The present perfect (el perfecto de indicativo) is used to communicate events in the past for which there is a relationship to the present. For example:
- I have written three letters today.
- He escrito tres cartas hoy.
It is formed by using the conjugated present indicative form of Haber with the past participle of the action. In the above example, He is the first person form of Haber and escrito is the past participle of Escribir.
Here are examples in different persons:
- Tú has comido el bocadillo. You have eaten the sandwich.
- Él ha dicho la verdad. He has told the truth.
- Nosotros hemos visto el cuadro. We have seen the picture.
- Vosotros habéis hablado con el presidente. You (plural, familiar) have spoken with the president.
- Uds. han vivido en California. You (plural, formal) have lived in California.