arable land, campaign.

campo country, field.

canas f. pl. gray hair.

canalla f. rabble, m. rogue.

cáncer m. cancer.

canción f. song.

candil m. hanging kitchen lamp.

cansar to weary.

cantar to sing.

cántico canticle, hymn.

cantidad f. quantity, number.

canto singing, song.

caña cane, reed.

cañada dale, glen.

cañón m. tube, cannon, barrel.

cañuto tube.

caos chaos.

capa cloak.

capaz capable.

capellán chaplain.

capilla chapel.

capital m. sum of money at interest; f. capital (chief city).

capitán captain.

capitanía captaincy, captain's office.

capitulación f. capitulation, agreement.

capote m. cloak, rain coat.

capricho caprice.

caprichoso capricious.

captura capture.

capucha hood, cowl.

cara face.

cárabo Moorish sail-and-row-boat.

carácter character.

carámbano icicle.

carbón m. charcoal.

carbunclo carbuncle.

carcajada burst of laughter.

cárcel f. prison.

cardenál cardinal.

cardenalicio pertaining to a cardinal.

cárdeno livid.

carecer to lack, want.

carencia want, lack.

carga load.

cargar to load, burden.

cargo charge, care; hacerse —— to keep in mind.

caricia caress.

caridad f. charity.

cariño affection.

cariñoso affectionate.

carlista cf. note 3, page 16.[**page references?]

Carlos Charles.

carnaval m. carnival.

carne f. flesh, meat.

carnestolendas f. pl. shrovetide.

caro dear.

carrera career, course.

carruaje m. carriage, vehicle.

carta letter.

casa house.

casadero marriageable.

casar to give in marriage; vr. to get married.

cascada cascade.

casería country house.

casero domestic.

casi almost.

casino café.

caso case, occasion, attention, position; hacer —— to pay attention.

castellano Castilian.

castidad f. chastity.

castigar to chastise, punish.

castillejo small castle.

castillo castle.

casualidad f. chance.

casualmente by chance.

casucha wretched hut.

catalán, -a Catalan, of Cataluña.

catar to taste, examine; cata aquí lo!

catedral f. cathedral.

católico Catholic.

catorce fourteen.

caudal m. property, fortune.

causa cause; a —— de because of.

causa-habientes (legal) the parties concerned.

causar to cause.

cauteloso cautious.

cautivo captive.

caverna cavern.

cavidad f. cavity.

cavilación f. reflection.

cavilar to consider, hesitate.

caviloso thoughtful, perplexed.

caza chase.

cazador hunter, cavalryman.

cebada barley.

cebón m. fattened bullock, hog.

ceder to yield.

cedro cedar.

cegar to blind.

celda cell.

celebrar to celebrate, praise, rejoice.

célebre famous.

celeste celestial, heavenly.

celo zeal; pl. jealousy.

cena supper.

cenar to sup.

cénit m. zenith.

ceniza ashes.

censo lease.

centenar m. a hundred.

centenario centenary, a hundred years old.

centinela m. f. sentry, sentinel.

centro center.

centuria century.

cera wax.

cerca near.

cercado inclosure, wall.

cercanías f. pl. environs.

cercano near.

cercar to seek.

cerebro brain.

cerrar to close, obstruct.

cerrazón f. cloudy weather.

cerro hill.

certificar to certify, register.

cerval pertaining to a deer.

cesar to cease.

cetro scepter.

cicatriz f. cicatrice, scar.

ciego blind, á ciegas blindly.

cielo heaven, sky.

cien (= ciento) hundred.

ciencia science.

ciento hundred; por —— percent.

cierto certain; de —— with certainty.

cigarro cigar.

cimiento foundation.

cinco five.

cincuenta fifty.

cínico cynical.

circular to circulate.

círculo circle.

circundar to surround.

circunstancia circumstance.

circunstantes bystanders.

cirio wax candle.

cisura incision, cut.

cita citation, appointment.

ciudad f. city.

civilizar to civilize.

claridad f. clearness.

claro clear.

clase f. class, rank.

clavar to nail, fix.

clemente clement, merciful.

cobarde coward, timid.

cobardía cowardliness.

cobijar to cover.

cobrar to recover, collect money.

cobre m. copper.

cocina kitchen.

cocinero cook.

codicioso covetous.

cofradía confraternity.

coger to catch, lay hold of, take up.

cohonestar to give an honest appearance to.

cola tail.

colegio school.

cólera anger.

colgadura hanging, tapestry.

colgar to hang.

colmar to overwhelm, heap up.

colocación f. situation, employment.

colocar to collocate, place.

colonia colony.

colono colonist, settler, farmer.

colorado ruddy.

colorar to color.

columna column.

columpio swinging.

comandante commander, major.

comarca district.

combatir to fight.

combustible m. fuel.

comensal m. table companion, fellow-guest.

comenzar to begin.

comer to eat.

cometer to commit.

cómico comic.

comida dinner.

comienzo beginning.

comitiva suite, retinue.

como how, as, like, when.

compadre godfather, friend.

compañero companion.

compañía company.

comparar to compare.

compensar to compensate.

competente competent.

complacer to please; vr. to take pleasure.

complaciente obliging.

completar to complete.

completo complete.

componer to compose.

comportamento conduct.

composición f. composition, grouping.

comprar to buy.

comprender to comprehend.

comprobación f. corroboration.

comprobar to verify.

comprometer to compromise.

compromiso compromise, promise.

compuesto composed; compound.

común common.

comunicar to communicate.

comunidad f. community.

con with; —— que so then.

concavidad f. concavity.

concebir to conceive.

concejal member of a council.

concentrar to concentrate.

conciencia conscience, consciousness.

concierto concert.

conciliar to conciliate, reconcile.

concluir to conclude, end.

concurso concourse, crowd.

concha shell.

conde count.

condena condemnation, sentence.

condenación f. condemnation.

condenar to condemn, damn.

condensar to condense.

condiscípulo fellow-scholar.

conducir to conduct.

conducta conduct.

conejo rabbit.

conferencia conference.

confesar to confess.

confianza confidence.

confiar to confide.

confín m. confine, boundary, limit.

conforme in agreement, agreed.

confundir to confound.

congénito congenital, innate.

conjuro conjuration, exorcism.

conmigo with me, with myself.

conmover to move.

conocer to know, recognize.

conocimiento knowledge, consciousness.

conque (= con que) so then, so.

conquista conquest.

conquistador conqueror.

consagrar to consecrate, devote.

consecuencia consequence.

conseguir to attain, obtain, succeed.

consejo counsel, advice, council.

conservar to preserve.

considerar to consider, view.

consigna watchword, order.

consigo with himself, herself, themselves.

consiguiente consequent; por —— consequently.

consistir to consist.

consolar to console.

consorcio partnership, society.

consorte consort, partner.

constar to be evident or certain.

construcción f. construction, edifice.

construir to construct, build.

consuelo consolation.

cónsul consul, member of the tribunal of commerce.

consumir to consume.

consumo consumption.

contar to count, recount, relate.

contemplar to contemplate.

contener to contain, repress.

contentar to content.

contento content; m. pleasure.

contestación f. answer.

contestar to answer.

contigo with thee (you).

continente continent.

continuar to continue.

continuo continuous.

contra against.

contraer to contract.

contrario contrary.

contrata contract.

contratiempo misfortune, mischance.

contribución f. tax.

convencer to convince.

conveniente useful, fitting, proper.

convenir to agree, fit, suit.

convento convent.

convertir to convert.

convicto convicted.

convidar to invite.

convoy m. convoy, escort, train.

copa cup.

copla couplet, ballad, song.

corazón m. heart.

cordillera chain of mountains.

corneta cornet; —— de llaves cornet-à-pistons.

corona crown.

coronar to crown.

coronel colonel.

coronilla crown of the head.

corral m. yard.

correo mail, post-office.

correr to run.

correspondiente corresponding, appropriate, own.

corriente all right; f. current.

corro group, circle.

cortar to cut.

corte f. court, capital; f. pl. legislative assembly.

cortesía courtesy.

corto short, slight.

corzo deer.

cosa thing.

cosecha harvest, crop.

costa cost, coast.

costar to cost.

coste m. expense.

costumbre f. custom, habit.

crear to create.

credencial f. credentials.

crédito credit, belief.

creencia belief.

creer to believe.

crepúsculo twilight.

creyente believer.

criado, -a servant.

criador creator.

criar to create, produce, raise.

criatura creature.

crimen m. crime.

crispar to clench.

cristal m. crystal, glass, pane.

cristiano, -a Christian.

Cristo Christ.

crítica criticism.

crucifijo crucifix.

crudo raw, cruel.

crueldad f. cruelty.

crujiente crackling.

crujir to creak, crack, crackle.

cruz f. cross.

cruzado crusader.

cruzar to cross, cruise.

cuadro square, picture, platoon.

cual which, who, like; —— si as if.

cualquier, -a any one, some one, whichever; de —— modo any way.

cuán how.

cuando when.

cuanto how much, as much, how; en —— a as regards.

cuarenta forty.

cuarentena quarantine.

cuartel m. quarter.

cuarto fourth; m. quarter, room.

cuatro four.

cuatrocientos, -as four hundred.

cubil m. lair.

cubrir to cover.

cucaracha woodlouse.

cuclillas; en —— crouching.

cucurbitáceo (like a) gourd, cucumber, pumpkin, etc.

cuello neck.

cuenca socket.

cuenta account, reckoning.

cuento tale, story.

cuerda cord, rope.

cuerno horn.

cuerpo body, corps.

cuesta hill.

cueva cave, cellar.

cuidado care, solicitude, attention.

cuidadoso careful, solicitous.

cuidar to care for.

culata breech of a gun.

culebra snake.

culpable guilty.

culpado transgressor.

cultivar to cultivate.

culto worship.

cumbre f. summit.

cumplir to fulfill.

cuna cradle.

cúpula cupola, dome.

cura m. priest.

curar to cure, care for.

curial m. one in a subaltern office in a court.

curiosidad f. curiosity.

curioso curious, inquisitive.

curso course, current.

cúspide f. tip.

custodiar to guard.

cuyo whose, of whom, of which, whereof.


chancillería chancery (court).

chaquetilla jacket.

charlar to talk, chatter.

chico small.

chicuelo (dim.) youngster.

chimenea chimney, fireplace.

chispeante flashing.

chispear to flash, sparkle.

chiste m. jest.

chocar to shock, strike, strike together.

chochear to dote.

chorreada sprinkling.

chorreadita (dim.) sprinkling.

chorrear to spout, ooze.

choza hut, cottage.

chumbo (higo) Indian fig.

chupar to suck.


D. = Don.

dañino noxious, hurtful.

daño damage.

dar to give, strike, communicate. —— con hit upon, find.

—— en land in, strike into.

de of, from, by, as, with, than, to.

debajo under, underneath.

deber to owe, be obliged, be about to, be destined to, have to.

débil weak, feeble.

debilidad f. weakness.

decidir to decide.

decir to say.

decisivo decisive.

declarar to declare.

decolorar to lose color.

decorativo ornamental.

decrépito decrepit.

decreto decree.

dedicar to dedicate, devote.

dedo finger.

deducir to deduce, infer.

defender to defend.

defensa defense.

defensor m. defender.

degollar to cut the throat, behead.

deicida deicidal.

dejar to leave, let, omit; —— de to fail, omit; dejarse de to leave off.

delante before, in front of.

delgado thin, delicate.

delicioso delicious, delightful.

delirar to rave, be mad.

delirio delirium.

delito crime.

demás rest, other, others.

demasiado too, too much.

demoledor m. one who demolishes.

demoler to demolish.

demonio demon, devil.

demostrar to demonstrate, show.

demudar to change.

denotar to denote, indicate.

denso dense.

dentro within; por —— inside.

denuncia denunciation, accusation.

denunciar to denounce.

depósito place of deposit, station.

depravar to deprave.

derecho right, straight; m. right, law.

derramar to spill, waste.

derretir to melt.

derribar to demolish, raze.

derrota rout, defeat.

derrotar to rout, defeat.

derrumbar to precipitate.

derwich dervish.

desabrido insipid, tasteless, peevish.

desafío challenge, duel.

desaforado huge, disorderly.

desangrar to bleed.

desapacible disagreeable, harsh.

desaparecer to disappear.

desarrollar to unroll, develop.

desatar to untie, loosen.

desazonar to disgust, make ill-humored.

desbordar to overflow.

descalzo barefooted.

descansar to rest, repose.

descanso repose.

descarga discharge, volley.

descargar to discharge, unload.

descarnar to strip off the flesh.

descender to descend.

descendiente descending, descendent.

descendimiento descent.

descerrajar to discharge, fire.

descifrar to decipher.

descolgar to unhang, let down, unfasten.

descomunal uncommon.

desconfiar to mistrust, suspect.

desconocer not know, be ignorant.

desconocido unknown.

describir to describe.

descubrir to discover, uncover.

descuidar to neglect, not to be anxious.

desde since, after, from.

desdicha misfortune.

desear to desire.

desembarcar to disembark.

desembocar to empty, pour.

desencajar to force from its place, socket, etc.

desencanto disenchantment, disillusion.

desenfado facility, boldness.

desengañar to undeceive.

desengaño undeceiving, disillusion.

desenojar to appease, placate.

desenterrar to disinter.

desentumecer to relieve of numbness or swelling.

desenvolver to unfold.

deseo desire, wish.

deseoso desirous.

desertar to desert.

desesperación f. despair.

desesperador, -a causing despair, desperate.

desfallecer to weaken, grow faint.

desfavorable unfavorable.

desfilar to defile, march.

desgajar to lop off.

desgarrador, -a heart-rending.

desgracia misfortune.

desgraciado unfortunate, unhappy.

deshacer to undo, destroy, melt.

deshielo thaw.

deshonrar to dishonor.

desierto desert.

designar to designate.

deslenguado free-tongued, loquacious.

deslizar to slip, glide.

deslucir to dim, tarnish, obscure.

desmantelado ruined.

desmoronar to destroy, demolish.

desnudar to strip.

desnudo naked, bare.

desoír not to hear or heed.

despachar to dispatch, despatch, make haste, sell.

despacho office.

despacio slowly.

desparpajo pertness.

desparramar to spread.

despavorido frightened.

despedazar to tear to pieces.

despedida farewell, leave-taking.

despedir to dismiss; vr. to take leave.

despegar to detach, to stand out, to set well.

despejar to clear.

despensa pantry.

despertar to wake, awake.

desplegar to unfold, display.

desplomar vr. to fall.

despojo spoils, remains.

desprecio scorn, contempt.

desprender to loosen.

despreocupar to free from prejudice.

después after, afterwards.

destacar to detach.

destapar to uncover.

destartalado sorry-looking.

destello sparkle.

destierro banishment.

destinar to destine.

destino destiny, destination, position.

destrozar to break or tear into pieces.

destruir to destroy.

desusado unusual.

desvanecer to undo, dissolve, make vain or proud.

desventura misfortune.

detener to detain, stop; vr. to stop, halt.

detestar to detest.

detrás behind.

deuda debt.

devoción f. devotion, piety.

devolver to return, restore.

devorar to devour.

día m. day.

diablo devil.

diabólico diabolical.

diafanidad f. transparency.

diálogo dialogue.

diario daily.

dibujo drawing, sketch.

dictado title.

dictar to dictate.

dicterio sarcasm, insult.

dicha happiness.

dicho (fr. decir) the said, aforesaid, the same.

dichoso happy.

diente m. tooth.

diez ten.

diferenciar to differentiate.

dificultad f. difficulty.

difunto dead.

digerir to digest.

dignarse to deign, condescend.

dignidad f. dignity.

digno worthy.

dilatar to dilate, spread out.

diligencia business, stagecoach.

diminuto small.

dineral large sum of money.

dinero money.

dios, -a god, goddess.

diputado deputy, representative.

dirigir to direct, address; vr. to address oneself, betake oneself.

discípulo disciple, pupil.

disco disk.

discurso discourse, talk.

disfrutar to enjoy.

disgustar to disgust, offend.

disimular to dissemble, hide.

disipar to dissipate.

disparate m. absurdity, incoherence.

disponer to dispose, prepare, fit.

disputa dispute.

disputar to dispute.

distancia distance.

distante distant.

distar to be distant.

distinción f. distinction.

distinguir to distinguish.

distintivo distinctive mark.

distinto distinct, different.

disuadir to dissuade.

divertido amusing.

dividir to divide.

divino divine.

divisar to perceive, descry.

doblar to double, fold, bend, give way.

doble double, m. passing bell, knell.

doblegar to bend, curve.

doce twelve.

doctrina doctrine.

documento document.

dolor pain, grief.

doloroso sorrowful, painful.

domar to subdue.

domicilio home.

dominar to dominate, rule.

domingo Sunday.

dominio domain.

don m. don, sir.

donde where, whence, whither.

donoso pleasing, airy.

dorado golden.

dorar to gild.

dormir to sleep, vr. to fall asleep.

dos two.

doscientos, -as two hundred.

dosis f. dose.

dotar to endow.

duda doubt.

dudar to doubt.

duende m. wizard.

dueño owner, master.

dulce sweet, gentle.

dulcificar to sweeten, soften.

dulzura sweetness, gentleness.

duque duke.

durante during.

durar to last.

duro hard, cruel; m. dollar.


e = y and (before i or hi).

ebrio inebriated.

ebulliciente overflowing.

eclipsar to eclipse.

eco echo.

económico economical.

ecuador m. equator.

echar to throw, pour, bud, shoot; vr. to begin.

edad f. age.

edicto edict.

edificar to build.

edificio building.

educar to educate.

efectivamente in fact, truly.

efectivo effective.

efecto effect; con —— in fact.

efigie f. effigy, image.

egoísmo egotism, selfishness.

egoísta m. egotist.

eh eh, up.

eje m. axis.

ejecución f. execution.

ejemplar m. example, sample,

ejemplo example.

ejercicio exercise.

ejército army.

el m. la f. lo n. the.

él m. ella f. ello n. he, she, it.

elector m. voter.

elegante elegant.

elegir to elect, choose.

elemento element.

elevar to elevate.

elocuente eloquent.

embalsamado balmy, odorous.

embarcar to embark.

embargo; sin —— (de) notwithstanding.

emborrachar to intoxicate.

emigrar to emigrate.

empellón m. push.

empeñar to pledge; vr. to persist, intercede.

empeorar to make or grow worse.

emperador emperor.

empero yet, however.

empezar to begin.

emplazar to set a time and place for meeting.

emplear to employ.

empleo employment.

empolvar to cover with dust.

emprender to undertake.

empresa enterprise.

empuñadura hilt.

empuñar to clutch.

en in.

encadenar to chain.

encaminar to guide; vr. to set out.

encanecer to grow gray.

encantador, -a enchanting, charming.

encanto charm.

encapotar to shroud.

encarar vr. to face.

encarecimiento urgency.

encargar to charge, commission, entrust.

encargo charge, commission.

encarnación f. incarnation.

encarnado red; m. flesh-color.

encender to kindle, light.

encerrar to shut up, lock up, contain.

encierro confinement, prison.

encima above, over, at the top.

encina evergreen oak.

encoger to contract, shrug.

encolerizar to provoke, anger.

encomendar to recommend.

encontrar to encounter, meet; vr. find.

encorvar to bend.

encuentro encounter, meeting.

endemoniado devilish, confounded.

enderezar to direct, set right, address.

endiablado diabolical.

endurecer to harden.

enea reed, rush.

enemigo, -a enemy.

energía energy.

enérgico energetic.

enero January.

enfático emphatic.

enfermedad f. illness.

enfermo sick.

engañar to deceive, cheat.

engrandecer to aggrandize.

enjugar to dry, wipe.

enjuto dried up.

enlazar to join, unite.

enloquecer to madden.

enojar to irritate, anger.

enorgullecer vr. to be proud.

enorme enormous.

enredar to entangle, complicate.

enrevesado difficult, obscure.

enristrar to couch a lance, etc.

enrojecer to redden.

enronquecer to make hoarse; vr. grow hoarse.

ensalada salad.

enseñar to teach, show.

entablar to begin.

entablillar to secure with boards.

entender to understand; vr. to come to an understanding, to understand.

enterar to inform; vr. learn.

enternecer to soften, to move.

entero entire.

enterrar to bury.

entibiar to cool.

entoldar to cover with an awning.

entonces then.

entrada entrance.

entrañas f. pl. entrails, one's own flesh and blood.

entrar to enter.

entre between; por —— among.

entrecortar to interrupt.

entregar to deliver, hand over.

entretanto meanwhile.

entristecer to sadden.

entuerto tort, injustice.

entusiasmo enthusiasm.

envenenar to poison.

enviado envoy, messenger.

enviar to send.

envidioso envious.

envoltorio bundle.

envolver to involve, wrap.

epílogo epilogue.

episodio episode.

epístola epistle.

época epoch, time.

equidad f. equity.

equinoccio equinox.

equipaje m. baggage.

equitación f. horsemanship.

equivocar vr. to mistake.

erguir to erect, raise up straight.

erial m. unfilled ground.

ermita hermitage.

esbirro bailiff, guard.

escalera staircase.

escalón m. step of a stair.

escapar vr. to escape.

escape m. escape, flight; a todo —— at full speed.

escarabajo beetle.

escarbar to scratch.

escarlata scarlet.

escaso scanty, defective, slight.

escena scene.

escéptico skeptical.

esclavo, -a slave.

escoba broom.

Escocia Scotland.

escombro ruins, rubbish.

esconder to hide.

escopeta gun.

escorbuto scurvy.

escorpión m. scorpion.

escribano notary.

escribir to write.

escrito writing.

escritor writer.

escritura writing, lease.

escuchar to listen.

escuela school.

esculpir to carve.

ese m. esa f. eso n. that.

esfera sphere.

esfuerzo effort.

esmero careful attention.

espacio space.

espada sword.

espalda shoulder, back.

espantar to frighten.

espanto terror, horror.

espantoso frightful.

España Spain.

espanol, -a Spanish.

esparcir to scatter.

espárrago asparagus.

especialidad f. specialty.

especie f. species.

espectáculo spectacle.

espectador m. spectator.

espeler to expel.

espera waiting, expectation.

esperanza hope.

esperanzar to inspire hope.

esperar to hope, expect, wait.

espeso thick.

espesor m. thickness.

espíritu m. spirit.

espirituoso spirituous.

esplendoroso splendid.

esposa wife, handcuff.

espuma foam, froth.

esquilador m. sheep-shearer.

estado state.

estafar to deceive, defraud.

estalagmita stalagmite.

estancia dwelling, room.

estandarte m. standard, banner.

estanquero tobacconist.

estar to be.

estatua statue.

este m. ésta f. esto n. this; en esto at this moment.

estercolar to manure.

estiércol m. manure, fertilizer.

estilo style.

estío summer.

estómago stomach.

estorbar to hinder, trouble.

estrangular to strangle.

estrechar to compress, press, clasp.

estrecho narrow, close, m. strait.

estrella star.

estremecer to shudder, tremble.

estrenar to use for the first time.

estrépito noise.

estructura structure.

estruendo noise, clamor.

estudiante m. student.

estudiar to study.

estupefacto amazed.

estupendo stupendous, marvelous.

estúpido stupid, stupefied.

esturión m. sturgeon.

eternidad f. eternity.

eterno eternal.

Europa Europe.

europeo European.

evitar to avoid.

exacto exact.

exagerar to exaggerate.

examinar to examine.

exasperar to exasperate.

excavar to excavate.

exceder to exceed, go beyond.

excelencia excellence, Excellency.

excelente excellent.

excitar to excite.

exclamar to exclaim.

excomulgar to excommunicate.

excomunión f. excommunication.

excusado superfluous, needless.

excusar to avoid, dispense with, deem unnecessary.

existencia existence.

existir to exist.

expeler to expel.

experimentar to experience, feel.

expirante dying.

expirar to die.

explayar to extend, dilate.

explicación f. explanation.

explicar to explain.

exponer to expose, explain, declare.

expresar to express.

expresión f. expression; pl. regards.

expresivo expressive, affectionate, demonstrative.

exquisito exquisite.

extender to extend, draw up.

extenuar to debilitate.

exterminar to exterminate.

extraer to extract.

extranjero stranger.

extrañar to find strange, wonder at.

extraño strange, foreign, singular.

extremo extreme; m. extreme.


facción f. faction, insurrection, insurrectionary party.

faccioso rebellious, insurgent.

fácil easy, probable.

facineroso wicked, criminal.

facha appearance, aspect.

faena task, labor.

faja sash, band, belt.

falda skirt, lap.

falsario falsifier.

falso false.

falta want, lack.

faltar to be wanting, fail to keep a promise.

faltriquera pocket.

falucho sailboat.

fallecer to die.

fama fame.

familia family.

famoso famous.

fandango fandango (Spanish dance).

fanega acre, bushel.

fantasma m. phantasm, vision.

farmacéutico druggist.

fatiga fatigue.

fatigar to fatigue.

fatuo fatuous, vain, false; fuego —— ignis fatuus, will o' the wisp.

faz f. face.

fe f. faith, certificate; a —— mía upon my honor; a —— que in truth.

febrero February.

fecundo fruitful, fertile.

fecha date.

fechoría action, misdeed.

fehacientes (faith-inspiring) conclusive.

felicidad f. happiness.

felicitar to congratulate.

feligresía parish.

feliz happy.

feo ugly.

Fernando Ferdinand.

fervoroso fervent.

festonear to festoon.

fianza guarantee, security.

fiar to trust, intrust.

fiebre f. fever.

fiel faithful, loyal.

fiera wild beast.

fiesta feast, festivity.

figle m. ophicleide (wind instrument).

figura figure, shape.

figurar to figure, represent, imagine.

fijar to fix, fasten.

fijo fixed, firm.

fila line of soldiers.

filiación f. description.

fin m. end; en ——, por —— finally, lastly, in fine; a fin (de) in order.

fingir to feign.

fino fine, delicate, polite.

firmamento firmament, sky.

firmar to sign, subscribe.

firme firm, strong.

fisco fisc, exchequer.

físico physical.

fisonomía physiognomy.

flaco lean.

flamenco Flemish.

flámula banner.

flojo lax, feeble.

flor f. flower.

flotante floating.

fluir to flow.

foco focus, center.

fondo bottom, back, background; a —— thoroughly.

forastero stranger.

forma form.

formación f. formation.

formal genuine, serious, grave.

formar to form.

formalidad f. seriousness.

fortificar to strengthen, fortify.

fosfórico phosphoric, phosphorescent.

fracasar to shatter.

fracturar to break.

fragmento fragment.

fraile friar; frailuco (bad) friar.

francachela revelry, intemperance.

francés, -a French.

Francia France.

Francisco Francis.

francmasón freemason.

frase f. phrase, sentence.

fratricida fratricidal.

frecuente frequent.

freír to fry.

frenético frantic.

frente f. front, forehead; —— a, facing.

fresal m. strawberry plant.

fresco fresh, cool.

frescura freshness, impudence.

frío cold, frigid, m. cold, chill.

frito (from freír) fried.

frívolo frivolous.

frontera frontier.

fruta fruit.

fruto fruit.

fuego fire.

fuer; a fuer de, in the manner of.

fuera without, outside; ¡fuera! away with; por ——, outside.

fuerte strong, vigorous, forcible.

fuerza force, strength, violence; a —— de, by dint of.

fugitivo fugitive.

fulano, -a, such a one, so-and-so.

fulgente brilliant.

fulgor m. splendor, resplendence.

fulgurar to shine, emit flashes.

fulminante fulminating, thunder-striking, flashing.

fumar to smoke.

fundamento foundation.

fundar to found, establish.

fundir to melt, fuse.

fúnebre mournful, funereal.

furia fury.

furioso furious.

furor m. fury.

fusil m. gun.

fusilar to shoot.


gabacho Frenchman (term of derision).

gabinete m. cabinet, small room.

galera wagon, stagecoach.

gallego Galician.

gallina hen.

gana appetite, desire, pleasure.

ganado cattle.

ganancia gain.

ganar to gain, win.

garrapato pothook.

gastar to spend.

gatillo trigger.

gato, -a cat.

gemir to groan.

gendarme civil guard, guardsman.

género genus, kind.

generoso generous.

genio genius, temper.

gente f. people, (troops).

gesto gesture.

girar to gyrate, turn round.

gitano gypsy; gitanico (dim.).

globo globe.

gloria glory.

glorioso glorious.

gobierno government.

golpe m. blow; golpecito (dim.) tap.

gollería dainty, excess in eating.

gordo fat, corpulent.

gorjeo quaver, chirp.

gorra bonnet, cap.

gorro cap.

gozar to enjoy.

gozoso joyous.

gracia grace, pardon; pl. thanks.

grado degree.

graduar to grade, estimate.

granadero grenadier.

granadino of Granada.

grande (gran) great, big, grown-up.

grandeza grandeur, greatness.

grandioso grand, magnificent.

grano grain.

gratuito gratuitous.

grave weighty, serious, grievous.

gremio guild.

grillo cricket; pl. fetters.

gris gray.

gritar to cry.

gritería outcry, yelling.

grito cry, shout.

groenlandero of Greenland.

Groenlandia Greenland.

grosero coarse, rough.

grotesco grotesque.

grueso bulky, large, coarse.

grupa back (of horse).

grupo group.

gruta grotto.

guante m. glove.

guardar to guard, keep, put away; vr. to be upon one's guard.

guardia guard, watch.

guardián m. keeper, guardian.

guarida lurking place, lair.

guerra war.

guiar to guide.

guillotina guillotine.

guindilla small red pepper; m. policeman (slang).

guiñar to wink.

guisa guise; a —— de, by way of.

guisar to cook, prepare.

guitarra guitar.

gustar to taste, like, please.

gusto taste, pleasure.


haber to have, to be; —— de, to have to, be going to; hay, etc. there is.

habitante m. inhabitant, dweller.

habitar to inhabit.

hábito dress, habit.

habla speech, language.

hablar to speak.

hacer to do, make; vr. to become; hace (etc.) ago.

hacha ax, hatchet.

hachazo blow with an ax.

hacia toward.

hacienda landed property, wealth.

hallar to find.

hallazgo (lucky) find.

hambre f. hunger.

hambriento hungry.

haraposo ragged.

harto enough, quite.

hasta until, as far as, up to, even.

hato clothes, provisions, bundle.

he (—— aquí) behold, here is.

hebreo Hebrew.

hecho feat, deed, fact.

helada frost.

helar to freeze.

heredad f. cultivated ground.

heredar to inherit.

heredero, -a heir.

herencia heritage.

herir to wound, strike.

hermano, -a brother, sister.

hermoso beautiful.

héroe hero.

heroico heroic.

heroísmo heroism.

hético hectic, consumptive.

hielo ice, frost.

hierba grass.

hierro iron.

higo fig.

higuera fig tree.

hijo, -a son, daughter; pl. children.

hilar to spin.

hilo thread.

himno hymn.

hipócrita m. f. hypocrite.

hipótesis f. hypothesis.

hisopo holy water sprinkler.

historia history, story; historieta (dim.) tale.

hogar m. hearth, home.

hoguera bonfire.

hoja leaf.

hola holla!

hollar to trample, tread on.

hombre man.

hombro shoulder.

hondo profound, deep.

honesto honest.

honrado honest, honorable.

honrar to honor.

honroso honorable.

hora hour, o'clock.

horca gallows.

horizonte m. horizon.

hormiga ant.

hormigón m. fine plaster.

hornilla stew hole (over hearth).

horrorizar to horrify.

horroroso horrid.

hortelano gardener, horticulturist.

hospedaje m. lodging, hospitality.

hoy to-day.

hoyo hole, pit, dimple.

hueco hollow.

huérfano, -a orphan.

huerta orchard, garden.

hueso bone.

huesped, -a guest.

hueste f. host.

huevo egg.

huir to fly.

humanidad f. humanity.

humano human, humane.

humedad f. humidity.

humildad f. humility.

humilde humble.

humillar to humble.

humo smoke, fume.

humor m. humor, liquid.

hundir to submerge, sink.

huracán m. hurricane.


idéntico identical.

identificar to identify.

idioma m. language.

iglesia church; iglesita (dim.).

ignorar to be ignorant of, not know.

igual equal.

ilimitado limitless.

iluminar to illuminate.

ilusión f. illusion.

ilustre illustrious.

imaginar to imagine.

imbécil imbecile, foolish; m. fool.

imitar to imitate.

impaciente impatient.

impedir to impede, prevent, hinder.

imperar to rule.

imperio empire, authority.

imperioso imperious.

impertérrito intrepid.

impío impious.

imponente imposing.

imponer to impose.

importancia importance.

importar to import, matter.

impropio improper, unfit.

improvisar to extemporize.

impulsar to impel, push.

impunidad f. impunity.

inacción f. inaction.

incendiar to kindle, set on fire.

incentivo incentive, incitement.

incesantemente continually.

inclinar to incline, lean.

incluso inclosed, included.

incoar to begin.

incomodar to disturb, inconvenience.

inconcuso indisputable.

incorrupto unspoiled.

incrustar to incrust, grow fast.

indecente indecent, improper.

indecible inexpressible, unspeakable.

indefinido indefinite.

independencia independence.

independiente independent.

indicación f. indication, hint.

indicar to indicate.

indiferencia indifference.

indignar to irritate, provoke.

individualizar to individualize.

índole f. nature.

indudable undoubted, beyond doubt.

indulgencia indulgence.

indulto pardon.

inerme unarmed, disarmed.

inescrutable inscrutable.

inextinguible inextinguishable.

infalibilidad f. infallibility.

infame infamous.

infantería infantry.

infantil infantine, childish.

infeliz unhappy.

infierno hell.

infinito infinite.

inflamar to inflame.

informe m. information.

infortunado unfortunate.

infortunio misfortune.

infundir to infuse, inspire.

inglés, -a English.

ingratitud f. ingratitude.

inhumanidad f. inhumanity, cruel act.

ininteligible unintelligible.

injusticia injustice.

inmediaciones f. pl. vicinity.

inmediato immediate.

inmensidad f. immensity.

inmenso immense.

inmortal immortal.

inmortalidad f. immortality.

inmotivado without motive, ungrounded.

inmóvil motionless.

inmovilidad f. immobility.

inofensivo inoffensive, innocent.

insecto insect.

insensato mad, senseless.

insigne notable, great.

insignia badge, insignia.

insoportable insupportable.

inspirar to inspire.

instante m. instant.

instintivo instinctive.

instruir to instruct, educate.

insultante insulting.

insulto insult.

insuperable insuperable, insurmountable.

intenso intense.

intento purpose, design; de —— on purpose.

interés m. interest.

interesante interesting.

interior interior, internal.

interlocutor m. speaker.

interponer to interpose.

intérprete m. interpreter.

interrogar to question.

interrumpir to interrupt.

intervalo interval.

intervenir to intervene, take part.

intimar to intimate, to be intimate.

inundar to inundate.

inusitado unusual.

inútil useless.

invadir to invade.

invasor m. invader.

inventar to invent.

invierno winter.

invitar to invite.

ir to go; vr. to go away, depart; ir (with present part.), to go on —ing.

iris m. rainbow.

ironía irony.

irónico ironic.

irrealizable unrealizable.

irritar to irritate.

isla island.

islamita m. Mohammedan.

Italia Italy.

italiano Italian.

izquierdo left.


jadear to pant.

jardín m. garden.

Jaime James.

jamás never, ever.

jarro pot, vase.

jefe m. chief.

Jerónimo Gerónimo, Jerome.

Jesucristo Jesus Christ.

jícara chocolate cup.

Joaquín Joaquin.

jornada day's march.

jornal m. day's work, day's wages.

Josefa Josephine.

joven young.

joya jewel.

Juan John.

júbilo joy.

judio, -a Jew.

juez judge.

jugar to play.

jugo sap, juice.

juicio judgment, wits, senses.

julio July, Julio Julius.

junio June.

juntamente jointly, at the same time.

junto together, conjoined; near, close.

juramento oath.

jurar to swear.

jurisconsulto jurisconsult, lawyer.

justamente just; exactly.

justicia justice; officers of the law.

justificar to justify.

justillo undergarment.

justo just.

juventud f. youth.

juzgado tribunal, judicature.

juzgar to judge.


labio lip.

labor f. labor, husbandry, tillage.

laboriosidad f. industry.

labrador farmer, peasant.

labrar to cultivate.

labriego peasant.

ladear to move to one side, incline.

ladero, -a m. f. declivity.

lado side.

ladrillo brick.

ladrón thief, robber.

lágrima tear; lagrimón (aug.) big tear.

laguna lagoon.

lamentar to lament.

lana wool.

lance m. occurrence, case.

lánguido languid, faint.

lanzar to throw, dart; utter.

Laponia Lapland.

lares m. pl. household gods.

largo long.

lástima pity.

latido palpitation.

latir to palpitate, beat.

latrocinio larceny, theft.

lavar to wash.

lazo knot; bond.

leal loyal, faithful.

lealtad f. loyalty.

lección f. lesson.

lectura reading.

lecho bed.

lechuza owl.

leer to read.

legar to bequeath.

legítimo legitimate.

legua league.

legumbre f. vegetable.

lejano distant.

lejos far off.

lengua tongue, language.

lento slow, tardy.

leñador woodcutter.

león m. lion.

leona lioness.

lepra leprosy.

letanía litany.

letargo lethargy.

letra letter, handwriting, draft.

letrado learned, lettered; m. lawyer.

levantar to raise; vr. to rise.

levante m. east.

leve light.

ley f. law.

liar to tie, bind.

libertad f. liberty.

libertino libertine.

libra pound.

libraco [libro] big, ugly book.

librar to free, liberate.

libre free.

libro book.

licencia permission.

licenciar to dismiss from service.

lid f. fight, combat.

liebre f. hare.

lienzo linen, canvas; façade.

ligadura ligature, bond.

ligar to bind, tie.

ligero light, slight.

limbo limbo (outer fringe of the infernal world).

límite m. limit, boundary.

limosna alms, charity.

limpiar to clean.

limpieza cleanliness.

limpio clean, limpid.

linajudo having lineage, of old family.

lindante bordering.

lío bundle.

liquen m. lichen.

líquido liquid.

liso smooth.

lista list.

listo ready, prompt, clever.

literario literary.

lo n. the, it; lo que that which.

lobo wolf.

loco mad.

locura madness.

lograr to obtain, succeed, bring about.

lomo loin.

longaniza sausage.

lontananza distance.

lucero morning star.

lucido shining, splendid.

lucir to shine.

lucha struggle.

luchar to struggle.

luego presently, afterwards, then, soon; —— que as soon as;

desde —— immediately.

lugar m. place, village.

lúgubre mournful, gloomy.

Luis Louis.

lujo luxury.

lumbre f. fire; light.

luminoso luminous.

luna moon.

luz f. light.


llama flame.

llamar to call; cite.

llamarada sudden blaze.

llameante flaming.

llanto crying, tears.

llave f. key.

llegada arrival.

llegar to arrive, come; achieve, succeed.

llenar to fill.

lleno full.

llevar to carry, to bear, convey, bring, take along, wear, live.

llorar to weep.

lloroso tearful.

lluvia rain.

lluvioso rainy.


maceta flowerpot.

madera wood.

madre mother.

Madrileño native of Madrid.

madurez f. maturity.

maestro master.

magnífico magnificent.

Mahoma Mohammed.

mahometano Mohammedan.

maíz m. maize, corn.

majadería absurdity, foolishness.

majestad f. majesty.

majestuoso majestic.

mal badly m. evil, injury, harm.

malagueño of Málaga, a seaport of southern Spain.

malaventurado unlucky.

maldecido accursed.

maldecir to curse.

maldición f. malediction, curse.

maldito cursed.

maleza bramble, brier.

malhadado ill-fated.

malhechor, -a malefactor.

malo bad, wicked.

malograr to fail, end unhappily.

manantial m. source, spring.

manar to distil, abound in.

mancebo youth, clerk.

mandar to command; send.

manera manner.

maniatar to manacle.

manifestar to manifest, show, declare.

mano f. hand.

mansedumbre f. meekness.

manta blanket.

manteca butter.

mantenedor m. maintainer.

mantilla a feminine wrap for head and shoulders.

Manuel Immanuel.

manuscrito manuscript.

mañana to-morrow, morrow, morning; pasado —— day after to-morrow.

maquinal mechanical.

mar m. & f. sea.

maravilla marvel, wonder.

maravillar vr. to wonder, be amazed

marcha march.

marchar to march; vr. to go away.

marchitar to wither.

marchito faded.

María Mary.

marido husband.

marinero sailor.

marisco shellfish.

mármol m. marble.

marqués marquis.

marquesado marquisate.

marrano pig.

Marroquí m. Moroccan.

Marruecos m. Morocco.

mártir m. f. martyr.

martirio martyrdom.

marzo March.

mas but.

más more, most.

mascar to masticate, chew;

mata shrub, plant.

matanza slaughter.

matar to kill.

materia matter.

materialmente really, actually.

Matías Mathias.

matinal of the morning, matutinal.

matiz m. shade (of color), tint.

matorral m. briery place, thicket.

matrimonio matrimony; married couple.

matrona matron.

máxima maxim.

mayo May.

mayor greater, larger, older.

mayoral head-shepherd.

mecer to stir, to agitate.

medallón m. medallion.

media noche midnight.

mediano middling, mediocre.

mediante by means of.

mediar to be at the middle, to share, to drink to the middle of a glass.

medida measure.

medio half; m. middle, way, mean.

mediodía m. midday, south.

medir to measure.

meditar to meditate.

Mediterráneo Mediterranean.

mejilla cheek.

mejor better, best.

mejorar to ameliorate, better.

melancolía melancholy.

melancólico melancholy.

melocotón m. peach.

melejo sweet?

melodía melody.

memoria memory; memorias (a) compliments, regards (to).

menester m. necessity.

menguar to diminish.

menor minor, smaller, younger.

menos less, least; except.

mentar to mention.

mente f. mind.

mentir to lie.

mentira falsehood, falsity.

mercader m. trader, dealer.

mercado market.

merced f. grace, favor, mercy; su merced=usted, you (lit. your worship, excellency).

merecedor, -a deserving.

merecer to deserve.

merendar to lunch.

meridional southern.

mérito merit.

meritorio meritorious.

mermar to waste, diminish.

mero mere.

mes m. month

mesa table.

Mesías Messiah.

meteoro meteor.

meter to put.

mezclar to mix.

mi my; , me.

miedo fear.

miente f. (often pl.) thought, mind.

mientras while.

miércoles m. Wednesday.

miguelete soldier, guard.

mil thousand.

milagro miracle.

militar military; m. soldier.

mílite soldier.

milla mile.

millón m. million.

millonario millionaire.

mimar to spoil, over-indulge.

mimbre m. osier twig.

mimo delicacy, indulgent care.

mina mine.

minería mining.

minero miner.

miniatura miniature.

ministro minister.

minuto minute.

mío my, mine.

mirada glance.

mirar to look, look at.

misa mass; —— mayor high mass.

misántropo misanthrope.

misericordia mercy.

misión f. mission.

mismo same, own, very; self; even.

misterio mystery.

misterioso mysterious.

místico mystic.

mitad f. half.

moderno modern.

modo mode, manner.

modular to modulate.

mohino fretful, vexed, sullen.

mole f. mass.

momento moment.

momia mummy.

monada monkey-trick, grimace.

monasterio monastery.

moneda coin; monedilla (dim.).

mono,-a monkey; mono, -a neat, pretty, charming.

monolito monolith, column of stone.

monólogo monologue, soliloquy.

monotonía monotony.

monótono monotonous.

monstruo monster.

monta amount; de poca monta insignificant.

montaña mountain.

montar to mount.

monte m. mountain; wood.

montón m. heap, mass.

morabito hermitage.

morador m. inhabitant.

morder to bite.

moribundo dying.

morir to die.

morisco Moorish.

morito, -a (dim. of moro).

moro, -a Moorish, Moor.

morrión m. helmet.

mortaja shroud.

mortero mortar (ordnance).

mostrar to show.

mote m. nickname.

motín m. disturbance.

motivo motive.

mover to move.

movimiento movement.

mozo, -a young person; m. waiter.

muchacho, -a boy, girl.

muchedumbre f. multitude.

mucho much.

mudar to change.

mudo mute, silent.

muelle m. wharf.

muerte f. death.

muestra specimen, proof.

mujer woman, wife.

mulero mule boy.

mulo, -a mule.

multitud f. multitude.

mullir to beat up; to make soft.

mundanal worldly.

mundo world.

murmurar to murmur, backbite.

muro wall.

música music.

músico musician.

musulmán, -a Mohammedan.

mutilar to mutilate.

mutismo muteness.

muy very, too.


nacer to be born.

nacimiento birth.

nación f. nation.

nacional national.

nada nothing.

nadie nobody, anybody.

naranja orange.

nariz f. nose, nostril.

narrar to narrate.

naturaleza nature.

naturalidad f. naturalness.

naufragio shipwreck, wreck.

náufrago wrecked.

nave f. ship, nave.

náyade naiad, water nymph.

nazareno Nazarene.

necesario necessary.

necesidad f. necessity.

necesitar to need, want.

necio foolish.

negar to deny, refuse.

negativo negative.

negociar to negotiate.

negocio business, affair.

negro black.

negruzco blackish.

nevar to snow.

ni neither, nor, not, not even.

nicho niche.

Nicolás Nicholas.

niebla fog.

nieto grandson.

nieve f. snow.

nimiedad f. excess, extravagance.

ninguno no, none, no one, neither.

niñez f. childhood.

nino, -a child.

nivel m. level.

nivelar to level.

no no, not.

nocturno nocturnal.

noche f. night.

Noé Noah.

nombrar to name.

nombre m. name.

nordeste m. northeast

noria well, draw-well.

norte m. north.

nosotros, -as we, us.

notabilidad f. notability, noted man.

notar to note.

noticia information, news.

notificar to notify.

noviembre m. November.

nube f. cloud, mass.

nuca nape of the neck.

nuestro our, ours.

nueve nine.

nuevo new; de ——- anew, again.

número number.

numeroso numerous.

nunca never.

nupcias f. pl. nuptials.

nutrir to nourish.


o or.

obedecer to obey.

objeto object.

obligar to oblige.

obra work; obrilla (dim.).

obrar to work, operate.

obscurecer to darken, to grow dark.

obscuridad f. obscurity, darkness.

obscuro obscure, dark.

observar to observe.

obstruir to obstruct.

ocasión f. occasion, opportunity.

ocaso occident, setting (of sun).

occidente m. occident, west.

océano ocean.

ocio leisure, idleness.

ociosidad f. leisure, idleness.

ocioso idle.

octubre m. October.

ocultar to hide.

oculto hidden.

ocupar to occupy.

ocurrir to occur, suggest itself.

ochenta eighty.

ocho eight.

odalisca odalisk, beautiful Oriental woman.

odiar to hate.

odioso odious, hateful.

oeste m. west.

ofender to offend.

oficial officer.

oficina office, lower apartment, cellar.

oficio office, employment, trade, divine service.

ofrecer to offer.

ofrecimiento offer.

ofrenda offering.

oído hearing, ear.

oír to hear, listen.

ojeada glance.

ojo eye; ojillo (dim.).

ola wave.

oler to smell.

oliva olive.

olvidado oblivious, forgetful.

olvidar to forget.

olvido forgetfulness.

olla pot, olio, stew.

once eleven.

ondear to undulate, float.

ondulación f. undulation.

onza ounce, ounce of gold ($l6).

opio opium.

oponer to oppose.

oportuno opportune, seasonable.

oposición f. opposition, competition.

opuesto (oponer) opposite.

ora —— ora now —— now; either —— or, whether —— or.

oración f. orison, prayer.

orden m. f. order.

ordenanza f. order; m. orderly.

ordinario ordinary.

oreja ear.

organizar to organize.

órgano organ.

orgullo pride.

orgulloso proud.

oriente m. orient.

originar to originate.

orilla border, shore.

oro gold.

ortodoxo orthodox.

oruga caterpillar.

orza crock.

osar to dare.

oso bear.

ostentar to show; boast.

ostentoso ostentatious, sumptuous.

otoño autumn.

otro other, another.


Pablo Paul.

paciencia patience.

paciente patient.

pacífico pacific, peaceful.

padecer to suffer.

padre father.

padrón m. pattern, model.

paga pay.

pagar to pay.

pago payment.

país m. country.

paisano peasant, countryman.

pájaro bird.

palabra word.

paladín paladin, warrior knight.

palidecer to turn pale.

pálido pale.

paliza drubbing.

palmo palm, hand's length, quarter of a yard.

palo stick, stake.

paloma dove.

palpitar to palpitate.

pan m. bread.

pánico panic.

pantalón m. pantaloon.

panteón m. pantheon, tomb, mausoleum.

pañuelo handkerchief.

papa pope.

papá papa.

papel m. paper.

papelote m. big (ugly) paper.

par m. pair.

para for, to.

paradero stopping place, abode.

parador m. station.

paralítico paralytic.

páramo desert, wilderness, icy region.

parapeto parapet.

parar to stop; vr. to stop.

parecer to appear, seem; vr. to resemble.

parecido resembling, like, alike.

pared f. wall.

parir to bring forth.

paroxismo paroxysm.

parricidio parricide.

parte f. part, side, direction.

participar to impart.

particular particular, peculiar.

partir to part, divide, cut, rend; depart.

pasajero transitory, fugitive; m. traveler, passenger, passer.

pasar to pass, happen, allow; vr. to go over to another party.

pasear to walk, take for a walk; to move up and down, transport; vr. to go walking.

paseo walk, public place.

pasión f. passion.

pasivo passive.

pasmo spasm, amazement.

paso pace, step, passage.

pastor shepherd.

patata potato.

patético pathetic.

patiabierto with outspread paws.

patilla whiskers.

patinillo (dim.). See patio.

patio courtyard.

patria native country.

patrio native.

patriota patriot.

pausa pause.

pavoroso fearful, awful.

paz f. peace.

pecado sin.

pecar to sin.

pecho breast.

pedazo piece.

pedir to beg, ask.

Pedro Peter.

pedúnculo stalk.

pegar to beat, strike; stick fast, (close).

peinar to comb.

pelea fight, battle.

pelear to fight.

peletería fur trade.

peligro peril.

pelo hair.

pellizco pinch.

pena pain, penalty.

pender to hang.

penetrar to penetrate.

penitencia penitence.

penitenciario priest, confessor.

penoso painful.

pensamiento thought.

pensar to think.

penumbra half shadow, space dimmed by an eclipse.

peña rock; peñón (aug.) bowlder, rocky hill.

peón day laborer.

peor worse, worst.

pepita kernel, seed.

pequeñez f. littleness.

pequeño small.

percibir to perceive, receive.

perder to lose.

perdón m. pardon.

perdonar to pardon, spare.

perdurable perpetual, lasting.

perecer to perish.

peregrinación f. wandering.

peregrino strange, rare; pilgrim.

perfidia perfidy.

perfumar to perfume.

pergamino parchment.

periódico newspaper.

perjuicio prejudice, harm.

perla pearl.

permanecer to remain.

permiso permission.

permitir to permit.

pero but.

perpetuo perpetual.

perro dog.

perseguir to pursue.

persiana Venetian blind.

persona person.

personaje m. personage.

perspectiva perspective.

pertenecer to belong, pertain.

pesadilla nightmare.

pesado heavy.

pesantez f. weight, heaviness.

pesar to weigh; a —— de in spite of.

pesca fishery.

pescador fisherman.

pescuezo neck.

peseta silver coin (one fifth of a Spanish dollar).

peso weight.

pestañear to move the eyelashes, blink.

petrificar to petrify.

petulancia presumption, impertinence.

piadoso pious, merciful, compassionate.

picapleitos pettifogger.

picar to prick, sting, mince, nibble.

picardía rascality, deceit.

pícaro knavish, roguish, villainous.

pichón -a pigeon, dove, darling.

pie m. foot.

piedad f. piety, pity.

piedra stone.

piel f. skin, fur.

pierna leg.

pimiento red pepper.

pinchazo pricking, goading, stab.

pintar to paint.

pintor painter.

pintoresco picturesque.

pintura painting.

pipa pipe.

pira pyre, fire.

pirámide f. pyramid.

pirata m. pirate.

pisar to trample, tread.

piso story, floor; —bajo lower floor.

pistola pistol.

pistoletazo pistol shot.

placer m. pleasure.

plácido placid, gentle.

plan m. plan.

planeta m. planet.

planta plant.

plantificar to plant.

plata silver.

plática talk, conversation.

plato dish, plate.

playa shore.

plaza square, place, fortified place.

plazo term, time set.

plazoleta (dim.). See plaza.

plomo lead.

pluma feather, pen.

población f. population, small town.

pobre poor.

poco little, few; a — soon, in a little while.

poder to be able; vr. to be possible; m. power.

podrir to decay, rot.

poema m. poem.

polaco Polish, Pole.

polca polka.

policía police, policing; cleaning.

politico political.

polizonte police officer.

polo pole.

polonés -a Polish.

polvo dust.

ponderación f. laudation.

ponedora (f. adj.)laying eggs.

poner to put, set, place; vr. to become, begin.

pontífice pontiff.

pontificio pontifical.

popa poop, stern.

por for, by, through, on account of; por qué why; por... que however.

pormenor m. detail.

porque because; porqué, why.

portal m. porch, entry.

porte m. bearing, demeanor.

portezuela (dim).See puerta.

porvenir m. future.

pos; en pos de after, behind.

posadero innkeeper.

posdata postscript.

poseedor possessor.

poseer to possess.

posesión f. possession.

posible possible.

posta stagecoach, post

posterioridad f. posteriority.

postrar to prostrate.

postre; a la — at last.

postura posture.

potable potable, drinkable.

potro colt.

pozo well.

precedente preceding, foregoing.

precio price.

precioso precious, pleasing.

precipitar to precipitate.

preciso necessary; precise.

precoz precocious.

predicador preacher.

preexistencia preëxistence.

pregonar to proclaim.

pregunta question.

preguntar to ask, inquire.

prenda pledge, treasure, beloved object.

prendar to charm, impassion.

prender to catch, seize, arrest.

preñado productive, teeming.

preocupación f. prejudice.

preocupar to preoccupy.

preparar to prepare.

presagiar to presage, forebode.

prescribir to prescribe.

presencia presence.

presenciar to be present.

presentación f. presentation, introduction.

presentar to present.

presente m. present, gift.

presentimiento presentiment.

presentir to have a presentiment.

preso -a (from prender) prisoner.

prestar to lend.

prestigio prestige.

presto soon, quickly.

presumir to presume, claim; — de to claim to be.

presunto presumed, presumptive.

pretensión f. pretension, expectation.

pretexto pretext.

pretil m. battlement, breastwork.

prever to foresee.

primavera spring.

primero first.

primitivo primitive.

principado principality.

principe prince.

principiar to begin.

principio beginning, principle.

prisa haste, promptness, celerity; de — in a hurry.

prisión f. prison, imprisonment, capture.

prisionero -a prisoner.

prisma m. prism.

pristino pristine, original.

probar to prove, try.

problema m problem.

procaz forward, petulant, insolent.

procedencia source, derivation.

procedente proceeding.

proceder to proceed.

prócer man of distinction.

proceso lawsuit.

procurar to try; procure; take care.

producir to produce.

productivo productive.

proferir to utter.

profesar to profess; to enter a religious order.

profesión f. taking of holy vows.

profeta prophet.

profundo profound, deep.

prójimo fellow-creature.

prolongar to prolong.

promesa promise.

prometer to promise.

pronosticar to predict.

pronto prompt, quickly; de — suddenly; por lo — for the present.

pronunciar to pronounce, to issue a political manifesto.

propicio propitious, favorable.

propietario proprietor.

propio proper, own, same, pertaining to oneself, peculiar.

proponer to propose, purpose.

proporcionar to furnish.

propósito purpose.

proseguir to pursue, continue.

proteger to protect.

protestar to protest.

proverbio proverb.

providencia providence.

proximidad f. proximity.

próximo next, near, nearest.

proyecto project.

prudencia prudence.

prueba proof.

publicar to publish.

público public.

puchero kettle, earthen pot, meat boiled in same.

pueblo people, village.

puente m. f. bridge.

puerta door, gate; puertecilla (dim.).

puerto port, narrow mountain pass.

pues then, therefore, well then; —— bien well then, well.

puesto post, place, retail store.

puesto que since.

pugnar to fight.

pulcro neat.

pulmón m. lung, lungs.

pulso pulse, firmness of hand; a —— with the strength of the hand.

punta point.

punto point, place; stitch; instant.

punzar to prick.

puñada fisticuff, blow.

puñado handful; puñadillo (dim.).

puñal m. dagger.

puñetazo blow with the fist.

puño fist.

purgar to purge, expiate.

puro pure.

púrpura purple.


qué what, how.

que which, who, what, that, for, since; a —— in order that; qué what, how.

quebrantar to break.

quedar(se) to stay, remain; —— en algo to abide by something.

quehacer m. business, duty.

queja lament.

quejar vr. to complain.

quemar to burn.

querellante plaintiff.

querer to wish, love.

quien, quién who, whom, which.

quijotesco Quixotic.

quimérico chimerical, extravagant.

quince fifteen.

quinientos, -as five hundred.

quinta conscription.

quinto conscript.

quitar to take away, remove.

quizá, quizás perhaps.


rabadilla handle.

rabiar to rage, go mad.

ración f. ration.

rada anchoring ground.

ráfaga violent squall of wind.

ramaje m. branches.

ramo branch, specialty, line.

Ramón m. Raymond.

rana frog.

rápido rapid.

raro rare, strange.

rascar to scratch.

rasgar to tear, rend.

rastro sign, trace.

ratero creeping, servile, vile.

rato while, space of time.

rayar to dawn.

rayo ray, thunderbolt.

raza race.

razón f. reason, account, right.

razonamiento reasoning.

real royal.

real m. small coin (one fourth peseta).

realce m. luster, splendor; dar —— to set off.

realidad f. reality.

realista royalist.

realizar to realize.

reanudar to tie again, rejoin.

rebajar to abate; vr. to condescend.

rebelión f. rebellion.

rebosar to run over, overflow.

rebuznar to bray.

recado message, implement.

recapacitar to recall.

recaudador tax collector.

recibimiento reception.

recibir to receive.

recibo receipt.

recién recently (used only before past participles).

reciente recent.

recio stout, rude.

recíproco reciprocal.

recobrar to recover.

recoger to take back, pick up.

recolección f. gathering, harvest.

recomendar to recommend.

recompensa recompense.

recomponer to recompose, restore.

reconciliar to reconcile.

reconocer to recognize.

reconquistar to reconquer.

reconvención f. reproach, recrimination

reconvenir to reproach.

recordar to recall, remember.

recorrer to run through, traverse, review.

recreo recreation.

recuperar to recover.

rechistar to mutter, protest.

red f. net.

redactar to edit, compose.

redentor m. redeemer.

redimir to redeem.

rédito revenue, rent.

redoblar to strengthen, fortify.

redoma phial.

redondel m. circle.

redondo round, rotund.

reducir to reduce; confine.

referir(se) to relate, report; allude, refer.

reflejar to reflect.

reflejo reflex, reflection.

reflexionar to reflect.

refrán m. proverb.

refrescar to refresh.

refugiar vr. to shelter oneself, to take refuge.

refulgencia f. refulgence, splendor.

regalado pleasant.

regalar to regale, please, present.

regalo gift.

regar to water, irrigate.

regidor magistrate, alderman.

regimiento regiment.

registrar to examine.

regla rule; en —— in due form.

regocijar to rejoice, cause joy.

regocijo joy, pleasure.

regresar to return.

regular regular, natural, ordinary.

rehusar to refuse.

reinar to reign.

reino kingdom, reign.

reír(se) to laugh.

reiterar to reiterate.

reja window grating; plowshare.

relación f. relation; narration.

relacionado having connections.

relamer(se) to lick, smack.

relato recital.

religiosidad f. piety.

religioso religious; m. monk, friar.

reliquia holy relic.

reloj m. watch, clock.

reluciente shining.

remanecer to remain, reappear.

remate m. end.

remedio remedy.

remitir to remit, transmit.

remolacha beet root.

remoto remote.

remover to move, stir.

renacer to be born again.

rendido worn out, exhausted.

rendir to render, surrender.

renegado apostate.

renegar to curse.

rengífero reindeer.

renglón m. line.

renta income, rent.

renunciar to renounce.

reparar to repair, stop, notice, give heed, consider.

repartir to distribute.

repetir to repeat.

repique m. chime, ringing.

replegar to fall back.

repleto full.

replicar to reply.

reponer to refill.

reposar to repose.

representante representative.

representar to represent.

reservado reserved, select.

reservar to reserve, preserve.

residir to reside, dwell.

resignar to resign.

resistencia resistance.

resistir to resist, hold out.

resolver (se) to resolve, decide.

resonar to resound.

resorte m. spring.

respaldo back.

respectivo respective.

respetar to respect.

respeto respect, regard.

respirar to breathe.

resplandecer to shine.

resplandor m. brilliancy, splendor.

responder to respond, answer.

restar to remain, subtract.

resto remainder.

resucitar to resuscitate.

resuelto resolute, determined.

resulta result.

resultar to result, turn out.

resumen m. summary; en —— in short.

resumir to make a résumé, resume, epitomize.

retemblido m. tremor, start.

retirar to retire, withdraw.

retorcer to twist.

retrato portrait.

retroceder to retreat.

reunión f. meeting.

reunir to unite, reunite, combine, gather.

revelar to reveal.

revendedor m. retailer, huckster.

reventar to burst, wear out.

reverberante reverberating, reflecting.

reverberar to reverberate, reflect.

reverencia reverence.

revestir to dress, clothe, cover.

revolotear to flutter.

revolver to turn upside down.

rey king.

rezar to pay, tell.

rezo prayer.

rico rich.

riesgo risk.

riguroso rigorous.

rincón m. corner.

rio river.

riqueza riches.

risa laughter.

risueño smiling.

rizar to curl.

robar to rob, steal, plunder.

robo robbery, theft.

roca rock.

rodar to roll.

rodear to surround.

rodilla knee.

roer to gnaw.

rogar to ask, entreat.

rojo red.

Roma Rome.

romano Roman.

romper to break, (begin).

ron m. rum.

ronco hoarse.

rondar to go round.

ropa clothes.

ropón m. loose outer gown.

rosa rose.

rosco crown-shaped biscuit.

roseta rosette, red spot.

rostro face.

roteño native of the town of Rota.

roto (from romper,) broken, torn.

rozar to scrape, touch slightly.

rubio reddish, blond.

rubor m. blush, flush.

ruborizar to blush.

rudo rude, rough.

ruego request, entreaty.

rugir to roar.

ruido noise.

ruina ruin.

rumor m. noise.

Rusia Russia.

ruso Russian.

rústico rustic.


S.M. (pl. SS. MM.) Su Majestad his (her, your) Majesty.

sábado Saturday.

sábana sheet.

sabedor-a informed, aware.

saber to know, learn; m. learning, knowledge.

sabio wise, learned.

sable m. saber.

sacar to draw, draw out, fetch.

sacerdote priest.

sacrificar to sacrifice.

sacrificio sacrifice.

sacrilegio sacrilege.

sacudir to shake; shake off.

sagrado sacred.

sagrario sanctuary.

sala room, parlor.

salida outlet, sally, sortie.

salir to go out, set out, issue; or to turn out.

salmodiar to chant.

salón m. parlor.

saltar to leap.

salto leap.

salud f. health.

saludar to greet, salute.

saludo salute.

salvar to save.

salve hail!

san (= santo) saint.

sandez f. folly, stupidity.

sangre f. blood; —— fría coolness, composure.

sangriento bloody.

sanguinario cruel, bloody.

santidad f. holiness.

santificación f. sanctification.

santiguar to make the sign of the cross.

santo holy, saintly, saint.

santón m. Moorish recluse.

santurrón -a, hypocrite feigning devotion.

sapo toad.

sargento sergeant.

sarta string (of beads).

sartén f. frying pan.

satisfacer to satisfy.

sazón f. season, time.

secano dry arable land.

secar to dry.

seco dry, lean.

secretaría secretaryship, secretary's office.

secretario secretary.

secreto secret.

secular centenary.

segador m. reaper.

segar to reap, mow.

seguida succession, following; en —— next, immediately.

seguir to follow, continue.

según according, as.

segundo second; m. second, lieutenant.

seguridad f. security, certainty.

seguro secure, sure; m. refuge.

seis six.

semana week.

semblante m. face.

sembrar to sow.

semejante similar, like.

semicírculo semicircle.

semi-salvaje half savage.

sencillo simple.

senda path.

seno bosom, breast.

sentar to set, seat.

sentencia sentence, opinion.

sentenciar to sentence.

sentido sense, meaning.

sentimiento sentiment.

sentir to feel, hear, regret.

seña sign, signal; pl. description.

señal f. sign, signal.

señalar to point out.

señor Lord, sir, Mr., gentleman.

señora f. lady, Mrs.

señoría lordship, (his) Honor.

señorial lordly.

señorito Master.

separar to separate; por separado separately.

septentrión m. north.

sepulcro sepulchre.

sepultar to bury.

sepultura burial, tomb.

sequedad f. dryness.

séquito retinue, suite.

ser to be, belong; ser or sér m. existence, being.

serenar to become serene, to calm.

sereno calm, serene.

seriedad f. seriousness.

sério serious.

servicio service.

servir to serve.

sesenta sixty.

seso brain.

setecientos, -as seven hundred.

setenta seventy.

si if, whether.

yes, indeed, truly.

siempre always.

siempreviva everlasting (flower).

sierra saw, mountain ridge.

siervo serf, servant.

siete seven.

siglo cycle, century; secular world.

significar to signify.

signo sign.

siguiente following, next.

silbar to hiss, whistle.

silbido hiss, whistling.

silencio silence.

silencioso silent.

silvestre wild, savage.

silla chair; —— de posta post chaise.

sillería hewn stone.

simbólico symbolic.

simiente f. seed.

simpleza simpleness, stupidity.

sin without.

siniestro sinister, left.

sino if not, but, except, —— que but

sinsabor m. displeasure, vexation.

síntoma m symptom.

siquiera at least, even.

sitio situation, place.

sito situated.

situar to situate.

so under.

soberano sovereign, supreme.

soberbio proud, haughty.

sobre above, over, upon; m. envelope.

sobrenatural supernatural.

sobrenombre m. surname, nickname.

sobreponer to put over; vr. to rise above.

sobreseer to suspend.

sobrevivir to survive.

sobrino, -a nephew, niece.

socarronería slyness, cunning.

sociedad f. society.

socio associate, partner.

socorro succor, help.

soflama trickery, deception.

soga rope.

sol m. sun.

solamente only.

soldado soldier.

soledad f. solitude.

solemne solemn.

solemnidad f. solemnity.

soler to be accustomed.

solidaridad f. solidarity, participation.

solidez f. solidity.

solitario solitary.

solo alone;

sólo only;

tan sólo only.

soltar to loosen, let go.

soltero -a bachelor, unmarried person.

solterón -a bachelor, old maid.

sollozo sob.

sombra shadow.

sombrero hat.

sombrío somber, gloomy.

son m. sound.

sonar to sound.

sondear to sound.

sonreír(se) to smile.

sonrisa smile.

soñar to dream.

soplar to blow.

soplo blowing, puffing.

sordo deaf; secret; silent.

sorna sluggishness, affected slowness.

sorprender to surprise.

sorpresa surprise.

sosegar to calm.

sospecha suspicion.

sospechoso suspicious.

sostener to sustain.

Sr. = señor.

su, his, her, its, their, your.

subir to mount, climb, go up; bring up; increase.

súbito sudden.

subordinado subordinate.

suceder to happen.

sucesivo successive.

suceso happening, episode.

sucesor m. successor.

sucio dirty.

sudar to sweat.

sudor m. sweat.

suelo ground, soil, floor.

suelto loose, random.

sueño sleep, dream.

suerte f. fate, lot; sort.

sufrimiento suffering, patience.

sufrir to suffer.

suicidar vr. to commit suicide.

suizo Swiss.

sujetar to subdue, subject.

sujeto subject, liable, individual.

suma sum.

sumar to sum up, add.

sumaria summary, verbal process (at law).

sumo highest, greatest, supreme.

suntuoso sumptuous.

superficie f. surface.

superioridad f. superiority.

suplicante supplicating.

suplicar to supplicate.

suplir to serve instead of.

suponer to suppose.

supremo supreme.

supuesto; —— que granting that, inasmuch as; por —— of course.

sur m. south.

surcar to furrow.

surtir to furnish.

suspirar to sigh.

suspiro sigh.

sustancia substance.

susto terror.

suyo, his, hers, its, theirs, yours.


tabaco tobacco, cigar.

tabla board, plank.

tajada slice.

tal such; un —— a certain; el —— the said or same; —— vez perhaps.

talar reaching the heels.

talento talent.

talón m. heel.

talla stature.

tallar to cut, carve.

tallo sprout.

tamaño as big; m. size.

tambalear to stagger; vr. to stagger.

también also, too, as well.

tambor m. drum; —— mayor drum major.

tampoco not either, neither.

tan so, as.

tanto so much, as much, so; por ——therefore; en or entre —— meanwhile;

en —— que while.

tapa top, lid; —— de los sesos top of the skull.

tapadero stopper.

tapar to cover, conceal.

tapia mud wall.

tararear to hum.

tardar to delay, be slow.

tarde late; f. afternoon.

tartamudear to stammer.

teatro theater.

temblar to tremble.

temblor m. tremor, trembling.

temer to fear.

temerario rash.

témpano lump, mass.

templado temperate.

templo temple, church.

temprano early, prematurely.

tenaz tenacious.

tender to extend, strain, stretch out.

tenebroso dark.

tener to have, hold, possess, keep; —— que to have to.

teniente lieutenant.

tentar to try, tempt.

teñir to tinge, dye.

tercero third.

terciana tertian fever.

tercianario one who has tertian fever.

terminar to terminate.

término term, end.

ternura tenderness.

terráqueo terraqueous, of earth and water.

terrenal terrestrial.

terreno land, ground.

terrestre terrestrial.

territorio territory.

tesoro treasure.

testimonio testimony.

tétrico gloomy.

tez f. complexion.

tía aunt.

tibio lukewarm.

tiempo time, weather.

tierno tender.

tierra earth, land.

tifoideo typhoid.

tigre m. tiger.

tímido timid.

tinieblas f. pl. darkness.

tinta tint, hue.

tinte m. tint, dye.

tintero inkstand.

tío uncle; tío —— old....

tirano tyrant.

tirar to throw, pull, fire.

tiro shot, team of horses.

titular to entitle, call.

título title, right.

tizón m. half-burned wood, brand.

tocar to touch, play on, concern, be a duty, fall to one's share or lot.

todavía yet, still, nevertheless.

todo all, whole, every.

tomar to take, take away; toma why! really!

tomate m. tomato.

tono tone.

tontería foolishness, nonsense.

tonto foolish, stupid.

topacio topaz.

topar to run or strike against.

toque m. touch, ringing.

Torcuata Torquata.

tornar to return, restore; vr. to turn.

torno; en —— suyo around him.

toro bull.

torpe stupid.

torre f. tower.

torrente m. torrent.

tórtola turtledove.

totalidad f. totality, whole.

trabajador, -a laborious.

trabajar to work.

trabajo work.

trabajoso laborious.

trabuco blunderbuss.

traducción f. translation.

traducir to translate.

traer to bring, carry.

trágico tragic.

traición f. treason.

traidor, -a traitorous, traitor.

traje m. garb, suit, dress.

trampa trap, trick, trickery.

tranquilidad f. tranquillity.

tranquilo tranquil.

transcendencia importance.

transcurrir to elapse, pass.

transeunte passenger.

transfigurar to transfigure.

transigir to compromise.

tránsito passage, road.

trapo rag.

trasladar to transport.

traspasar to pass over, transfer.

tratar to treat, deal; —— de try; tratarse de be a question of, concern.

trato dealing, communication, conversation.

trazar to trace.

treinta thirty.

tremebundo quivering.

tremendo tremendous, terrible.

trémulo tremulous.

trepar to climb.

tres three.

tributar to bring as tribute.

tricolor tricolored.

trigo wheat.

trinar to trill, quaver.

tripulación f. crew.

triste sad, sorry-looking, terrible.

tristeza sadness.

triunfador one who triumphs, victor.

triunfar to triumph.

triunfo triumph.

trocar to exchange, change.

tronar to thunder.

tronco trunk.

trono throne.

tropa troop, soldiery.

trozo fragment, piece.

thou, you.

tu thy, your.

tubo tube.

tumba tomb.

tunante rogue.

turbación f. perturbation.

turbar to disturb, trouble.

turbio turbid, muddy, troubled.

turbulento turbid.

turno turn.

tuyo thy, thine.


u (= o) or (before o, or ho).

ufano proud, boastful.

último last.

ultrajar to outrage.

umbral threshold, architrave.

un, -a a, an, one; unos some.

unánime unanimous.

undécimo eleventh.

único only, sole, singular.

unidad f. unity.

uniforme uniform.

unir to unite.

universidad f. university.

universo universe.

uno one.

uña finger nail.

upas m. upas tree.

usted you.

usurpar to usurp.

útil useful.


V (= usted; in pl. VV.) you.

vacilación f. vacillation, hesitation.

vacilante vacillating, fitful.

vacío empty, void.

valenciano of Valencia.

valer to have worth, be worth, be valuable, bring in.

valiente valiant, vigorous.

valor m. valor, value.

valle m. valley.

vallecillo (dim.) vale.

vals m. waltz.

vamos (from ir) come! well! really!

vanguardia vanguard.

vanidad f. vanity.

vano vain.

vara yard.

variedad f. variety.

vario various, several.

varón man.

vasallo vassal.

vaso glass.

vasto vast.

vaticinio vaticination, prediction.

vaya (from ir) come! well! really.

Vd. = usted you.

vecino, -a neighboring, neighbor, citizen.

vega open plain.

vegetal plant.

veinte twenty.

veintuno twenty-one.

vejez f. old age.

vela sail; hacerse a la —— to set sail.

velar to veil.

velo veil.

vellón m. copper coinage of the Spanish realm.

vencedor victor.

vencer to conquer.

venda bandage.

vendar to bandage.

vendaval a strong sea wind.

vender to sell.

venenoso venomous, poisonous.

vengar to revenge.

venir to come; vr. to come (up).

venta inn, sale.

ventana window.

ventura chance, fortune; por —— peradventure.

ver to see.

verano summer.

veras f. pl. truth, sincerity; de —— truly.

verdad f. truth.

verdadero true, real.

verde green.

verdugo executioner.

verdura vegetables, garden stuff.

vereda path.

vergüenza shame.

verso verse.

vértigo vertigo, giddiness.

vestidura dress, robe.

vestir to dress, put on, wear.

veterano veteran.

veterinario veterinary, horse doctor.

vetusto antique, old.

vez f. time, turn; tal —— perhaps.

via way.

viajar to travel.

víbora viper.

vicario vicar.

víctima victim.

victoria victory.

vida life.

vidrio glass.

viejo old.

viento wind.

viernes m. Friday.

vigilar to watch.

vil vile, low.

vileza vileness, meanness.

villa town.

villorio wretched little hamlet.

vino wine.

vinoso vinous.

violado violet.

violar to violate.

violencia violence.

virgen virgin.

virtud f. virtue.

visita visit.

visitar to visit.

vislumbre f. glimmer, glimmering light.

víspera preceding evening; pl. vespers.

vista sight, view, eye.

vítor m. hurra.

vitorear to hurrah.

viuda widow.

víveres m. pl. provisions.

vivienda dwelling.

vivir to live; viva long live! hurrah!

vivo living, lively, vivacious, quick.

volcar to overturn.

voluntad f. will, wish.

voluptuoso voluptuous.

volver to turn, return, restore; vr. to turn, return, become;

volver a to... again.

vos you.

vosotros you.

voz f. voice, outcry.

vuelta turn, return, walk.

vuestro your, yours.

vulgar vulgar, common.


wals = vals m. waltz.


y and.

ya already, presently, now, more, longer; ya... no no longer;

ya... ya whether—or.

yacer to lie.

yegua mare.

yesca tinder.

yo I.

yunta couple, yoke.


zafar; vr. to get rid.

zafiro sapphire.

zalamería wheedling, flattery.

zalemero wheedling, flattering.

zalema salaam, bow.

zapatilla pump (shoe).

zócalo socle, base.

zona zone.

zorro, -a fox.

zorruno foxlike.


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Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
Free Documentation License".

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with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
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If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.