Spanish/How To Conjugate Verbs

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Present Indicative[edit | edit source]

The Present Indicative is the most basic (though not the easiest) and essential tense in Spanish. There are more than few dozen irregular verbs with varying degrees of irregularities. It should be noted that all the second person informal conjugations end with s.

Regular Verbs[edit | edit source]

-AR Verbs[edit | edit source]

-AR verbs are conjugated by removing the "-ar" from the infinitive and adding the endings.

Yo              -o     Nosotros                  -amos
Tú             -as    Vosotros                 -áis
Usted,él,ella   -a     Ustedes,ellos,ellas       -an
Hablar (to speak)[edit | edit source]
hablo   hablamos
hablas  habláis
habla   hablan

-ER Verbs[edit | edit source]

Like the -AR verbs, -ER verbs are conjugated by removing the infinitive ending "-er" and adding the endings.

-o     -emos
-es    -éis
-e     -en
Beber (to drink)[edit | edit source]
bebo   bebemos
bebes  bebéis
bebe   beben
Hacer (to make)[edit | edit source]
hago   hacemos
haces  haceis
hace   hacen

-IR Verbs[edit | edit source]

-IR verbs are conjugated by removing the infinitive ending "-ir" and adding the endings.

-o     -imos
-es    -ís
-e     -en
Vivir (to live)[edit | edit source]
vivo   vivimos
vives  vivís
vive   viven

Irregular Verbs[edit | edit source]

Complete Irregularity[edit | edit source]

Ser (to be)[edit | edit source]
soy    somos
eres   sois
es     son
Estar (to be)[edit | edit source]
estoy  estamos
estás  estáis
está   están
Ir (to go)[edit | edit source]
voy    vamos
vas    vais
va     van
Haber (to have)[edit | edit source]
he     hemos
has    habéis
ha/hay han/hay

First Person Singular Irregularity[edit | edit source]

Some verbs only have irregularity in the first person singular forms.

Verbs with a -cir and -cer endings also replace the c in -cir and -cer with 'zc' in the first person singular form.

  • conocer (to know) - conozco
  • traducir (to translate) - traduzco
  • conducir (to drive) - conduzco

Some verbs end in -go instead of the regular -o for the first person singular form, these are completely irregular.

  • poner (to put) - pongo
  • salir (to leave) - salgo

Also, some verbs end in -jo instead of -o for the first person singular.

  • escoger (to choose) - escojo
  • corregir (to correct) - correjo

Four verbs are uniquely irregular only in the first person singular forms:

  • saber (to know) - sé
  • caber (to fit) - quepo
  • dar (to give) - doy
  • ver (to see) - veo

Stem Changes[edit | edit source]

Some verbs change their stems when conjugated in these forms: yo, tú, él, ella, usted, ellos, ellas, and ustedes. There are four stem changes in the present tense o to ue, u to ue, e to ie, and e to i. The e to i change only occurs in -IR verbs. The easy way to memorize the change in which forms is called "The Boot." It must be pointed out, however, that using memory techniques to learn a language can prevent one from ever learning the language fluently. Children don't use "tricks" to learn a language (did you?). The way to learn a language is to socially interact with those who speak the language you wish to learn. And remember, never, ever, translate, as it will irreparably impair your ability to learn a new language.

O to Ue - Dormir (to sleep)[edit | edit source]
duermo    dormimos
duermes   dormís
duerme    duermen
U to Ue - Jugar (to play)[edit | edit source]
juego     jugamos
juegas    jugáis
juega     juegan
E to Ie - Empezar (to begin)[edit | edit source]
empiezo   empezamos
empiezas  empezáis
empieza   empiezan
E to I - Pedir (to ask/TO ORDER)[edit | edit source]
pido      pedimos
pides     pedís
pide      piden

Imperfect[edit | edit source]

The Imperfect is the easiest tense to learn in Spanish because the conjugations are almost completely regular: there are 3 irregular verbs! In all conjugations of the Imperfect, the first person singular forms (yo) and the third person singular/second person polite forms are same. For example, "caminaba" can mean "he used to walk" or "I was walking."

Regular Verbs[edit | edit source]

-AR Verbs[edit | edit source]

-AR verbs are conjugated by removing the "-ar" and adding the following endings (note accent on nosotros form!):

-aba    -ábamos
-abas   -abais
-aba    -aban
Estudiar (to study)[edit | edit source]
estudiaba    estudiábamos
estudiabas   estudiabais
estudiaba    estudiaban

-ER Verbs[edit | edit source]

-ER and -IR Verbs are conjugated identically by removing the "-er" or "-ir" and adding the following endings (note accents on all forms!):

-ía    -íamos
-ías   -íais
-ía    -ían
Beber (to drink)[edit | edit source]
bebía    bebíamos
bebías   bebíais
bebía    bebían
Salir (to leave)[edit | edit source]
salía   salíamos
salías   salíais
salía    salían

Irregular Verbs[edit | edit source]

There are only 3 irregular verbs in the Imperfect tense: Ser, Ir, and Ver.

Ser (to be)[edit | edit source]

era    éramos
eras   erais
era    eran

Ir (to go)[edit | edit source]

iba    íbamos
ibas   ibais
iba    iban

Ver (to see)[edit | edit source]

veía    veíamos
veías   veíais
veía    veían

Preterite[edit | edit source]

Regular Verbs[edit | edit source]

-AR Verbs[edit | edit source]

-AR verbs are conjugated by removing the "-ar" from the infinitive and adding the endings.

-é     -amos
-aste    -asteis
-ó     -aron
Comprar (to buy)[edit | edit source]
compré     compramos
compraste  comprasteis
compró     compraron

-ER & IR Verbs[edit | edit source]

Like the -AR verbs, -ER & -IR verbs are conjugated by removing the infinitive ending "-er" or "-ir" and adding the endings.

-í     -imos
-iste    -isteis
-ió     -ieron
Comer (to eat)[edit | edit source]
comí       comimos
comiste    comisteis
com     comieron
Vivir (to live)[edit | edit source]
viví   vivimos
viviste  vivisteis
vivío   vivieron

Irregular Verbs[edit | edit source]

Note: Ir and Ser are identical in the Preterite

Ir (to go) and Ser (to be)[edit | edit source]

fui   fuimos
fuiste   fuisteis
fue  fueron

Tener (to have)[edit | edit source]

tuve   tuvimos
tuviste   tuvisteis
tuvo   tuvieron

Haber (to have auxiliary)[edit | edit source]

hube   hubimos
hubiste   hubisteis
hubo   hubieron

Future[edit | edit source]

In Spanish, especially in Latin American countries, it is more usual to utilise the ir + infinitive verb form (like going to) than the future conjugation.

Example[edit | edit source]
Yo "Voy a comer" instead of "Comeré"
Tu "Vas a comer" instead of "Comerás"
El "Va a comer" instead of "Comerá"
Nosotros "Vamos a comer" instead of "Comeremos"
Vosotros "Vais a comer" instead of "Comeréis"
Ellos "Van a comer" instead of "Comerán"

Still it is easy: Remember the present tense of verb "Haber" minus "h" and add to the infinitive form of the verb

The verb "Haber": he, has, ha, hemos, habéis, han

For future = é, ás, á, emos, éis, án
Example:Amar[edit | edit source]
Yo amaré
Tu amarás
El amará
Nosotros amaremos
Vosotros amaréis
Ellos amarán
Temer[edit | edit source]
Yo temeré
Tú temerás
Él temerá
Nosotros temeremos
Vosotros temeréis
Ellos temerán
Partir[edit | edit source]

Yo partiré .. partirás, partirá, partiremos, partiréis, partirán

An so on in many many verbs. There are exceptions but easy ones

Salir (exception it changes to saldr) Yo saldré, saldrás, saldrá, saldremos, saldréis, saldrán

Venir (exception it changes to vendr) Yo vendré, vendrás, vendrá, vendremos, vendréis, vendrán

Conditional[edit | edit source]

In this tense, the action is conditioned to something to happen. Use conditional for asking in polite form like in English with would. Or use it to form conditional expressions.

¿Vendrías a casa? = Would you like to come home?
¿Tomarías café? = Would you like to drink coffee?
Comería si tubiera hambre = I would eat if I was hungry.

-ar, -er and -ir verbs[edit | edit source]

ía   iamos
ías  íais
ía   ían

Amar

amaría  amaríamos
amarías amaríais
amaría  amarían

Temer

temería  temeríamos
temerías temeríais
temería  temerían

Partir

partiría  partiríamos
partirías partiríais
partiría  partirían

These changes in the conditional tense apply even to the verbs Ser, Estar and Ir!

Exceptions

Tener (changes to tendr): tendría, tendrías, tendríamos, tendríais, tendrían
Salir (changes to sald): saldría, saldrías, saldríamos, saldríais, saldrían
and so on

Present Subjunctive[edit | edit source]

Imperfect Subjunctive[edit | edit source]

Pluperfect[edit | edit source]

Preterite Perfect[edit | edit source]

The meaning is not the same as in English: Something that has been done in the past but still important in the present or continue by the moment.

Format

Haber verb + past participle of the verb

Examples that home (and still living today)

Viví en esa casa = I lived in that home (not now)
He tomado mucho = I had drunk a lot (now I'm  full)
Tomé mucho = I drank a lot (may be yesterday)
Viví mucho tiempo = wrong tense unless it was a ghost talking

Well usually in Latin America they almost never use this tense and mix the past perfect and simple past you have to adapt the meaning. Usually people from Spain use the tense properly but in Latin American to use this tense could show some fancy - elevated studies language that is not the normal rule or can be comic to some one from there.

Amar (to love)

he amado  hemos amado
has amado habéis amado
ha amado  han amado

Tomar (to drink)

he tomado  hemos tomado
has tomado habéis tomado
ha tomado  han tomado

and so on. There are no exceptions.

Future Perfect[edit | edit source]

Conditional Perfect[edit | edit source]

same as formal commands

Perfect Subjunctive[edit | edit source]

Commands[edit | edit source]

Commands are one of the easiest tenses to learn in Spanish because it has only few irregularities and there are only four forms (, usted, vosotros, and ustedes) instead of the regular six and relies on other conjugated forms.

Regular Verbs (tú and vosotros forms)[edit | edit source]

-AR, -ER, and -IR verbs[edit | edit source]

For any type of verb, simply change the form of the verb to the él/ella/Ud. form. For vosotros commands, add a "d".

Cerrar (to close)[edit | edit source]
cierra  cerrad
Traer (to bring)[edit | edit source]
trae  traed

Irregular Tú Commands[edit | edit source]

There are eight irregular commands. They are as follows:

Ir (to go) - ve                        Venir (to come) - ven  
Ser (to be) - sé                       Tener (to have) - ten
Hacer (to do/make) - haz               Decir (to say/tell) - di  
Poner (to put/place) - pon             Salir (to get out) - sal

Regular Verbs (Ud. and Uds. forms)[edit | edit source]

-AR verbs[edit | edit source]

For the -AR verbs, take the first person singular form (yo) and take off the -o and add the command endings to the stem.

-e    -en
Nadar (to swim)[edit | edit source]

I swim - Nado // You swim - Nades // He/she swims - Nade // we swim - nademos // they swim - naden //

-ER & -IR verbs[edit | edit source]

For the -ER and -IR verbs, take the first person singular form (yo) and take off the -o and add the command endings to the stem.

-a    -an
caber (to fit) - Irregular yo form quepo[edit | edit source]
quepa quepan
pedir (to ask for) - Stem change e to i[edit | edit source]
pida  pidan

Double Changes[edit | edit source]

Verbs that end in -car, -gar, and -zar which changes their endings to -que, -gue, and -ce, respectively

secar (to dry)[edit | edit source]
Seque  Sequen
jugar (to play) - Stem change u to ue[edit | edit source]
Juegue Jueguen

Irregular Verbs[edit | edit source]

Ser (to be)[edit | edit source]
Sea    Sean
Estar (to be)[edit | edit source]
Esté   Estén
Ir (to go)[edit | edit source]
Vaya  Vayan
Dar (to give)[edit | edit source]
Dé     Den
Saber (to know)[edit | edit source]
Sepa   Sepan