Sardinian/Printable version

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Sardinian

The current, editable version of this book is available in Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection, at
https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Sardinian

Permission is granted to copy, distribute, and/or modify this document under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.


Alphabet

It's a typical Latin-derived alphabet, as follows

  1. A (A)
  2. B (Bi)
  3. C (Ci)
  4. D (Di)
  5. E (E)
  6. F (Efa)
  7. G (Gi)
  8. H (Aca)
  9. I (I)
  10. J (Jota)
  11. K (Kappa)
  12. L (Ella)
  13. M (Emma)
  14. N (Enna)
  15. O (O)
  16. P (Pi)
  17. R (Erra)
  18. S (Essa)
  19. T (Ti)
  20. TZ (Zeta surda)
  21. U (U)
  22. V (Vu)
  23. X (Ìchisi)
  24. Z (Zeta sonora)



Pronounce

One of the major complications is the difference between the written form and the spoken one, given one must follow specific rules: it is important to mention at least some in the generality of cases.

It is highly recommended to learn as reported below, since the actual pronunciation of what is written shall be taken for granted.



Articles

Definite[edit | edit source]

Singular Plural
Masculine Su = the Sos = the
Feminine Sa = the Sas = the

Indefinite[edit | edit source]

Masculine Feminine
Unu = a Una = a



Prepositions

Prepositions go before a noun, pronoun, adjective or verb to indicate their function in a sentence; and may be simple, contracted or improper.

Simple prepositions[edit | edit source]

  • A = to
  • Chin o Cun = with
  • De = of
  • Dae = from / by
  • In = in
  • Pro = because of / to
  • Tra = between / among
  • Peri = towards

Contracted prepositions[edit | edit source]

These are generally formed by simple prepositions + the definite article.

  • A su / sa ; A sos / sas
  • Chin su / sa ; Chin sos / sas
  • De su / sa ; De sos / sas
  • Dae su / sa ; Dae sos / sas
  • In su / sa ; In sos / sas

Improper prepositions[edit | edit source]

  • Sutta = under / beneath / below
  • Supra = above
  • Sicunde = according to
  • Chentza = without
  • Francu = with the exception of

Prepositional phrases[edit | edit source]

  • In fattu [de] = behind
  • Finas / Fintzas [a] = until
  • Prima [de] = before
  • [a] Pustis [de] = after
  • [a] Curtzu [de] = near / close to
  • [in] S'oru [de] = near to the edge of
  • Attesu [dae] = far (away) from
  • Innedda [dae] = far (away) from
  • [a] Largu [dae] = far (away) from
  • Paris [chin] = together with
  • Affaccu [de] = next to
  • [a] Costazu [de] = next to
  • Contr'[a] = against
  • [a] Cara [de] = before / in front of
  • Fora [de] = out of / outside of
  • Intro [de] = inside / within
  • [in] Cambiu [de] = in exchange for / in return for
  • Imbetzes [de] = instead of
  • Because of the abovementioned pronunciation rules, the pronunciation of the prepositions is as follows:
A ssu / ssa ; A ssos / ssas
Chi' ssu / ssa ; Chi' ssos / ssas
De ssos / ssas ; De ssos / ssas
Dae su / sa ; Dae sos / sas
I' ssu / ssa ; I' ssos / ssas
I 'ffattu 'e ...
Affacch 'e ...
  • In spoken form, when in o chin are bound to the indefinite article unu / -a, a -d is added.
Cantande ind unu tzilleri (Singing in a bar)
Fipo chind un'amica (I was with a friend)
  • In spoken form, the -D of De often is not pronounced; so that the preposition becomes 'e.



Cardinal numbers

  • Unu = 1
  • Duos = 2
  • Tres = 3
  • Battor = 4
  • Chimbe = 5
  • Ses = 6
  • Sette = 7
  • Otto = 8
  • Nove = 9
  • Deche = 10
  • Undichi = 11
  • Doichi = 12
  • Treichi = 13
  • Battordichi = 14
  • Bindichi = 15
  • Seichi = 16
  • Dechessette = 17
  • Decheotto = 18
  • Dechennove = 19
  • Binti = 20
  • Bintunu = 21
  • Bintiduos = 22
  • Bintitres = 23

...

  • Trinta = 30
  • Trintunu = 31
  • Trintaduos = 32
  • Trintatres = 33

...

  • Baranta = 40
  • Barantunu = 41
  • Barantaduos = 42
  • Barantatres = 43

...

  • Chimbanta = 50
  • Chimbantunu = 51
  • Chimbantaduos = 52
  • Chimbantatres = 53

...

  • Sessanta = 60
  • Sessantunu = 61
  • Sessantaduos = 62
  • Sessantatres = 63

...

  • Settanta = 70
  • Settantunu = 71
  • Settantaduos = 72
  • Settantatres = 73

...

  • Ottanta = 80
  • Ottantunu = 81
  • Ottantaduos = 82
  • Ottantatres = 83

...

  • Novanta = 90
  • Novantunu = 91
  • Novantaduos = 92
  • Novantatres = 93

...

  • Chentu = 100
  • Chent'e unu = 101
  • Chent'e duos = 102
  • Chent'e tres = 103
  • Chentuchimbantunu = 151
  • Duchentos/-as = 200
  • Duchentos/-as e unu/-a = 201
  • Duchentos/-as e duos/-as = 202
  • Duchentos/-as e tres = 203
  • Duchentos/-as bintitres = 223
  • Trechentos/-as = 300
  • Battochentos/-as = 400
  • Chimbichentos/-as == 500
  • Seschentos/-as = 600
  • Settechentos/-as = 700
  • Ottochentos/-as = 800
  • Novechentos/-as = 900
  • Milli = 1000
  • Mill'e unu/-a = 1001
  • Mill'e duos/-as = 1002
  • Duamiza = 2000
  • Tremiza = 3000
  • Battomiza = 4000
  • Chimbemiza = 5000
  • Semiza = 6000
  • Settemiza = 7000
  • Ottomiza = 8000
  • Novemiza = 9000
  • Dechemiza = 10000
  • Doichimiza = 12000
  • Bintunamiza e deche = 21010



Ordinal numbers

Ordinal numbers serving as adjectives[edit | edit source]

  • Primu/-a = first
  • Sicundu/-a = second
  • Tertzu/-a = third
  • Cuartu/-a = fourth
  • Cuìntu/-a = fifth
  • Sestu/-a = sixth
  • Sèttimu/-a = seventh
  • Ottavu/-a = eighth
  • Nonu/-a = ninth
  • Décimu/-a = tenth

Ordinal numbers serving as pronouns[edit | edit source]

  • Su 'e unu = the first
  • Su 'e duos = the second
  • Su 'e tres = the third
  • Su 'e battor = the fourth
  • Su 'e chimbe = the fifth
  • Su 'e ses = the sixth
  • Su 'e binti = the twentieth
  • Su 'e bintunu = the twenty-first
  • Su 'e bintiduos = the twenty-second
  • Su 'e trinta = the twenty-third
  • Su 'e chentu = the one hundredth
  • Su 'e milli = the one thousandth



Verbs

Sardinian has the following moods and tenses:

Indicative Subjunctive Conditional Imperative Infinitive Participle Gerund
• Present
• Imperfect
• Preterite♦
• Present Perfect
• Past Perfect
• Future
• Future Perfect
•Present
•Imperfect
•Past
•Pluperfect
•Present
•Past
•Present
•Future
•Present
•Past
•Present♦♦
•Past
•Present
•Past



Verbs/Conjugation of ÈSSER

Indicative[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • Deo so
  • Tue ses
  • Issu/Issa est
  • Nois semus
  • Bois sezis
  • Issos/Issas sun

Imperfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo fippo
  • Tue fis
  • Issu/Issa fit
  • Nois fimus
  • Bois fizis
  • Issos/Issas fin

Present Perfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo so istau/-da
  • Tue ses istau/-da
  • Issu/Issa est istau/-da
  • Nois semus istaos/-das
  • Bois sezis istaos/-das
  • Issos/Issas sun istaos/-das

Past Perfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo fippo istau/-da
  • Tue fis istau/-da
  • Issu/Issa fit istau/-da
  • Nois fimus istaos/-das
  • Bois fizis istaos/-das
  • Issos/Issas fin istaos/-das

Future[edit | edit source]

  • Deo app'a esser
  • Tue as a esser
  • Issu/Issa at a esser
  • Nois amus a esser
  • Bois azes a esser
  • Issos/Issas an a esser

Future Perfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo app'a esser istau/-da
  • Tue as a esser istau/-da
  • Issu/Issa at a esser istau/-da
  • Nois amus a esser istaos/-das
  • Bois azes a esser istaos/-das
  • Issos/Issas an a esser istaos/-das

Subjunctive[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo sìa
  • (Chi) Tue sìas
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa sìat
  • (Chi) Nois siàmus
  • (Chi) Bois siàzes
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas sìan

Imperfect[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo (es)sèrepo
  • (Chi) Tue (es)sères
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa (es)sèret
  • (Chi) Nois (es)sèremus
  • (Chi) Bois (es)sèrezes
  • (Chi) Issos (es)sèren

Past[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo sìa istau/-da
  • (Chi) Tue sìas istau/-da
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa sìat istau/-da
  • (Chi) Nois siàmus istaos/-das
  • (Chi) Bois siàzes istaos/-das
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas sìan istaos/-das

Pluperfect[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo (es)sèrepo istau/-da
  • (Chi) Tue (es)sères istau/-da
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa (es)sèret istau/-da
  • (Chi) Nois (es)sèremus istaos/-das
  • (Chi) Bois (es)sèrezes istaos/-das
  • (Chi) Issos (es)sèren istaos/-das

Conditional[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • Deo dìo esser
  • Tue dìas esser
  • Issu/Issa dìat esser
  • Nois diàmus esser
  • Bois diàzes esser
  • Issos/Issas dìan esser

Past[edit | edit source]

  • Deo dìo esser istau/-da
  • Tue dìas esser istau/-da
  • Issu/Issa dìat esser istau/-da
  • Nois diàmus esser istaos/-das
  • Bois diàzes esser istaos/-das
  • Issos/Issas dìan esser istaos/-das

Imperative[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • Sìas (tue!)
  • Sìat (issu / issa!)
  • Siàmus (nois!)
  • Siàzes (bois!)
  • Sìan (issos / issas!)

Future[edit | edit source]

  • As a esser (tue!)
  • At a esser (issu / issa!)
  • Amus a esser (nois!)
  • Azes a esser (bois!)
  • An a esser (issos / issas!)

Infinitive[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • Èsser

Past[edit | edit source]

  • Èsser istau/-da

Participle[edit | edit source]

Istau/-da ; Istaos/-das

Gerund[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • (Es)sende

Past[edit | edit source]

  • (Es)sende istau/-da ; (Es)sende istaos/-das



Verbs/Conjugation of other auxiliary verbs

ÁER (To have)[edit | edit source]

Indicative[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • Deo appo
  • Tue as
  • Issu/Issa at
  • Nois amus
  • Bois azes
  • Issos/Issas an

Imperfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo aìo
  • Tue aìas
  • Issu/Issa aìat
  • Nois abamus, ajabamus
  • Bois abazes, ajabazes
  • Issos aìan

Present Perfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo app'àppiu
  • Tue as àppiu
  • Issu/Issa at àppiu
  • Nois amus àppiu
  • Bois azes àppiu
  • Issos/Issas an àppiu

Past Perfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo aìo àppiu
  • Tue aìas àppiu
  • Issu/Issa aìat àppiu
  • Nois abamus àppiu
  • Bois abazes àppiu
  • Issos/Issas aìan àppiu

Future[edit | edit source]

  • Deo app'àer
  • Tue as' àer
  • Issu/Issa at' àer
  • Nois amus' àer
  • Bois azes' àer
  • Issos/Issas an' àer

Future Perfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo app'àer àppiu
  • Tue as' àer àppiu
  • Issu/Issa at' àer àppiu
  • Nois amus' àer àppiu
  • Bois azes' àer àppiu
  • Issos/Issas an' àer àppiu

Subjunctive[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo appa
  • (Chi) Tue appas
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa appat
  • (Chi) Nois appamus
  • (Chi) Bois appazes
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas appan

Imperfect[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo aèrepo
  • (Chi) Tue aères
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa aèret
  • (Chi) Nois aerèmus
  • (Chi) Bois aerèzes
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas aèren

Past[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo app'àppiu
  • (Chi) Tue appas àppiu
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa appat àppiu
  • (Chi) Nois appamus àppiu
  • (Chi) Bois appazes àppiu
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas appan àppiu

Pluperfect[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo aèrep' àppiu
  • (Chi) Tue aères àppiu
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa aèret àppiu
  • (Chi) Nois aerèmus àppiu
  • (Chi) Bois aerèzes àppiu
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas aèren àppiu

Conditional[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • Deo dìo àer
  • Tue dìas àer
  • Issu/Issa dìat àer
  • Nois diàmus àer
  • Bois diàzes àer
  • Issos/Issas dìan àer

Past[edit | edit source]

  • Deo dìo àer àppiu
  • Tue dìas àer àppiu
  • Issu/Issa dìat àer àppiu
  • Nois diàmus àer àppiu
  • Bois diàzes àer àppiu
  • Issos/Issas dìan àer àppiu

Imperative[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • Appas (tue!)
  • Appat (issu / issa!)
  • Appamus (nois!)
  • Appazes (bois!)
  • Appan (issos / issas!)

Future[edit | edit source]

  • As' àer (tue!)
  • At' àer (issu / issa!)
  • Amus' àer (nois!)
  • Azes' àer (bois!)
  • An' àer (issos / issas!)

Infinitive[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

Áer

Past[edit | edit source]

Áer àppiu

Participle[edit | edit source]

Áppiu

Gerund[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

Aènde

Past[edit | edit source]

Aènde àppiu

DÈPER (Must / To have to)[edit | edit source]

Indicative[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • Deo depo
  • Tue depes or des
  • Issu/Issa depet or det
  • Nois depimus or demus
  • Bois depies or dezis
  • Issos/Issas depen or den

Imperfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo depìo or dìo
  • Tue depìas or dìas
  • Issu/Issa depìat or dìat
  • Nois depiabàmus or diàmus
  • Bois depiabàzes or diàzes
  • Issos/Issas depìan or dìan

Present Perfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo appo dèpiu
  • Tue as dèpiu
  • Issu/Issa at dèpiu
  • Nois amus dèpiu
  • Bois azes dèpiu
  • Issos/Issas an dèpiu

Past Perfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo aìo dèpiu
  • Tue aìas dèpiu
  • Issu/Issa aìat dèpiu
  • Nois abamus dèpiu
  • Bois abazes dèpiu
  • Issos aìan dèpiu

Future[edit | edit source]

  • Deo app' a deper
  • Tue as a deper
  • Issu/Issa at a deper
  • Nois amus a deper
  • Bois azes a deper
  • Issos/Issas an a deper

Future Perfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo app' àer dèpiu
  • Tue as' àer dèpiu
  • Issu/Issa at' àer dèpiu
  • Nois amus' àer dèpiu
  • Bois azes' àer dèpiu
  • Issos/Issas an' àer dèpiu

Subjunctive[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo depa
  • (Chi) Tue depas
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa depat
  • (Chi) Nois depamus
  • (Chi) Bois depazes
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas depan

Imperfect[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo dière
  • (Chi) Tue dières
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa dièret
  • (Chi) Nois dierèmus
  • (Chi) Bois dierèzes
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas dièren

Past[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo appa dèpiu
  • (Chi) Tue appas dèpiu
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa appat dèpiu
  • (Chi) Nois appamus dèpiu
  • (Chi) Bois appazes dèpiu
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas appan dèpiu

Pluperfect[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo aèrepo dèpiu
  • (Chi) Tue aères dèpiu
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa aèret dèpiu
  • (Chi) Nois aerèmus dèpiu
  • (Chi) Bois aerèzes dèpiu
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas aèren dèpiu

Conditional[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • Deo dìo deper
  • Tue dìas deper
  • Issu/Issa dìat deper
  • Nois diàmus deper
  • Bois diàzes deper
  • Issos/Issas dìan deper

Past[edit | edit source]

  • Deo dìo àer dèpiu
  • Tue dìas àer dèpiu
  • Issu/Issa dìat àer dèpiu
  • Nois diàmus àer dèpiu
  • Bois diàzes àer dèpiu
  • Issos/Issas dìan àer dèpiu

Imperative[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • Depas (tue!)
  • Depat (issu / issa!)
  • Depamus (nois!)
  • Depazes (bois!)
  • Depan (issos / issas!)

Future[edit | edit source]

  • As a deper (tue!)
  • At a deper (issu / issa!)
  • Amus a deper (nois!)
  • Azes a deper (bois!)
  • An a deper (issos / issas!)

Infinitive[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

Dèper

Past[edit | edit source]

Áer dèpiu

Participle[edit | edit source]

Dèpiu

Gerund[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

Depende

Past[edit | edit source]

Aènde dèpiu



Verbs/All the three conjugations

FIRST CONJUGATION: verbs ending in ~ARE eg: Cantare (to sing / to chant)[edit | edit source]

Indicative[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • Deo cànto
  • Tue càntas
  • Issu/Issa càntat
  • Nois cantàmus
  • Bois cantàes
  • Issos/Issas càntan

Imperfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo cantàbo
  • Tue cantàbas
  • Issu/Issa cantàbat
  • Nois cantabàmus
  • Bois cantabàzes
  • Issos/Issas cantàban

Present Perfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo appo cantàu
  • Tue as cantàu
  • Issu/Issa at cantàu
  • Nois amus cantàu
  • Bois azes cantàu
  • Issos/Issas an cantàu

Past Perfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo aìo cantàu
  • Tue aìas cantàu
  • Issu/Issa aìat cantàu
  • Nois abamus cantàu
  • Bois abazes cantàu
  • Issos/Issas aìan cantàu

Future[edit | edit source]

  • Deo app'a cantàre
  • Tue as a cantàre
  • Issu/Issa at a cantàre
  • Nois amus a cantàre
  • Bois azes a cantàre
  • Issos/Issas an a cantàre

Future Perfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo app'àer cantàu
  • Tue as' àer cantàu
  • Issu/Issa at' àer cantàu
  • Nois amus' àer cantàu
  • Bois azes' àer cantàu
  • Issos/Issas an' àer cantàu

Subjunctive[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo cànte
  • (Chi) Tue càntes
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa càntet
  • (Chi) Nois cantémus
  • (Chi) Bois cantézas
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas cànten

Imperfect[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo cantàrepo
  • (Chi) Tue cantàres
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa cantàret
  • (Chi) Nois cantarémus
  • (Chi) Bois cantarézes
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas cantàren

Past[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo appa cantàu
  • (Chi) Tue appas cantàu
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa appat cantàu
  • (Chi) Nois appamus cantàu
  • (Chi) Bois appazes cantàu
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas appan cantàu

Pluperfect[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo aèrepo cantàu
  • (Chi) Tue aères cantàu
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa aèret cantàu
  • (Chi) Nois aerémus cantàu
  • (Chi) Bois aerèzes cantàu
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas aèren cantàu

Conditional[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • Deo dìo cantàre
  • Tue dìas cantàre
  • Issu/Issa dìat cantàre
  • Nois diàmus cantàre
  • Bois diàzes cantàre
  • Issos/Issas dìan cantàre

Past[edit | edit source]

  • Deo dìo àer cantàu
  • Tue dìas àer cantàu
  • Issu/Issa dìat àer cantàu
  • Nois diàmus àer cantàu
  • Bois diàzes àer cantàu
  • Issos/Issas dìan àer cantàu

Imperative[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • Cànta (tue!)
  • Càntet (issu / issa!)
  • Cantémus (nois!)
  • Cantàe (bois!)
  • Cànten (issos / issas!)

Future[edit | edit source]

  • As a cantàre (tue!)
  • At a cantàre (issu / issa!)
  • Amus a cantàre (nois!)
  • Azes a cantàre (bois!)
  • An a cantàre (issos / issas!)

Infinitive[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

Cantàre

Past[edit | edit source]

Áer cantàu

Participle[edit | edit source]

Cantàu

Gerund[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

Cantànde

Past[edit | edit source]

Aènde cantàu

SECOND CONJUGATION: verbs ending in ~ER eg: FÀCHER (to do / to make)[edit | edit source]

Indicative[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • Deo fàco
  • Tue fàches
  • Issu/Issa fàchet
  • Nois fachìmus
  • Bois fachìes
  • Issos/Issas fàchen

Imperfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo fachìo
  • Tue fachìas
  • Issu/Issa fachìat
  • Nois fachiabàmus
  • Bois fachiabàzes
  • Issos/Issas fachìan

Present Perfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo appo fàttu
  • Tue as fàttu
  • Issu/Issa at fàttu
  • Nois amus fàttu
  • Bois azes fàttu
  • Issos/Issas an fàttu

Past Perfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo aìo fàttu
  • Tue aìas fàttu
  • Issu/Issa aìat fàttu
  • Nois abamus fàttu
  • Bois abazes fàttu
  • Issos aìan fàttu

Future[edit | edit source]

  • Deo app' a fàcher
  • Tue as a fàcher
  • Issu/Issa at a fàcher
  • Nois amus a fàcher
  • Bois azes a fàcher
  • Issos/Issas an a fàcher

Future Perfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo app' àer fàttu
  • Tue as' àer fàttu
  • Issu/Issa at' àer fàttu
  • Nois amus' àer fàttu
  • Bois azes' àer fàttu
  • Issos/Issas an' àer fàttu

Subjunctive[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo fàca
  • (Chi) Tue fàcas
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa fàcat
  • (Chi) Nois facàmus
  • (Chi) Bois facàzes
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas fàcan

Imperfect[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo fachérepo
  • (Chi) Tue fachéres
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa fachéret
  • (Chi) Nois facherémus
  • (Chi) Bois facherézes
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas fachéren

Past[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo appa fàttu
  • (Chi) Tue appas fàttu
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa appat fàttu
  • (Chi) Nois appamus fàttu
  • (Chi) Bois appazes fàttu
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas appan fàttu

Pluperfect[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo aèrepo fàttu
  • (Chi) Tue aères fàttu
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa aèret fàttu
  • (Chi) Nois aerèmus fàttu
  • (Chi) Bois aerèzes fàttu
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas aèren fàttu

Conditional[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • Deo dìo fàcher
  • Tue dìas fàcher
  • Issu/Issa dìat fàcher
  • Nois diàmus fàcher
  • Bois diàzes fàcher
  • Issos/Issas dìan fàcher

Past[edit | edit source]

  • Deo dìo àer fàttu
  • Tue dìas àer fàttu
  • Issu/Issa dìat àer fàttu
  • Nois diàmus àer fàttu
  • Bois diàzes àer fàttu
  • Issos/Issas dìan àer fàttu

Imperative[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • Fàche (tue!)
  • Fàcat (issu / issa!)
  • Facàmus (nois!)
  • Fachìe (bois!)
  • Fàcan (issos / issas!)

Future[edit | edit source]

  • As a fàcher (tue!)
  • At a fàcher (issu / issa!)
  • Amus a fàcher (nois!)
  • Azes a fàcher (bois!)
  • An a fàcher (issos / issas!)

Infinitive[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

Fàcher

Past[edit | edit source]

Áer fàttu

Participle[edit | edit source]

Fàttu

Gerund[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

Fachénde

Past[edit | edit source]

Aènde fàttu

THIRD CONJUGATION: verbs ending in ~ÌRE eg: FINÌRE (to end / to finish)[edit | edit source]

Indicative[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • Deo fìno
  • Tue fìnis
  • Issu/Issa fìnit
  • Nois finìmus
  • Bois finìes
  • Issos/Issas fìnin

Imperfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo finìo
  • Tue finìas
  • Issu/Issa finìat
  • Nois finiabàmus
  • Bois finiabàzes
  • Issos/Issas finìan

Present Perfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo appo finìu
  • Tue as finìu
  • Issu/Issa at finìu
  • Nois amus finìu
  • Bois azes finìu
  • Issos/Issas an finìu

Past Perfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo aìo finìu
  • Tue aìas finìu
  • Issu/Issa aìat finìu
  • Nois abamus finìu
  • Bois abazes finìu
  • Issos/Issas aìan finìu

Future[edit | edit source]

  • Deo app'a finìre
  • Tue as a finìre
  • Issu/Issa at a finìre
  • Nois amus a finìre
  • Bois azes a finìre
  • Issos/Issas an a finìre

Future Perfect[edit | edit source]

  • Deo app'àer finìu
  • Tue as' àer finìu
  • Issu/Issa at' àer finìu
  • Nois amus' àer finìu
  • Bois azes' àer finìu
  • Issos/Issas an' àer finìu

Subjunctive[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo fìna
  • (Chi) Tue fìnas
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa fìnat
  • (Chi) Nois finàmus
  • (Chi) Bois finàzes
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas fìnan

Imperfect[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo finìrepo
  • (Chi) Tue finìres
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa finìret
  • (Chi) Nois finirémus
  • (Chi) Bois finirézes
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas finìren

Past[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo appa finìu
  • (Chi) Tue appas finìu
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa appat finìu
  • (Chi) Nois appamus finìu
  • (Chi) Bois appazes finìu
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas appan finìu

Pluperfect[edit | edit source]

  • (Chi) Deo aèrepo finìu
  • (Chi) Tue aères finìu
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa aèret finìu
  • (Chi) Nois aerémus finìu
  • (Chi) Bois aerèzes finìu
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas aèren finìu

Conditional[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • Deo dìo finìre
  • Tue dìas finìre
  • Issu/Issa dìat finìre
  • Nois diàmus finìre
  • Bois diàzes finìre
  • Issos/Issas dìan finìre

Past[edit | edit source]

  • Deo dìo àer finìu
  • Tue dìas àer finìu
  • Issu/Issa dìat àer finìu
  • Nois diàmus àer finìu
  • Bois diàzes àer finìu
  • Issos/Issas dìan àer finìu

Imperative[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

  • Fìni (tue!)
  • Fìnat (issu / issa!)
  • Finàmus (nois!)
  • Finìe (bois!)
  • Fìnan (issos / issas!)

Future[edit | edit source]

  • As a finìre (tue!)
  • At a finìre (issu / issa!)
  • Amus a finìre (nois!)
  • Azes a finìre (bois!)
  • An a finìre (issos / issas!)

Infinitive[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

Finìre

Past[edit | edit source]

Áer finìu

Participle[edit | edit source]

Finìu

Gerund[edit | edit source]

Present[edit | edit source]

Finìnde

Past[edit | edit source]

Aènde finìu



Verbs/Irregular verbs

A[edit | edit source]

  • APÈRRER (to open)
Other verbs such as copèrrer, iscopèrrer etc. are to be conjugated just like this one.
IND.(PRES.): deo apérjo, tue apéris, issu/-a apérit, nois aperímus, bois aperíes, issos/-as apérin
IND.(IMPERF.): deo aperío, tue aperías etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo apérja, (chi) tue apérjas etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): apèri (tue!), aperíe (bois!)
PART.(PAST): apértu
GER.(PRES.): aperìnde
  • ANDÀRE (to go)
IMPER.(PRES.): bàe (tue!), bàzze (bois!)

B[edit | edit source]

  • BÀLER (to be worth)
IND.(PRES.): deo bàzo, tue bàles, issu/-a bàlet, nois balímus, bois balíes, issos/-as bàlen
IND.(IMPERF.): deo balío, tue balías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo bàza, (chi) tue bàzas, (chi) issu/-a bàzat, etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): bàle (tue!), balíe (bois!)
PART.(PAST): bàfiu
GER.(PRES.): balénde
  • BÈNNER (to come)
Other verbs such as cumbènner, imbènner, prebènner, etc. are to be conjugated just like this one.
IND.(PRES.): deo bénzo, tue bénis, issu/-a bénit, nois benìmus, bois beníes, issos/-as bènin
IND.(IMPERF.): deo benío, tue benías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo bénza, (chi) tue bénzas, (chi) issu/-a bénzat, etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): béni (tue!), beníe (bois!)
PART.(PAST): bènniu
GER.(PRES.): benìnde
  • BÍER (to see)
IND.(PRES.): deo bìo, tue bìes, issu/-a bìet, nois (b)idímus, bois (b)idíes, issos/-as bìen
IND.(IMPERF.): deo bidío, tue bidías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo bìa, (chi) tue bìas, (chi) issu/-a bìat, etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): bìe (tue!), (b)idíe (bois!)
PART.(PAST): bìdu oppure bìstu
GER.(PRES.): biénde
  • BÒLER (to want)
IND.(PRES.): deo bòzo, tue bòles, issu/-a bòlet, nois bolímus, bois bolíes, issos/-as bòlen
IND.(IMPERF.): deo bolío, tue bolías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo bòza, (chi) tue bòzas, (chi) issu/-a bòzat, etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): bòle (tue!), bolíe (bois!)
PART.(PAST): bòfiu
GER.(PRES.): bolénde

C[edit | edit source]

  • CHÉRRER (to want)
IND.(PRES.): deo chérjo, tue chéres, issu/-a chéret, nois cherìmus, bois cheríes, issos/-as chéren
IND.(IMPERF.): deo cherío, tue cherías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo chérja, (chi) tue chérjas, (chi) issu/-a chérjat, etc.
PART.(PAST): chérfiu
GER.(PRES.): cherénde

D[edit | edit source]

  • DÀRE (to give)
IND.(PRES.): deo dào, tue dàes, issu/-a dàet, nois dàmus, bois dàzes, issos/-as dàen
IND.(IMPERF.): deo dàbo oppure daío, tue dàbas oppure daías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo día, (chi) tue días, (chi) issu/-a díat, (chi) nois diàmus, (chi) bois diàzes, (chi) issos/-as dían
IMPER.(PRES.): dàe (tue!), dàze (bois!)
  • DÉPER (must / to have to)
Here is the conjugation of this verb in particular.
  • DÒLER (to hurt)
The conjugation is regular, with the exception of PART.(PAST) which is dòrfiu.

E[edit | edit source]

F[edit | edit source]

  • FÉRRER (to wound)
Other verbs such as offérrer, preférrer, reférrer etc. are to be conjugated just like this one.
IND.(PRES.): deo férjo, tue féris, issu/-a férit, nois ferìmus, bois feríes, issos/-as férin
IND.(IMPERF.): deo ferío, tue ferías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo férja, (chi) tue férjas, (chi) issu/-a férjat, etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): féri (tue!), feríe (bois!)
PART.(PAST): fértu
GER.(PRES.): ferìnde

G[edit | edit source]

H[edit | edit source]

I[edit | edit source]

  • ISTÈRRER (to extend)
IND.(PRES.): deo istèrjo, tue isterres, issu/-a isterret, nois isterrímus, bois isterríes, issos/-as isterren
IND.(IMPERF.): deo isterrío, tue isterrías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo istèrja, (chi) tue istèrjas, (chi) issu/-a istèrjat, etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): isterre (tue!), isterríe (bois!)

L[edit | edit source]

M[edit | edit source]

  • MANTÈNNER (to maintain)
This verb is to be conjugated just like TÈNNER, with the exception of the PART.(PAST) which is mantésu.
  • MÒRRER (to die)
IND.(PRES.): deo mòrjo, tue mòris, issu/-a mòrit, nois mòrimus, bois mòríes, issos/-as mòrin
IND.(IMPERF.): deo morío, tue morías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo mòrja, (chi) tue mòrjas, (chi) issu/-a mòrjat, etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): mòri (tue!), moríe (bois!)
PART.(PAST): mòrtu
GER.(PRES.): morìnde

N[edit | edit source]

  • NÀRRER (to say)
This verb is particular, in that it belongs to the second cojugation just for the INF.(PRES.); all of the other moods seem to belong to the first one.
IND.(PRES.): deo nàro, tue nàras, issu/-a nàrat, nois nàramus, bois nàraes, issos/-as nàran
or even
deo nàro, tue nàs, issu/-a nàt, nois nàmus, bois nàzes, issos/-as nàn
IND.(IMPERF.): deo nàbo, tue nàbas, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo nìe, (chi) tue nìes, etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): nàra (tue!), nàze (bois!)
PART.(PAST): naràu or even nàu
GER.(PRES.): narànde or even nànde

O[edit | edit source]

P[edit | edit source]

  • PÀRRER (to seem)
Other verbs such as appárrer, cumpárrer, iscumpárrer are to be conjugated just like this one.
IND.(PRES.): deo pàrjo, tue pàres, issu/-a pàret, nois parìmus, bois paríes, issos/-as pàren
IND.(IMPERF.): deo parío, tue parías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo pàrja, (chi) tue pàrjas, (chi) issu/-a pàrjat, etc.
PART.(PAST): pàrtu
  • PÒDER (can)
IND.(PRES.): deo pòtto, tue pòdes, issu/-a pòdet, nois podìmus, bois podíes, issos/-as pòden
IND.(IMPERF.): deo podío, tue podías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo pòda, (chi) tue pòdas, (chi) issu/-a pòdat, etc.
PART.(PAST): pòttiu
  • PÒNNER (to put)
Other verbs such as cumpònner, dispònner, impònner, propònner etc. are to be conjugated just like this one.
IND.(PRES.): deo pònzo, tue pònes, issu/-a pònet, nois ponìmus, bois poníes, issos/-as pònen
IND.(IMPERF.): deo ponío, tue ponías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo pònza, (chi) tue pònzas, (chi) issu/-a pònzat, etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): pòne (tue!), poníe (bois!)
PART.(PAST): pòstu
GER.(PRES.): ponénde

Q[edit | edit source]

R[edit | edit source]

S[edit | edit source]

T[edit | edit source]

  • TÈNNER (to have)
The following compound verbs are conjugated similarly: astènner, cuntènner, mantènner, trattènner, retènner, sustènner etc.
IND.(PRES.): deo ténzo, tue ténes, issu/-a ténet, nois tenìmus, bois teníes, issos/-as ténen
IND.(IMPERF.): deo tenío, tue tenías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo ténza, (chi) tue ténzas, (chi) issu/-a ténzat, etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): téne (tue!), teníe (bois!)
PART.(PAST): téntu
GER.(PRES.): tenénde
  • TRATTÈNNER (to hold)
This verb is to be conjugated just like TÈNNER, with the exception of the PART.(PAST) which is trattésu.

U[edit | edit source]

V[edit | edit source]

Z[edit | edit source]



Interjections

The most basic and common interjections are presented here :


  • Ajò ! / archaically: Ajòni ! = Come on!
  • Eja! = Yes!
  • Emmo! = Yes!
  • Alé! = Hooray! / Come on! (different from "Ajò"; "Alé" is more "Hooray" than "Come on")
  • Ello...! = So...!
  • Uff'! = Phew!
  • Mah! =
  • Oh...! = [vocative / to call someone, or in formulation of a question]
  • Puh! / Putzidda! = Yuck!
  • Bo'! = Enough! [often preceded by "puntu e"]
  • Tittía! = It's cold! / What a cold! [often followed by da "bette frittu!", "bette astragu!", "su frittu chi b'at!" etc.]
  • Pistidda! = [for burning sensation]
  • Addolumannu! = Unfortunately! [ followed by the possessive to give references , eg. "addolumannu nostru!" or "unfortunately for us!"]
  • Mudu! = Shit up! (to a boy/man)
  • Muda! = Shit up! (to a girl/woman)
  • Innorobona! = Good luck!
  • Innoromala! = Go to hell!
  • Arguai! = Woe! (in the sense of "woe betide him who ...")
  • Iscuru! = Poor guy!
  • Iscura! = Poor girl/woman!
  • Pacubene! = [lamentation, sometimes followed by the possessive to give references , eg. "pacubene tuo!"]
  • Mamma mea! / Ma' Mea! = Oh my!
  • Oddeu'! / Oddé! = Yikes!
  • Sa làstima! = What a pity! [often ironic ]
  • Mancari! = If only... (literally "Maybe!")
  • Malaittu / -a! = Cursed (be you/him/her/it) [sometimes followed by "chi siat / sian"]
  • Raju! = Heck!, Wow!
  • Archibusada! = Wow!
  • Balla! = Wow!
  • Bene! = Good!
  • Marranu / -a! = [to taunt a victim to a duel]
  • Zée...! / Cée...! = [exclamation of surprise, especially negative]



Colours, months and seasons

Dies (days)[edit | edit source]

Sa chida (the week)[edit | edit source]

Sardu English
Lunis Monday
Martis Tuesday
Mércuris Wednesday
Jòbia Thursday
Chenàpura Friday
Sàpadu Saturday
Dumìnica Sunday

Festas (holidays)[edit | edit source]

Sardu English
Prima di'e Annu New Year's Day
Pasca de sos tres Res Epiphany
Pasca de Frores Pentecost/Whitsunday
Mes'Agustu Mid-August/feast of the assumption
Pasca 'e Nadale Christmas
Pasca Easter

Meses (months)[edit | edit source]

Sardu English
Jannàrju January
Freàrju February
Màrtu March
Aprìle April
Màju May
Làmpadas June
Trìbulas July
Agùstu August
Capidànne September
Santu Gabìne October
Sant'Andrìa November
Nadàle December

Istajones (seasons)[edit | edit source]

Sardu English
Berànu Spring
Istíu Summer
Attùnzu Fall/Autumn
Ibèrru Winter

Colores (colours)[edit | edit source]

Sardu English
Biancu (archaic: Arbu) white
Nigheddu black
Ruju red
Grogu yellow
Blu blue
Biaitu azure / sky-blue
Birde green
Aranzu orange
Tabachìnu brown
Murru gray
Rosa pink