Spanish/Tenses

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1. Vocabulary used in this section:[edit]

  • Infinitive:
    • It is the original form of a verb.
    • It ends in "-ar", "-er", or "-ir". (Verbs with the ending "-ír" are included in the last group.)
    • The example infinitives used in this section are: hablar (to speak), comer (to eat), and vivir (to live).
These verbs will be used to show the conjugation patterns of the "-ar", "-er", and "-ir" groups, respectively.
  • Stem:
    • The stem of a verb is the infinitive without its "-ar", "-er", or "-ir" ending.
    • In most conjugations, a new ending is attached to the stem (future and conditional tenses attach the ending to the infinitive).
    • For instance, in the first person singular of the simple present indicative hablar:
This forms, hablo (the first person singular of the simple present indicative of the verb hablar), which means "I speak".

2. Conjugation of the verbs[edit]

2.1 A basic understanding of the layers to the conjugate[edit]

The verb describes action. The 'thing' performing the action is the subject, and the 'thing' on which the action is performed is the object.

The verb is conjugated to demonstrate the action, and the correct conjugation can only be selected after the writer, or speaker, has analysed several layers relating to the action, the actor, and form of expression required.

There are seven basic layers in determining the correct conjugate. They are: [] the language [] the verb, [] the form, [] the mood, [] the tense, [] the subject, and [] the conjugate.

Some of the basic layers contain layers before we reach the decision point and these are: [] the verb, [] the tense, and [] the subject.

The verb layer contains the following sub-layers: [] the verb, [] the regularity, [] the basic conjugates, and [] the verb group [verb groups are not used in English].

The tense layer consists of these sub-layers: [] style, [] time, and [] variants [tense variants are not used in English].

The subject layer is simply: [] the plurality, and [] the personage.

Let's end our consideration of the basic layers with a simple example.

Table: demonstrating the layers to a conjugate of the Spanish verb 'hablar' with a comparison to its English equivalent:
Note 1: In this text we are considering Spanish from an English speaking perspective. So, we have two languages: Spanish and English. The comparison is illustrative to the new learner English speaker; so, both will be considered here.
Note 2: The new learner should use this example in the following table as an illustration of the steps required to reach the desired conjugation, the decisions, especially the Spanish words, will become clearer as you read on.

Layers Decision Decision
1.1 Language Spanish English
2.1 Verb: hablar speak
2.2 Verb, regularity: regular verb irregular verb
2.3 Verb, basic conjugates: [] infinitive: hablar
[] stem: habl-
[] participle: hablado
[] gerund: hablando
[] infinitive: to speak
[] root: speak
[] participle: spoken
[] gerund: speaking
2.4 Verb, group: "ar" not used
3.1 Form: nominal nominal
4.1 Mood: indicative indicative
5.1 Tense, style: simple simple
5.2 Tense, time: past past
5.3 Tense, variant: preterite not used
6.1 Subject, plurality: plural plural
6.2 Subject, personage: 3rd person 3rd person
7.1 Conjugate: hablaron spoke



2.2 A greater understanding of the layers to the conjugate[edit]

In the previous section we demonstrated the 'basic' layers, or steps, to arrive at our conjugate for both the Spanish and English languages. In the Spanish language there were 13 steps, in the English 11 steps: as noted, the English language does not use the 'verb group' or 'tense variant' layers.

Let's now consider the choices available at each layer, and in doing so let's stick to the order in our example, set out in the table in the previous section.

2.2.1 Language layer[edit]

It has been noted above, but we are considering the Spanish from an English perspective, there can be only two choices in this instance: [] Spanish, and [] English.

2.2.2 Verb[edit]

2.2.2.1 The verb[edit]

We need a verb to conjugate, so the need for the layer is obvious, we are restricted only by the number of verbs in the languages we are considering. There are very many in both the Spanish, and the English languages.

2.2.2.2 Verb, regularity[edit]

There are two types of regularity to consider: [] regular verbs and [] irregular verbs.


A regular verb is a verb in which all the conjugations follow strict rules. An irregular verb contains at least one, usually more, conjugates which defy these rules. However, many conjugations in an irregular verb may still be regular.

The regular verbs allow us to use strict rules to form the conjugate. So, learning the sets of rules allows us to conjugate a very many regular verbs, and some regular conjugations of irregular verbs without having to learn a separate word for each conjugation. It also makes the conjugation of unfamiliar regular verbs less onerous.

The irregular verbs irregular conjugations require learning by rote. As do the rules for regular conjugations. Though, as noted above, irregularity may only be partial, much of the verb may follow the strict boundaries of regularity, making learning easier.

Many important verbs are irregular; for example: haber, tener (both: to have), estar, ser (both: to be). Haber and estar will be used in this appendix as auxiliary verbs in constructing complex tenses.

2.2.2.3 Verb, basic conjugates[edit]

There are four basic conjugates: [] the infinitive, [] the stem/root, [] the participle, and [] the gerund.

The basic conjugates are listed in the example. Apart from the stem they had little use in the decision making process, but we are discussing conjugation of the verb, and it is useful to the learning process to start to recognise them in a basic form as early as possible

2.2.2.4 Verb, group[edit]

There are 3 verb groups in Spanish: [] "ar" verbs, [] "er" verbs, and [] "ir" verbs. There are no verb groups used in conjugating English verbs.


Verbs come in 3 endings in Spanish, which are: "ar", "er" and "ir". Hence the 3 verb groups.

The rules one uses for regular conjugations, in both regular and irregular verbs, are entirely dependent upon which ending a verb has. The "er" and "ir" verbs often have the same, or similar, endings. The "ar" verbs usually have very different endings from the "er" and "ir" verbs.

2.2.3 Form[edit]

There are two forms in both the Spanish and English languages: [] the nominal, and [] the continuous.

The nominal may be referred to in other texts as the basic form, and the continuous as the progressive form. In this text we will maintain a consistent single reference to avoid confusion to the new learner, at least.

2.2.4 Mood[edit]

There are 4 moods in Spanish: [] the indicative, [] the indicative conditional, [] the subjunctive, and [] the imperative.

Many other texts will refer to only 3 moods (modos): the indicative mood (modo indicativo); the subjunctive mood (modo subjuntivo); and the imperative mood (modo imperativo). They treat the indicative conditional mood as a 'tense' used only in the indicative mood.

In this text the indicative conditional conjugations are treated as a mood group just as the imperative is treated as a mood, and not a separate indicative tense. Here, it is referred to as 'the indicative conditional' to remind us of the link to the indicative mood used by other texts on the Spanish language.

Why contradict other texts? The new learner requires order to the process of learning, this is the primary reason. By defining the indicative conditional as a mood it means the tense layers can be considered a homogeneous group relating to aspects of time only. It's clear the indicative conditional is not a reflection of time, it more closely reflects a mood, one influenced by condition, or conditions. Does that not define a mood? An expression of 'emotion' defined by conditions. And so, we maintain homogeneity of the mood layer too, making the learning process easier to the newcomer.

In the imperative mood there exist conjugations for both:

  1. the affirmative, and;
  2. the negative.

The negative in the imperative is not formed in quite the same way as the other moods.

2.2.5 Tense[edit]

It is unlikely you will see tenses broken into three separate groups in other texts regarding verb conjugation. I believe it is easier to think of the tense decision making process as a matrix rather than a list which is named differently in each text. This is best demonstrated with a table [a matrix].

Tense, style: simple, or perfect
Tense, time Past Present Future
Tense, variant: Preterite Imperfect No variant

As can be seen the simple 'style' and the perfect 'style' are identical tables, which makes remembering the choices for tense a clearer process for the new learner.


2.2.5.1 Tense, style[edit]

There are two styles: [] the simple, and [] the perfect.

The perfect tense style describes a completed action. The tense layers following describe the aspect of time in which that action was completed.

The participle of the action verb is always used. In addition an auxiliary verb, have, is adjusted in the simple style, based on time and variant to reflect the time of completion: past, present, or future.

For examples: [] Perfect style, past time: 'I had spoken' is describing the completed action of speaking using the participle: 'spoken' of the action verb: 'speak' with the auxiliary verb: 'have' in the simple style, past time: 'had'. [] Perfect style, present time: 'I have spoken': action verb: speak; participle: spoken; auxiliary verb: have; simple style, present time: have. [] Perfect style, future time: 'I will have spoken': action verb: speak; participle: spoken; auxiliary verb: have; simple style, future time: will have.

WIP EDIT NOTE: REGARDING SPANISH

2.2.5.2 Tense, time[edit]

Three possible times: [] the past, [] the present, and [] the future.

2.2.5.3 Tense, variant[edit]

In Spanish only the past has variants. There are two variants: [] the preterite, and [] the imperfect. There are no tense variants in English.

Translation of both to English uses the tense, time: past.

The preterite tense variant does not exist in the subjunctive mood.

2.2.6 Subject[edit]

2.2.6.1 Subject, plurality[edit]

There are only two choices: [] singular, and [] plural.

2.2.6.2 Subject, personage[edit]

Three decisions here: [] 1st person, [] 2nd person, and [] 3rd person.


Note: for the imperative mood each verb may be conjugated for only 5 different subjects.

It's worth noting here which 5 subjects apply. Obviously, we cannot issue commands to:

  • singular, 1st person: 'I' (yo);
  • singular, 3rd person: 'he' (él) or 'she' (ella); or
  • plural, 3rd person: 'they' (ellos [masc., or mixed] or ellas [fem.]).

However, because Spanish uses a formal 2nd person form, singular and plural, the singular and plural, 3rd persons still apply: the formal versions of 'you', being the singular, 2nd (usted) and the plural, 2nd (ustedes) use the 3rd person endings depending on their plurality. This means only the 1st person singular is not used.

2.2.7 Conjugate[edit]

Many of the steps result in identical decisions, making the conjugation paradigms for both languages very similar. This is encouraging for the new learner. However, it would be wise to note that in the above example the decision in the conjugate layer for English would be the same for every single choice available for the subject layers, yet the decision for the Spanish conjugate layer would not. Let's demonstrate this with a table which represents the choices available when we change only the 2 subject layers: 'plurality', and 'personage'.


Table: demonstrating the variety of choice in the conjugation decision layer in the Spanish language compared to the English language.

Note 1: The conjugates displayed in the table below have exactly the same decision layers as demonstrated in the table, in the previous section, demonstrating the basic understanding; i.e. for the Spanish language: the regular verb 'hablar' from the "ar" verb group with basic conjugates: 'hablar', 'habl-', 'hablado', 'hablando'; in the nominal form; indicative mood; simple style, past time, preterite variant tense. And, for the English language: the irregular verb 'speak' with basic conjugates: 'to speak', 'speak', 'spoken', 'speaking'; in the nominal form; indicative mood; simple style, past time tense.

Note 2: Again, the new learner should look at the overview rather than concern themselves with the Spanish translations; these will become clearer later.

Subject layers Spanish English
Subject, plurality: Singular Plural Singular Plural
Subject, personage: 1st hablé hablamos - - - - spoke - - - -
2nd hablaste hablasteis
3rd habló hablaron



EDIT NOTE: work-in-progress

Therefore, this gives us 20 [5 tenses in 4 aspects] indicative tenses, and 12 [3 tenses in 4 aspects] subjunctive tenses for each verb. Furthermore, for each of these 32 tenses, the verb can be conjugated for 6 different subjects: 3 in the singular, and 3 in the plural [see Spanish pronouns]. This means there are 192 conjugations for each verb in the indicative [120] and subjunctive [72] moods in total.

This brings our count to a total of 204 conjugations for each verb.

Luckily for learners, the vast majority of these verbs fit into well-defined and easy-to-learn categories. These verbs are called regular verbs, and our example set contains three regular verbs, being:

  1. hablar (to speak);
  2. comer (to eat), and;
  3. vivir (to live).

3. Non-finite forms[edit]

3.1 Infinitive[edit]

The infinitive of a verb is most often used after another conjugated verb like 'tener' (to have) or 'querer' (to want). The infinitive may also be used colloquially by Spanish speakers in place of a command, usually when left as a note to oneself to remember to do something. On web pages, one may also see buttons or links that use the infinitive, not the imperative form. The infinitive form contains the verb's stem followed by the ending.

Commonly used expressions with the infinitive:

To use these expressions, conjugate the first verb appropriately and follow with the infinitive. The first verbs in these expressions can be conjugated in any tense.

Conjugate of tener + que + infinitive means "to have to" do something.
Example: Tengo que poner la mesa antes de cenar.
Translation: I have to set the table before dinner [poner (to place, put, set, lay)].

Conjugate of querer + infinitive means "to want to" do something.
Example: Ella quiere aprender inglés.
Translation: She wants to learn English [aprender (to learn)].

Conjugate of acabar + de + infinitive means "to just have" done something.
Example: Acabo de hacer la tarea.
Translation: I just did my homework [hacer (to do)].

Conjugate of hay + que + infinitive means that something "has to be done". It is unspecified who has to do it.
Example: Hay que darle comer al perro hoy.
Translation: The dog needs to be fed today [comer (to eat)].

3.2 Past participle[edit]

The past participle is used with the perfect tenses, but can be used on its own as an adjective, most commonly with the verb "estar" (to be).

Example: Mi perro está perdido. Translation: My dog is lost.

Example: Estoy buscando mi perro perdido. Translation: I'm looking for my lost dog.

In this case, the verb perder means to lose, and the past participle perdido means lost.

Participles are formed using -ado for -ar verbs and -ido for -er and -ir verbs.

Infinitives

from our example set

Infinitive

stem + ending

Past participle

stem + ending

Past participle
hablar (to speak) habl + ar habl + ado hablado (spoken)
comer (to eat) com + er com + ido comido (eaten)
vivir (to live) viv + ir viv + ido vivido (lived)

When used as adjectives, past participles come after the noun and are modified by the number and, or, gender of the noun. Participles modifying feminine nouns will now end in -ada or -ida. To pluralize a participle, simply add s to the end of the adjective.

Table: examples of conjugation of verbs for use of past participle as an adjective.

Infinitives

from the example

set plus

one other

Infinitive

stem

+

ending

Singular

or

plural

noun

Past

participle as adjective

stem

+

ending

for masc. noun

Past

participle as adjective

for

masc. noun

Past

participle as adjective

stem

+

ending

for fem. noun

Past

participle as adjective

for

fem. noun

hablar (to speak) habl + ar singular

plural

habl + ado

habl + ados

hablado (spoken)

hablados (spoken)

habl + ada

habl + adas

hablada (spoken)

habladas (spoken)

comer (to eat) com + er singular

plural

com + ido

com + idos

comido (eaten)

comidos (eaten)

com + ida

com + idas

comida (eaten)

comidas (eaten)

vivir (to live) viv + ir singular

plural

viv + ido

viv + idos

vivido (lived)

vividos (lived)

viv + ida

viv + idas

vivida (lived)

vividas (lived)

hervir (to boil) herv + ir singular

plural

herv + ido

herv + idos

hervido (boiled)

hervidos (boiled)

herv + ida

herv + idas

hervida (boiled)

hervidas (boiled)

Example: Las espinacas están hervidas. Translation: The spinach is boiled.

A feminine plural noun, 'Las espinacas' (the spinach), requiring a feminised plural adjective, 'hervidas' (boiled) [see table above].

3.3 Gerund[edit]

The gerund exists in English as the -ing ending and is used in the same way as English, with a few exceptions. Gerunds usually follow a conjugated form of the verb estar (to be) to form the present tense in the simple continuous aspect [normally referred to as the 'present continuous tense' or the 'present progressive tense'].

Infinitives

from our example

set plus two others

Infinitive

stem + ending

Past participle

stem + ending

Past participle
hablar (to speak) habl + ar habl + ando hablando (speaking)
comer (to eat) com + er com + iendo comiendo (eating)
vivir (to live) viv + ir viv + iendo viviendo (living)
andar (to walk) and + ar and + ando andando (walking)
tocar

(to play, to touch, to perform)

toc + ar toc + ando tocando

(playing, touching, performing)

Example: Ella está andando por el pueblo. Translation: She is walking through the village.

Gerunds are also often used with a conjugated form of the verb seguir (to continue) to mean 'to continue doing something' or 'to be still doing something'.

Example: Sigo tocando el piano. Translation: I'm still playing the piano.

4. Nominal form of the indicative mood[edit]

The indicative is the most basic mood, used to talk about actions, events, or states that are believed to be facts or true. It is very typical in speech for making factual statements or describing obvious qualities of a person or situation.

4.1 Simple tense style: nominal form, indicative mood[edit]

4.1.1 Present tense: nominal form, indicative mood, simple tense style[edit]

The present tense is used to talk about actions, events, and states that happen generally in one's life, but is also often used to talk about actions that are happening right now.

Examples Translation
Yo monto en bicicleta todos los días I ride my bicycle every day
Nosotros comemos unas bananas We are eating some bananas

Table: verb endings for the nominal form, indicative mood, simple tense style, present tense.

Singular subject Conjugate

ending

Plural subject Conjugate

ending

"ar" "er" "ir" "ar" "er" "ir"
yo (I) -o nosotros (we [masc., or mixed])

nosotras (we [fem.])

-amos -emos -imos
tú (you [informal]) -as -es vosotros (you [masc., or mixed] [informal])

vosotras (you [fem.] [informal])

-áis -éis -is
él (he [masc.])

ella (she [fem.])

usted (you [formal])

-a -e ellos (they [masc., or mixed])

ellas (they [fem.])

ustedes (you [formal])

-an -en

Example set:

The infinitive

(El infinitivo)

Singular (Singular) Plural (Plural)
Example ("ar") hablar hablo, hablas, habla hablamos, habláis, hablan
Translation to speak I speak, you speak, he/she/one/it speaks we speak, you speak, they speak
Example ("er") comer como, comes, come comemos, coméis, comen
Translation to eat I eat, you eat, he/she/one/it eats we eat, you eat, they eat
Example ("ir") vivir vivo, vives, vive vivimos, vivis, viven
Translation to live I live, you live, he/she/one/it lives we live, you live, they live

Further examples:

Examples Translations
Tú hablas demasiado de tu hermana You talk about your sister too much
Andamos por la playa We are walking along the beach
Comen vegetales frescas They eat fresh vegetables
El nuevo estudiante parece genial The new classmate seems great
Vivimos en una grande casa cerca del centro We live in a large house near downtown


Forming the negative:
Forming the negative is very simple in most tenses, especially the present indicative. Simply place no directly before the conjugated verb.

Example Translation
No escribo en un diario I don't write in a diary

4.1.2 Past tense, preterite variant: nominal form, indicative mood, simple tense style[edit]

The preterite is used to talk about one-time events that occurred in the past and have already ended. It is absolutely necessary to remember the accents in both writing and speech.

Examples Translations
Yo nací en Zaragoza. I was born in Zaragoza.
Ella conoció su mejor amiga el año pasado. She met her best friend last year.


Table: verb endings for the nominal form, indicative mood, simple tense style, past tense, preterite variant.

Singular subject Conjugate

ending

Plural subject Conjugate

ending

"ar" "er" "ir" "ar" "er" "ir"
yo (I) nosotros (we [masc., mixed])

nosotras (we [fem.)

-amos -imos
tú (you [informal]) -aste -iste vosotros (you [masc., mixed] [informal])

vosotras (you [fem.] [informal])

-asteis -isteis
él (he [masc.])

ella (she [fem.])

usted (you [formal])

-ió ellos (they [masc., mixed])

ellas (they [fem.])

ustedes (you, [formal])

-aron -ieron

Example set:

The infinitive

(El infinitivo)

Singular (Singular) Plural (Plural)
Example ("ar") hablar hablé, hablaste, habló hablamos, hablasteis, hablaron.
Translation to speak I spoke, you spoke, he/she/one/it spoke we spoke, you spoke, they spoke
Example ("er") comer comí, comíste, comió comimos, comísteis, comíeron
Translation to eat I ate, you ate, he/she/one/it ate we ate, you ate, they ate
Example ("ir") vivir viví, vivíste, vivió vivimos, vivísteis, vivíeron
Translation to live I lived, you lived, he/she/one/it lived we lived, you lived, they lived

Further examples:

Examples Translations
Nosotras jugamos un partido de fútbol la semana pasada. We played a game of football (soccer) last week.
¿Ustedes visitaron sus parentes la navidad pasada? Did you visit your relatives last Christmas?
Comí un trozo de pastel ayer. I ate a slice of cake yesterday.
La maestra me asistió ayer. The teacher helped me yesterday.

Forming the negative
Just like in the present tense, simply add no directly before the conjugated verb to negate.

Example Translation
No escribió una novela. I didn't write a novel.

4.1.3 Past tense, imperfect variant: nominal form, indicative mood, simple tense style[edit]

The conjugations for the nominal, indicative, simple, past imperfect.

Table: verb endings for conjugations in the nominal, indicative, simple, past, imperfect

Singular subject Conjugate

ending

Plural subject Conjugate

ending

"ar" "er" "ir" "ar" "er" "ir"
yo (I) -aba -ía nosotros (we [masc., mixed])

nosotras (we [fem.)

-ábamos -íamos
tú (you [informal]) -abas -ías vosotros (you [masc., mixed] [informal])

vosotras (you [fem.] [informal])

-abais -íais
él (he [masc.])

ella (she [fem.])

usted (you [formal])

-aba -ía ellos (they [masc., mixed])

ellas (they [fem.])

ustedes (you, [formal])

-aban -ían


Example set:

Verb group The infinitive

(El infinitivo)

Singular (Singular) Plural (Plural)
"ar" verbs hablar hablaba, hablabas, hablaba hablábamos, hablabais, hablaban
Translation to speak I used to speak, you used to speak, he/she/one/it used to speak we used to speak, you used to speak, they used to speak
"er" verbs comer comía, comías, comía comíamos, comíais, comían
Translation to eat I used to eat, you used to eat, he/she/one/it used to eat we used to eat, you used to eat, they used to eat
"ir" verbs vivir vivía, vivías, vivía vivíamos, vivíais, vivían
Translation to live I used to live, you used to live, he/she/one/it used to live we used to live, you used to live, they used to live

4.1.4 Future tense: nominal form, indicative mood, simple tense style.[edit]

Table: verb endings for the nominal form, indicative mood, simple tense style, future tense.

Singular subject Conjugate

ending

Plural subject Conjugate

ending

"ar" "er" "ir" "ar" "er" "ir"
yo (I) -aré -eré -iré nosotros (we [masc., mixed])

nosotras (we [fem.)

-aremos -eremos -iremos
tú (you [informal]) -arás -erás -irás vosotros (you [masc., mixed] [informal])

vosotras (you [fem.] [informal])

-aréis -eréis -iréis
él (he [masc.])

ella (she [fem.])
usted (you [formal])

-ará -erá -irá ellos (they [masc., mixed])

ellas (they [fem.])
ustedes (you [formal])

-arán -erán -irán


Table: Example set for the nominal form, indicative mood, simple tense style, future tense.

Verb group The infinitive

(El infinitivo)

Singular (Singular) Plural (Plural)
"ar" verbs hablar hablaré, hablarás, hablará hablaremos, hablaréis, hablarán
Translation to speak I will speak, you will speak, he/she/one/it will speak we will speak, you will speak, they will speak
"er" verbs comer comeré, comerás, comerá comeremos, comeréis, comerán
Translation to eat I will eat, you will eat, he/she/one/it will eat we will eat, you will eat, they will eat
"ir" verbs vivir viviré, vivirás, vivirá viviremos, viviréis, vivirán
Translation to live I will live, you will live, he/she/one/it will live we will live, you will live, they will live


4.2 Perfect tense style: nominal form, indicative mood[edit]

4.2.1 Present tense: nominal form, indicative mood, perfect tense style[edit]

To form the present tense in the perfect aspect of the indicative mood, combine the verb haber (to have), conjugated for the simple aspect of the indicative mood in the present tense, to the past participle for the verb in question.

i.e. haber (conjugated, indicative mood, simple aspect, present tense) + Spanish verb (conjugated in the past participle).

This tense is often referred to as the present perfect [of the indicative mood].

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: he hablado, has hablado, ha hablado. Plural: hemos hablado, habéis hablado, han hablado.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I have spoken, you have spoken, he/she/one/it has spoken . Plural: we have spoken, you have spoken, they have spoken.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: he comido, has comido, ha comido. Plural: hemos comido, habéis comido, han comido.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I have eaten, you have eaten, he/she/one/it has eaten . Plural: we have eaten, you have eaten, they have eaten.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: he vivido, has vivido, ha vivido. Plural: hemos vivido, habéis vivido, han vivido.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I have lived, you have lived, he/she/one/it has lived. Plural: we have lived, you have lived, they have lived.

4.2.2 Past tense, preterite variant: nominal form, indicative mood, perfect tense style[edit]

To form the preterite (past) tense in the perfect aspect of the indicative mood, combine the verb haber (to have), conjugated for the simple aspect of the indicative mood in the preterite (past) tense, to the past participle for the verb in question.

i.e. haber (conjugated, indicative mood, simple aspect, preterite (past) tense) + Spanish verb (conjugated in the past participle).

This tense is often referred to as the preterite perfect [of the indicative mood].

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: hube hablado, hubiste hablado, hubo hablado. Plural: hubimos hablado, hubisteis hablado, hubieron hablado.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I had spoken, you had spoken, he/she/one/it had spoken. Plural: we had spoken, you had spoken, they had spoken.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: hube comido, hubiste comido, hubo comido. Plural: hubimos comido, hubisteis comido, hubieron comido.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I had eaten, you had eaten, he/she/one/it had eaten. Plural: we had eaten, you had eaten, they had eaten.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: hube vivido, hubiste vivido, hubo vivido. Plural: hubimos vivido, hubisteis vivido, hubieron vivido.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I had lived, you had lived, he/she/one/it had lived. Plural: we had lived, you had lived, they had lived.

4.2.3 Past tense, imperfect variant: nominal form, indicative mood, perfect tense style[edit]

To form the imperfect (past) tense in the perfect aspect of the indicative mood, combine the verb haber (to have), conjugated for the simple aspect of the indicative mood in the imperfect (past) tense, to the past participle for the verb in question.

i.e. haber (conjugated, indicative mood, simple aspect, imperfect (past) tense) + Spanish verb (conjugated in the past participle).

This tense is often referred to as the past perfect [of the indicative mood].

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: había hablado, habías hablado, había hablado. Plural: habíamos hablado, habíais hablado, habían hablado.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I had spoken, you had spoken, he/she/one/it had spoken. Plural: we had spoken, you had spoken, they had spoken.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: había comido, habías comido, había comido. Plural: habíamos comido, habíais comido, habían comido.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I had eaten, you had eaten, he/she/one/it had eaten. Plural: we had eaten, you had eaten, they had eaten.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: había vivido, habías vivido, había vivido. Plural: habíamos vivido, habíais vivido, habían vivido.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I had lived, you had lived, he/she/one/it had lived. Plural: we had lived, you had lived, they had lived.

4.2.4 Future tense: nominal form, indicative mood, perfect tense style[edit]

To form the future tense in the perfect aspect of the indicative mood, combine the verb haber (to have), conjugated for the simple aspect of the indicative mood in the future tense, to the past participle for the verb in question.

i.e. haber (conjugated, indicative mood, simple aspect, future tense) + Spanish verb (conjugated for the past participle).

This tense is often referred to as the future perfect [of the indicative mood].

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar Singular: habré hablado, habrás hablado, habrá hablado. Plural: habremos hablado, habréis hablado, habrán hablado.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I will have spoken, you will have spoken, he/she/one/it will have spoken. Plural: we will have spoken, you will have spoken, they will have spoken.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer Singular: habré comido, habrás comido, habrá comido. Plural: habremos comido, habréis comido, habrán comido.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I will have eaten, you will have eaten, he/she/one/it will have eaten. Plural: we will have eaten, you will have eaten, they will have eaten.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir Singular: habré vivido, habrás vivido, habrá vivido. Plural: habremos vivido, habréis vivido, habrán vivido.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I will have lived, you will have lived, he/she/one/it will have lived. Plural: we will have lived, you will have lived, they will have lived.


5. Nominal form of the indicative conditional mood[edit]

5.1 Simple tense style: nominal form, indicative conditional mood[edit]

Table: regular verb endings for the nominal form, indicative conditional mood, simple tense style.

Singular subject Conjugate

ending

Plural subject Conjugate

ending

"ar" "er" "ir" "ar" "er" "ir"
yo (I) -aria -eria -iria nosotros (we [masc., mixed])

nosotras (we [fem.)

-aríamos -eríamos -iríamos
tú (you [informal]) -arías -erías -irías vosotros (you [masc., mixed] [informal])

vosotras (you [fem.] [informal])

-aríais -eríais -iríais
él (he [masc.])

ella (she [fem.])
usted (you [formal])

-aría -ería -iría ellos (they [masc., mixed])

ellas (they [fem.])
ustedes (you [formal])

-arían -erían -irían


Table: Example set for the nominal form, indicative conditional mood, simple tense style.

Verb group the infinitive: (el infinitivo): Singular: Plural:
"-ar" hablar hablaría, hablarías, hablaría hablaríamos, hablaríais, hablarían
Translation: to speak I would speak, you would speak, he/she/one/it would speak we would speak, you would speak, they would speak
"-er" comer comería, comerías, comería comeríamos, comeríais, comerían
Translation: to eat. I would eat, you would eat, he/she/one/it would eat we would eat, you would eat, they would eat
"-ir" vivir viviría, vivirías, viviría viviríamos, viviríais, vivirían
Translation: to live I would live, you I would live, he/she/one/it I would live we I would live, you I would live, they I would live


5.2 Perfect tense style: nominal form, indicative conditional mood[edit]

To form the conditional tense in the perfect aspect of the indicative mood, combine the verb haber (to have), conjugated for the simple aspect of the indicative mood in the conditional tense, to the past participle for the verb in question.

i.e. haber (conjugated, indicative mood, simple aspect, conditional tense) + Spanish verb (conjugated for the past participle).

This tense is often referred to as the conditional perfect [of the indicative mood].

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: habría hablado, habrías hablado, habría hablado. Plural: habríamos hablado, habríais hablado, habrían hablado.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I would have spoken, you would have spoken, he/she/one/it would have spoken. Plural: we would have spoken, you would have spoken, they would have spoken.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: habría comido, habrías comido, habría comido. Plural: habríamos comido, habríais comido, habrían comido.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I would have eaten, you would have eaten, he/she/one/it would have eaten. Plural: we would have eaten, you would have eaten, they would have eaten.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: habría vivido, habrías vivido, habría vivido. Plural: habríamos vivido, habríais vivido, habrían vivido.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I would have lived, you would have lived, he/she/one/it would have lived. Plural: we would have lived, you would have lived, they would have lived.

6. Continuous form of the indicative mood[edit]

6.1 Simple tense style: continuous form, indicative mood[edit]

6.1.1 Present tense: continuous form, indicative mood, simple tense style[edit]

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: estoy hablando, estás hablando, está hablando. Plural: estamos hablando, estáis hablando, están hablando
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I am speaking, you are speaking, he/she/one/it is speaking. Plural: we are speaking, you are speaking, they are speaking.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: estoy comiendo, estás comiendo, está comiendo. Plural: estamos comiendo, estáis comiendo, están comiendo
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I am eating, you are eating, he/she/one/it is eating. Plural: we are eating, you are eating, they are eating.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: estoy viviendo, estás viviendo, está viviendo. Plural: estamos viviendo, estáis viviendo, están viviendo
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I am living, you are living, he/she/one/it is living. Plural: we are living, you are living, they are living.

6.1.2 Past tense, preterite variant: continuous form, indicative mood, simple tense style[edit]

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: estuve hablando, estuviste hablando, estuvo hablando. Plural: estuvimos hablando, estuvisteis hablando, estuvieron hablando
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I was speaking, you were speaking, he/she/one/it was speaking. Plural: we were speaking, you were speaking, they were speaking.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: estuve comiendo, estuviste comiendo, estuvo comiendo. Plural: estuvimos comiendo, estuvisteis comiendo, estuvieron comiendo
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I was eating, you were eating, he/she/one/it was eating. Plural: we were eating, you were eating, they were eating.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: estuve viviendo, estuviste viviendo, estuvo viviendo. Plural: estuvimos viviendo, estuvisteis viviendo, estuvieron viviendo
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I was living, you were living, he/she/one/it was living. Plural: we were living, you were living, they were living.

6.1.3 Past tense, imperfect variant: continuous form, indicative mood, simple tense style[edit]

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: estaba hablando, estabas hablando, estaba hablando. Plural: estábamos hablando, estabais hablando, estaban hablando.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I was speaking, you were speaking, he/she/one/it was speaking. Plural: we were speaking, you were speaking, they were speaking.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: estaba comiendo, estabas comiendo, estaba comiendo. Plural: estábamos comiendo, estabais comiendo, estaban comiendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I was eating, you were eating, he/she/one/it was eating. Plural: we were eating, you were eating, they were eating.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: estaba viviendo, estabas viviendo, estaba viviendo. Plural: estábamos viviendo, estabais viviendo, estaban viviendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I was living, you were living, he/she/one/it was living. Plural: we were living, you were living, they were living.

6.1.4 Future tense: continuous form, indicative mood, simple tense style[edit]

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: estaré hablando, estarás hablando, estará hablando. Plural: estaremos hablando, estaréis hablando, estarán hablando.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I will be speaking, you will be speaking, he/she/one/it will be speaking. Plural: we will be speaking, you will be speaking, they will be speaking.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: estaré comiendo, estarás comiendo, estará comiendo. Plural: estaremos comiendo, estaréis comiendo, estarán comiendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I will be eating, you will be eating, he/she/one/it will be eating. Plural: we will be eating, you will be eating, they will be eating.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: estaré viviendo, estarás viviendo, estará viviendo. Plural: estaremos viviendo, estaréis viviendo, estarán viviendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I will be living, you will be living, he/she/one/it will be living. Plural: we will be living, you will be living, they will be living.


6.2 Perfect tense style: continuous form, indicative mood[edit]

6.2.1 Present tense: continuous form, indicative mood, perfect tense style[edit]

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: he estado hablando, has estado hablando, ha estado hablando. Plural: hemos estado hablando, habéis estado hablando, han estado hablando.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I have been speaking, you have been speaking, he/she/one/it has been speaking. Plural: we have been speaking, you have been speaking, they have been speaking.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: he estado comiendo, has estado comiendo, ha estado comiendo. Plural: hemos estado comiendo, habéis estado comiendo, han estado comiendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I have been eating, you have been eating, he/she/one/it has been eating. Plural: we have been eating, you have been eating, they have been eating.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: he estado viviendo, has estado viviendo, ha estado viviendo. Plural: hemos estado viviendo, habéis estado viviendo, han estado viviendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I have been living, you have been living, he/she/one/it has been living. Plural: we have been living, you have been living, they have been living.

6.2.2 Past tense, preterite variant: continuous form, indicative mood, perfect tense style[edit]

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: hube estado hablando, hubiste estado hablando, hubo estado hablando. Plural: hubimos estado hablando, hubisteis estado hablando, hubieron estado hablando.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I had been speaking, you had been speaking, he/she/one/it had been speaking. Plural: we had been speaking, you had been speaking, they had been speaking.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: hube estado comiendo, hubiste estado comiendo, hubo estado comiendo. Plural: hubimos estado comiendo, hubisteis estado comiendo, hubieron estado comiendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I had been eating, you had been eating, he/she/one/it had been eating. Plural: we had been eating, you had been eating, they had been eating.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: hube estado viviendo, hubiste estado viviendo, hubo estado viviendo. Plural: hubimos estado viviendo, hubisteis estado viviendo, hubieron estado viviendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I had been living, you had been living, he/she/one/it had been living. Plural: we had been living, you had been living, they had been living.

6.2.3 Past tense, imperfect variant: continuous form, indicative mood, perfect tense style[edit]

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: había estado hablando, habías estado hablando, había estado hablando. Plural: habíamos estado hablando, habíais estado hablando, habían estado hablando.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I had been speaking, you had been speaking, he/she/one/it had been speaking. Plural: we had been speaking, you had been speaking, they had been speaking.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: había estado comiendo, habías estado comiendo, había estado comiendo. Plural: habíamos estado comiendo, habíais estado comiendo, habían estado comiendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I had been eating, you had been eating, he/she/one/it had been eating. Plural: we had been eating, you had been eating, they had been eating.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: había estado viviendo, habías estado viviendo, había estado viviendo. Plural: habíamos estado viviendo, habíais estado viviendo, habían estado viviendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I had been living, you had been living, he/she/one/it had been living. Plural: we had been living, you had been living, they had been living.

6.2.4 Future tense: continuous form, indicative mood, perfect tense style[edit]

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: habré estado hablando, habrás estado hablando, habrá estado hablando. Plural: habremos estado hablando, habréis estado hablando, habrán estado hablando.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I will have been speaking, you will have been speaking, he/she/one/it will have been speaking. Plural: we will have been speaking, you will have been speaking, they will have been speaking.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: habré estado comiendo, habrás estado comiendo, habrá estado comiendo. Plural: habremos estado comiendo, habréis estado comiendo, habrán estado comiendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I will have been eating, you will have been eating, he/she/one/it will have been eating. Plural: we will have been eating, you will have been eating, they will have been eating.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: habré estado viviendo, habrás estado viviendo, habrá estado viviendo. Plural: habremos estado viviendo, habréis estado viviendo, habrán estado viviendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I will have been living, you will have been living, he/she/one/it will have been living. Plural: we will have been living, you will have been living, they will have been living.



7. Continuous form of the indicative conditional mood[edit]

7.1 Simple tense style: continuous form, indicative conditional mood[edit]

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: estaría hablando, estarías hablando, estaría hablando. Plural: estaríamos hablando, estaríais hablando, estarían hablando.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I would be speaking, you would be speaking, he/she/one/it would be speaking. Plural: we would be speaking, you would be speaking, they would be speaking.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: estaría comiendo, estarías comiendo, estaría comiendo. Plural: estaríamos comiendo, estaríais comiendo, estarían comiendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I would be eating, you would be eating, he/she/one/it would be eating. Plural: we would be eating, you would be eating, they would be eating.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: estaría viviendo, estarías viviendo, estaría viviendo. Plural: estaríamos viviendo, estaríais viviendo, estarían viviendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I would be living, you would be living, he/she/one/it would be living. Plural: we would be living, you would be living, they would be living.


7.2 Perfect tense style: continuous form, indicative conditional mood[edit]

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: habría estado hablando, habrías estado hablando, habría estado hablando. Plural: habríamos estado hablando, habríais estado hablando, habrían estado hablando.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I would have been speaking, you would have been speaking, he/she/one/it would have been speaking. Plural: we would have been speaking, you would have been speaking, they would have been speaking.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: habría estado comiendo, habrías estado comiendo, habría estado comiendo. Plural: habríamos estado comiendo, habríais estado comiendo, habrían estado comiendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I would have been eating, you would have been eating, he/she/one/it would have been eating. Plural: we would have been eating, you would have been eating, they would have been eating.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: habría estado viviendo, habrías estado viviendo, habría estado viviendo. Plural: habríamos estado viviendo, habríais estado viviendo, habrían estado viviendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I would have been living, you would have been living, he/she/one/it would have been living. Plural: we would have been living, you would have been living, they would have been living.

8. Nominal form of the subjunctive mood[edit]

Remember, the past tense, preterite variant and conditional mood do not exist in the subjunctive mood.


8.1 Simple tense style: nominal form, subjunctive mood[edit]

8.1.1 Present tense: nominal form, subjunctive mood, simple tense style[edit]

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: hable, hables, hable. Plural: hablemos, habléis, hablen.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I speak, you speak, he/she/one/it speak. Plural: we speak, you speak, they speak.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: coma, comas, coma. Plural: comamos, comáis, coman.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I eat, you eat, he/she/one/it eat. Plural: we eat, you eat, they eat.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: viva, vivas, viva. Plural: vivamos, viváis, vivan.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I live, you live, he/she/one/it live. Plural: we live, you live, they live.

8.1.2 Past tense, imperfect variant: nominal form, subjunctive mood, simple tense style[edit]

In all imperfect subjunctive forms, the ''ra'' in the endings can be replaced with ''se''.
To demonstrate:
The verb conjugation used in our example set for hablar could be: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: hablase, hablases, hablase. Plural: hablásemos, hablaseis, hablasen.


Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: hablara, hablaras, hablara. Plural: habláramos, hablarais, hablaran.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I spoke, you spoke, he/she/one/it spoke. Plural: we spoke, you spoke, they spoke.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: comiera, comieras, comiera. Plural: comiéramos, comierais, comieran.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I ate, you ate, he/she/one/it ate. Plural: we ate, you ate, they ate.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: viviera, vivieras, viviera. Plural: viviéramos, vivierais, vivieran.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I lived, you lived, he/she/one/it lived. Plural: we lived, you lived, they lived.

8.1.3 Future tense: nominal form, subjunctive mood, simple tense style[edit]

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: hablare, hablares, hablare. Plural: habláremos, hablareis, hablaren.
Translation: the infinitive: to have. Singular: I will speak, you will speak, he/she/one/it will speak. Plural: we will speak, you will speak, they will speak.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: comiere, comieres, comiere. Plural: comiéremos, comiereis, comieren.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I will eat, you will eat, he/she/one/it will eat. Plural: we will eat, you will eat, they will eat.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: viviere, vivieres, viviere. Plural: viviéremos, viviereis, vivieren.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I will live, you will live, he/she/one/it will live. Plural: we will live, you will live, they will live.

8.2 Perfect tense style: nominal form, subjunctive mood[edit]

8.2.1 Present tense: nominal form, subjunctive mood, perfect tense style[edit]

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: haya hablado, hayas hablado, haya hablado. Plural: hayamos hablado, hayáis hablado, hayan hablado.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I have spoken, you have spoken, he/she/one/it have spoken. Plural: we have spoken, you have spoken, they have spoken.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: haya comido, hayas comido, haya comido. Plural: hayamos comido, hayáis comido, hayan comido.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I have eaten, you I have eaten, he/she/one/it I have eaten. Plural: we have eaten, you have eaten, they have eaten.

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: haya vivido, hayas vivido, haya vivido. Plural: hayamos vivido, hayáis vivido, hayan vivido.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I have lived, you have lived, he/she/one/it have lived. Plural: we have lived, you have lived, they have lived.

8.2.2 Past tense, imperfect variant: nominal form, subjunctive mood, perfect tense style[edit]

In all imperfect subjunctive forms, the ''ra'' in the endings for the auxiliary verb, haber (to have) or estar (to be), can be replaced with ''se''.
To demonstrate:
The auxiliary verb conjugation used in our example set is: el infinitivo: haber. Singular: hubiera, hubieras, hubiera. Plural: hubiéramos, hubierais, hubieran.
The alternative use could be: el infinitivo: haber. Singular: hubiese, hubieses, hubiese. Plural: hubiésemos, hubieseis, hubiesen.


Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: hubiera hablado, hubieras hablado, hubiera hablado. Plural: hubiéramos hablado, hubierais hablado, hubieran hablado.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I had spoken, you had spoken, he/she/one/it had spoken. Plural: we had spoken, you had spoken, they had spoken.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: hubiera comido, hubieras comido, hubiera comido. Plural: hubiéramos comido, hubierais comido, hubieran comido.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I had eaten, you I had eaten, he/she/one/it I had eaten. Plural: we had eaten, you had eaten, they had eaten.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: hubiera vivido, hubieras vivido, hubiera vivido. Plural: hubiéramos vivido, hubierais vivido, hubieran vivido.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I had lived, you had lived, he/she/one/it had lived. Plural: we had lived, you had lived, they had lived.

8.2.3 Future tense: nominal form, subjunctive mood, perfect tense style[edit]

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: hubiere hablado, hubieres hablado, hubiere hablado. Plural: hubiéremos hablado, hubiereis hablado, hubieren hablado.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I will have spoken, you will have spoken, he/she/one/it will have spoken. Plural: we will have spoken, you will have spoken, they will have spoken.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: hubiere comido, hubieres comido, hubiere comido. Plural: hubiéremos comido, hubiereis comido, hubieren comido.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I will have eaten, you will have eaten, he/she/one/it will have eaten. Plural: we will have eaten, you will have eaten, they will have eaten.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: hubiere vivido, hubieres vivido, hubiere vivido. Plural: hubiéremos vivido, hubiereis vivido, hubieren vivido.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I will have lived, you will have lived, he/she/one/it will have lived. Plural: we will have lived, you will have lived, they will have lived.


9. Continuous form of the subjunctive mood[edit]

9.1 Simple tense style: continuous form, subjunctive mood[edit]

9.1.1 Present tense: continuous form, subjunctive mood, simple tense style[edit]

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: esté hablando, estés hablando, esté hablando. Plural: estemos hablando, estéis hablando, estén hablando.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I be speaking, you be speaking, he/she/one/it be speaking. Plural: we be speaking, you be speaking, they be speaking.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: esté comiendo, estés comiendo, esté comiendo. Plural: estemos comiendo, estéis comiendo, estén comiendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I be eating, you be eating, he/she/one/it be eating. Plural: we be eating, you be eating, they be eating.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: esté viviendo, estés viviendo, esté viviendo. Plural: estemos viviendo, estéis viviendo, estén viviendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I be living, you be living, he/she/one/it be living. Plural: we be living, you be living, they be living.

9.1.2 Past tense, imperfect variant:: continuous form, subjunctive mood, simple tense style[edit]

In all imperfect subjunctive forms, the ''ra'' in the endings for the auxiliary verb, haber (to have) or estar (to be), can be replaced with ''se''.
To demonstrate:
The auxiliary verb conjugation used in our example set is: el infinitivo: estar. Singular: estuviera, estuvieras, estuviera. Plural: estuviéramos, estuvierais, estuvieran.
The alternative use could be: el infinitivo: estar. Singular: estuviese, estuvieses, estuviese. Plural: estuviésemos, estuvieis, estuviesen.


Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: estuviera hablando, estuvieras hablando, estuviera hablando. Plural: estuviéramos hablando, estuvierais hablando, estuvieran hablando.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I were speaking, you were speaking, he/she/one/it were speaking. Plural: we were speaking, you were speaking, they were speaking.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: estuviera comiendo, estuvieras comiendo, estuviera comiendo. Plural: estuviéramos comiendo, estuvierais comiendo, estuvieran comiendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I were eating, you I were eating, he/she/one/it I were eating. Plural: we were eating, you were eating, they were eating.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: estuviera viviendo, estuvieras viviendo, estuviera viviendo. Plural: estuviéramos viviendo, estuvierais viviendo, estuvieran viviendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I were living, you were living, he/she/one/it were living. Plural: we were living, you were living, they were living.

9.3.3. Future tense: continuous form, subjunctive mood, simple tense style[edit]

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: estuviere hablando, estuvieres hablando, estuviere hablando. Plural: estuviéremos hablando, estuviereis hablando, estuvieren hablando.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I will be speaking, you will be speaking, he/she/one/it will be speaking. Plural: we will be speaking, you will be speaking, they will be speaking.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: estuviere comiendo, estuvieres comiendo, estuviere comiendo. Plural: estuviéremos comiendo, estuviereis comiendo, estuvieren comiendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I will be eating, you will be eating, he/she/one/it will be eating. Plural: we will be eating, you will be eating, they will be eating.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: estuviere viviendo, estuvieres viviendo, estuviere viviendo. Plural: estuviéremos viviendo, estuviereis viviendo, estuvieren viviendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I will be living, you will be living, he/she/one/it will be living. Plural: we will be living, you will be living, they will be living.

9.2 Perfect tense style: continuous form, subjunctive mood[edit]

9.2.1 Present tense: continuous form, subjunctive mood, perfect tense style[edit]

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: haya estado hablando, hayas estado hablando, haya estado hablando. Plural: hayamos estado hablando, hayáis estado hablando, hayan estado hablando.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I have been speaking, you have been speaking, he/she/one/it have been speaking. Plural: we have been speaking, you have been speaking, they have been speaking.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: haya estado comiendo, hayas estado comiendo, haya estado comiendo. Plural: hayamos estado comiendo, hayáis estado comiendo, hayan estado comiendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I have been eating, you have been eating, he/she/one/it have been eating. Plural: we have been eating, you have been eating, they have been eating.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: haya estado viviendo, hayas estado viviendo, haya estado viviendo. Plural: hayamos estado viviendo, hayáis estado viviendo, hayan estado viviendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I have been living, you have been living, he/she/one/it have been living. Plural: we have been living, you have been living, they have been living.

9.2.2 Past tense, imperfect variant: continuous form, subjunctive mood, perfect tense style[edit]

In all imperfect subjunctive forms, the ''ra'' in the endings for the auxiliary verb, haber (to have) or estar (to be), can be replaced with ''se''.
To demonstrate:
The auxiliary verb conjugation used in our example set is: el infinitivo: haber. Singular: hubiera, hubieras, hubiera. Plural: hubiéramos, hubierais, hubieran.
The alternative use could be: el infinitivo: haber. Singular: hubiese, hubieses, hubiese. Plural: hubiésemos, hubieis, hubiesen.


Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: hubiera estado hablando, hubieras estado hablando, hubiera estado hablando. Plural: hubiéramos estado hablando, hubierais estado hablando, hubieran estado hablando.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I had been speaking, you had been speaking, he/she/one/it had been speaking. Plural: we had been speaking, you had been speaking, they had been speaking.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: hubiera estado comiendo, hubieras estado comiendo, hubiera estado comiendo. Plural: hubiéramos estado comiendo, hubierais estado comiendo, hubieran estado comiendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I had been eating, you had been eating, he/she/one/it had been eating. Plural: we had been eating, you had been eating, they had been eating.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: hubiera estado viviendo, hubieras estado viviendo, hubiera estado viviendo. Plural: hubiéramos estado viviendo, hubierais estado viviendo, hubieran estado viviendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I had been living, you had been living, he/she/one/it had been living. Plural: we had been living, you had been living, they had been living.


9.2.3 Future tense: continuous form, subjunctive mood, perfect tense style[edit]

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar. Singular: hubiere estado hablando, hubieres estado hablando, hubiere estado hablando. Plural: hubiéremos estado hablando, hubiereis estado hablando, hubieren estado hablando.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: I will have been speaking, you will have been speaking, he/she/one/it will have been speaking. Plural: we will have been speaking, you will have been speaking, they will have been speaking.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer. Singular: hubiere estado comiendo, hubieres estado comiendo, hubiere estado comiendo. Plural: hubiéremos estado comiendo, hubiereis estado comiendo, hubieren estado comiendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: I will have been eating, you will have been eating, he/she/one/it will have been eating. Plural: we will have been eating, you will have been eating, they will have been eating.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir. Singular: hubiere estado viviendo, hubieres estado viviendo, hubiere estado viviendo. Plural: hubiéremos estado viviendo, hubiereis estado viviendo, hubieren estado viviendo.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: I will have been living, you will have been living, he/she/one/it will have been living. Plural: we will have been living, you will have been living, they will have been living.

10. Imperative mood[edit]

Remember, we cannot use the imperative for: 'I', 'he', 'she', 'it', 'one', or 'they'. But, the third person endings, singular and plural, are used by the formal second person form.

10.1 Affirmative commands[edit]

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar: Singular: habla, hable. Plural: hablemos, hablad, hablen.
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: (concerning you [informal]) speak, (concerning you [formal]) speak. Plural: (concerning we) let's speak [let us speak], (concerning you [informal]) speak, (concerning you [formal]) speak.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer: Singular: come, coma. Plural: comamos, comed, coman.
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: (concerning you [informal]) eat, (concerning you [formal]) eat. Plural: (concerning we) let's eat [let us eat], (concerning you [informal]) eat, (concerning you [formal]) eat.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir: Singular: vive, viva. Plural: vivamos, vivid, vivan.
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: (concerning you [informal]) live, (concerning you [formal]) live. Plural: (concerning we) let's live [let us live], (concerning you [informal]) live, (concerning you [formal]) live.

10.2 Negative commands[edit]

You add no to the conjugation for the subjunctive mood, simple aspect, present tense [also referred to as the present subjunctive].

Example set: el infinitivo: hablar: Singular: no hables, no hable. Plural: no hablemos, no habléis, no hablen
Translation: the infinitive: to speak. Singular: (concerning you [informal]) do not speak, (concerning you [formal]) do not speak. Plural: (concerning we) let's not speak [let us not speak], (concerning you [informal]) do not speak, (concerning you [formal]) do not speak.

Example set: el infinitivo: comer: Singular: no comas, no coma. Plural: no comamos, no comáis, no coman
Translation: the infinitive: to eat. Singular: (concerning you [informal]) do not eat, (concerning you [formal]) do not eat. Plural: (concerning we) let's not eat [let not us eat], (concerning you [informal]) do not eat, (concerning you [formal]) do not eat.

Example set: el infinitivo: vivir: Singular: no vivas, no viva. Plural: no vivamos, no viváis, no vivan
Translation: the infinitive: to live. Singular: (concerning you [informal]) live, (concerning you [formal]) do not live. Plural: (concerning we) let's not live [let us not live], (concerning you [informal]) do not live, (concerning you [formal]) do not live.

11. APPENDIX[edit]

11.1 Conjugations of 'haber' (to have), an irregular verb used in the perfect tenses[edit]

Infinitive ('infinitivo'): 'haber' (to have)
Gerund ('gerundio'): 'habiendo' (having)
Participle ('participio'): 'habido' (had)

Table: Conjugations of 'haber' (to have) in nominal form, indicative mood, simple tense style:

Subject

pronouns

Present

tense

Past

tense,
preterite
variant

Past

tense,
imperfect
variant

Future

tense

Indicative

conditional
mood

yo he hube había habré habría
has hubiste habías habrás habrías
él/ella/Ud. ha, hay hubo había habrá habría
nosotros hemos hubimos habíamos habremos habríamos
vosotros habéis hubisteis habíais habréis habríais
ellos/ellas/Uds. han hubieron habían habrán habrían

Table: Conjugations of 'haber' (to have) in nominal form, subjunctive mood, simple tense style:

Subject

pronouns

Present

tense

Past tense,

1st imperfect
variant

Past tense,

2nd imperfect
variant

Future

tense

yo haya hubiera hubiese hubiere
hayas hubieras hubieses hubieres
él/ella/Ud. haya hubiera hubiese hubiere
nosotros hayamos hubiéramos hubiésemos hubiéremos
vosotros hayáis hubierais hubieseis hubiereis
ellos/ellas/Uds. hayan hubieran hubiesen hubieren

[The future subjunctive is rarely used in modern Spanish, the present subjunctive is nearly always used where the future would have been used. It may occur in old documents, and it's included here for reference in those rare circumstances.] [1]

11.2 Conjugations of 'estar' (to be), an irregular verb used in the continuous forms[edit]

Ininitive ('infinitivo'): 'estar' (to be)
Gerund ('gerundio'): 'estando' (being)
Participle ('participio'): 'estado' (been)

Table: Conjugations of 'estar' (to be) in the nominal form, indicative mood, simple tense style:

Subject

pronouns

Present

tense

Past

tense,
preterite
variant

Past

tense,
imperfect
variant

Future

tense

Indicative

conditional
mood

yo estoy estuve estaba estaré estaría
estás estuviste estabas estarás estarías
él/ella/Ud. está estuvo estaba estará estaría
nosotros estamos estuvimos estábamos estaremos estaríamos
vosotros estáis estuvisteis estabais estaréis estaríais
ellos/ellas/Uds. están estuvieron estaban estarán estarían

Table: Conjugations of 'estar' (to be) in the nominal form, subjunctive mood, simple tense style:

Subject

pronouns

Present

tense

Past tense,

1st imperfect
variant

Past tense,

2nd imperfect
variant

Future

tense

yo esté estuviera estuviese estuviere
estés estuvieras estuvieses estuvieres
él/ella/Ud. esté estuviera estuviese estuviere
nosotros estemos estuviéramos estuviésemos estuviéremos
vosotros estéis estuvierais estuvieseis estuviereis
ellos/ellas/Uds. estén estuvieran estuviesen estuvieren


[The future subjunctive is rarely used in modern Spanish, the present subjunctive is nearly always used where the future would have been used. It may occur in old documents, and it's included here for reference in those rare circumstances.] [2]