Docker is a container technology, performing operating-system-level virtualisation.
See also Singularity.
SPM Docker Container
Official SPM12 Dockerfile (using the Standalone SPM):
For example, to start SPM with its graphical user interface:
xhost +local:docker docker run -ti --rm -e DISPLAY=$DISPLAY -v /tmp:/tmp -v /tmp/.X11-unix:/tmp/.X11-unix spmcentral/spm fmri
If the container's root filesystem is mounted as read only (--read-only flag), you need to bind mount an extra volume: