Sidux/System and packages management, applications intallation
- 1 Packages management
- 2 System management
- 3 Personalization
- 4 Users and groups
- 5 Security
- You have to softwares for packages management : "dpkg" and "apt-get".
- 1. If you want to install new software/package from repositories just type in Terminal as root:
apt-get update apt-get install package_name
- 2. If you want to install a package "deb" downloaded from other site:
cd download_folder dpkg -i package_name.deb
- a. If a package needs additional dependences and installation has been stoped, then:
apt-get install -f
- b. If a package has been not configurated correctly, fix it:
dpkg --reconfigure -a
- 3. Removing packages:
apt-get remove package_name
- 4. Removing package with it's dependences:
apt-get --purge remove package_name apt-get autoremove
- 5. Removing old versions of installation packages:
- 6. If you don't know a package name look for it using:
apt-cache search package_name or apt-file search package_name
- 7. If you want to install "bin" package, make:
- If the package doesn't have execute rights, change it:
chmod a+x package_name
Packages installation with Synaptic
- sidux developers suggest to install packages using "apt-get" command only.
- But you can do it with "apt-get" GUI called Synaptic, if you'd like:
apt-get install synaptic
- Run Synaptic from: Menu-> System-> Synaptic Package Manager-> type your root password.
- 1. First icon "Reload" will refresh packages list.
- 2. "Search" icon will help you to find exect software.
- 3. When you recive package list mark your one clicking on "Mark for installation" and "Apply".
- 4. Confirm it and wait for finishing, then close Synaptic down.
- 1. sidux developers suggest to make system upgrade using only "apt-get" command:
apt-get update apt-get upgrade or apt-get dist-upgrade
- 2. If you want to keep older version of a package (upgrading will not be made), just block it:
echo package_name hold|dpkg --set-selections
- a. To check blocked packages agains upgrading:
dpkg --get-selections | grep hold
- b. If you want unblock blocked package for upgrading it:
echo package_name install|dpkg --set-selections
Other repositories and public key
- If you want to install a package from other server, just add an address to repositories list
- using any text editor as a root to file:
- 2. Then refresh package list with command:
- 2. If you recive a missing public key message so install it:
- a. Sofware makers have public key sometimes to download so take it.
- b. If not add a key using command:
gpg --keyserver keys.gnupg.net --recv key_ID gpg --export key_ID | apt-key add -
Removing old system kernel
- sidux makers upgrade system kernel often but they have given a small script to help removing old one easy.
- 1. Menu-> System-> kernel-remover
- 2. Mark a kernel version with lower number-> then OK.
- 3. Should I remove this kernel? -> OK.
- The software doesn't show present version of kernel for removing just old ones but I suggest to not
- removing all of theme, keep one old just in a case.
- If you want to make any system changes just run: Menu-> Settings-> Xfce4 Settings Manager.
- I'll show you the most important only.
- 1. Preferred Applications.
- a. If you want to change any application for your one choose it from the list or "Other".
- b. If you've selected "Other" choose an execute script from "/usr/bin" or your own folder.
- 2. Removable Drives and Media.
- a. Storage tab: I suggest to not mark "Auto-run" and "Auto-open" programs and files on new drives.
- b. Multimedia tab: Play audio or video CD's - choose any media player or do not mark it,
- so you will run CD's files manually.
- b. Multimedia tab: Play audio or video CD's - choose any media player or do not mark it,
- c. Cameras tab: Import digital photos when connected - use one of theme: gThumb, F-spot or DigiKam.
- 3. File Manager: Bahavior tab - Single or Double click to activate items to choose.
- 4. Workspaces: choose one or more.
- 5. Desktop: choose a wallpaper, icon size or media mounting on Desktop.
- 6. Display: choose a screen if you have more then one, its resolution and refresh rate.
- 7. Window Manager.
- a. Style tab: choose a theme.
- b. Keyboard tab: shortcut to manage.
- 8. Session and Startup.
- a. Splash tab: choose any.
- b. Application Autostart: you may add any application to start it when system starts.
- 9. Panel: castomize the panel settings - size, position, autohide or add new one.
- 10. Appearance: change windows style, icons theme or fonts.
Working on files
- Sometimes you have to work on files and folders (often as a root).
- One of the best way is using terminal's Midnight Commander:
su root password mc
- a. To copy a file/folder mark it in one window and click F5 key, it do that to a folder in second window.
- b. To move a file/folder use F6 key.
- c. If you want to delete a file/folder use F8.
- d. F7 key creates new folder.
- e. If you want to make a view for a file use F3 key, to edit it F4.
- 2. Another way to make all the works is typing a command in Terminal:
- a. To create a file:
- b. To create folder:
- c. To copy a file:
cp /path_to_file /path_to_new_folder
- d. To copy a folder:
cd -r /path_to_folder /path_to_new_folder
- e. To remove a file:
- f. To remove folder:
rm -r /path_to_folder
- g. If a folder is not empty:
rm -rf /path_to_folder
- h. To check files in a folder:
- i. To go to a folder one level lower:
- j. To go to a folder one level upper:
- k. To go to other folder:
- Another way to do that with graphic application is using Thunar File Manager with mouse helps menu.
GRUB boot loader
- GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader) is a boot loader package installed in main drive sector.
- It can run many operating systems.
- There is Grub version 2 provided with sidux.
- 1. If you can't find all installed systems on your hard drive on boot loader list, type in Terminal as root:
- Changes will be effective after reboot system.
- 2. If you want to change system startup delay (it's normally 5 sec.) just edit the file as root:
sux mousepad /etc/default/grub
- and change the line: GRUB_TIMEOUT=5 for any you'd like and save the file.
- More about GRUB2 read on the project page: http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/grub-2.en.html
- And on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_GRUB
- If your system's clock doesn't display exect time, just reconfigure it:
- Terminal as root:
- Choose a continent first and a town after.
Default system language
- To change it just type in Terminal as root:
- Depending of "locales" package version mark your language or choose from a list (I suggest UTF8).
Adding new entry to Menu
- Most applications installers have scripts adding entry to Menu but sometimes you have to do it yourself.
- Terminal as a root:
sux mousepad /usr/share/applications/application_name.desktop
- And type it in the new file:
[Desktop Entry] Name=Application name Comment=What is it for Exec=/path_to_execute_file Icon=/path_to_graphic_file(icon) Terminal=false Type=Application Categories=Application;Software-categorie
- Save the file and close Mousepad down. There is en example for "Touchepad" application below:
[Desktop Entry] Name=Touchpad Exec=gsynaptics Icon=/home/pavroo/Icons/touchpad.png Terminal=false Type=Application Categories=Application;Settings;
- The icon file patch can be different.
Desktop theme changing
- 1. Wallpaper: download new one from: gnome-look.org for example or use any picture.
- a. Right click on your picture and choose: "Set as wallpaper"
- 2. Icons: download a set of icons from the same webside.
- a. Extract it.
- b. Open Terminal as root and run "mc" then move extracted new icon folder to: "/usr/share/icons".
- c. Choose new icon theme from: Menu-> Settings-> Appearance-> Icons tab-> choose the new one or any.
- d. Icon size changing: Menu-> Settings-> Desktop-> Icons tab-> Icon size.
- 3. Style: Menu-> Settings-> Appearance-> Style tab-> choose any.
- 4. Login window: download new one from the same webside from DGM Themes department.
- a. Open: Menu-> Settings-> Login Window-> Local tab.
- b. Click on "Add" and choose downloaded package.
- c. Mark it and close the window down, the new login style will be working after next log in.
- Panel applets make faster access to many system and personal functions. I'll show you a few only.
- 1. Action Buttons lets you block desktop or shut system down in quick way.
- 2. DateTime adds a clock, date and calendar.
- 3. Weather Update brings temperature, atmosphere pressure, humidity, wind speed, etc.
- 4. Mail Watcher checks all your e-mail boxes on "pop3, imap, gmail" servers.
- 5. Network Monitor shows incoming and outgoing speed trafic.
- 6. Mixer Plugin lets you controling sound level for speakers and microphones.
- 7. Xfce4 Stopper just let you set a timer up.
Users and groups
User account changes
- 1. To add new user type in Terminal as root:
- 2. If you want to change your password type in Terminal (not as root):
passwd Changing password for your_name Old password: type your present password Enter the new password (minimum 5, maximum 8 characters). Please use a combination of upper and lower case letters and numbers. New password: type your new password Re-enter new password: re-type your new password Password changed
- 3. Removing an user:
- 4. Removing an user with its home folder and all files:
userdel -r user_name
Root account changes
- 1. To change root password make (if you know it):
su type present root password passwd root New password UNIX: type new root password Re-enter new password for UNIX: re-type new root password
- 2. To change root password (if you forgot or don't know it):
- a. Run computer from sidux LiveCD or any Linux Live distribition.
- b. Open Terminal as root:
- check root "/" partition name (it's "/dev/sda6" on my computer):
su or sudo (depends of Live distribution) fdisk -l
- create new folder "sid_temp" for example in "media" folder:
- mount root "/" partition of hard drive file system in Live system:
mount /dev/sda6 /media/sid_temp
- check has been it mounted correctly:
cd /media/sid_temp ls
- and change unknown root password for new one:
chroot /media/sda6 passwd Enter new UNIX password: Retype new UNIX password: passwd: password updated successfully
Operations on groups
- 1. To create a new group:
- 2. To remove a group:
- 3. To add an user to a group:
adduser user_name group_name
- 1. The main system security thing is the system itself becouse the system is locked with root password;
- demaging it is very difficult.
- 2. Linux file system is virus-proof for most known malwares.
- 3. Regular updating remove mistakes and provides new applications functions.
- The firewall keeps out incoming access to your computer from outside.
- So the first thing after system installation is the firewall activation.
- You can do that in a few ways, just have a look: Sidux/Post-installation work/Firewall
- Sincerely - you don't need it at all but you can use it for outgoing e-mails scanning
- - most our friends use different operating system; and for external drives scanning befor
- connecting theme to the different OS.
- If you'd like try an antivirus application avilable from Debian's repositories ClamAV with KlamAV GUI:
apt-get install clamav klamav
- Try others antivirus applications for Linux:
- Rootkit is a dengerous tool hidding processes with can take control of your computer over.
- A tool for looking for and removing rootkits from linux system is chkrootkit.
- Install it in Terminal:
apt-get install chkrootkit
- To scan your operating system run the command: