SPARQL/Views

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WIKIDATA Lexicographical data SPARQL
Views
TOC

This page helps you to understand the various possibilities to display results on Wikidata Query. The query example page contains many good examples you can try!

After running a query, you can choose with the "Display" button which result view you want to display. Depending on your query and the data type, some of the views will be available.

#Countries in European Union with Flags and Population
# to be displayed as
# 1) Table
# 2) Image Grid
# 3) Map
# 4) Bar Chart
# 5) Bubble Chart
SELECT ?country ?countryLabel (MAX(?population) AS ?Population) (SAMPLE(?flag_image) AS ?Flag) (MAX(?coordinate) AS ?coor) 
WHERE {
  wd:Q458 wdt:P150 ?country.   # European Union  contains administrative territorial entity
  OPTIONAL { ?country wdt:P41 ?flag_image. }
  OPTIONAL { ?country wdt:P36 ?capital. }
  OPTIONAL { ?country wdt:P1082 ?population. }
  OPTIONAL { ?capital wdt:P625  ?coordinate. }
  SERVICE wikibase:label { bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en". 
                           ?country rdfs:label ?countryLabel             
                         }
}
GROUP BY ?country ?countryLabel
ORDER BY DESC(?Population)
Try it!
Display button. Try the query to the left as Table, Image Grid, Map, Bar Chart and Bubble Chart

Default View[edit]

The default view can be changed for each SPARQL query by using a comment

#defaultView:[NAME]

For example:

#defaultView:ImageGrid

Table (default)[edit]

Shows the result data as table. It is the default view for results and can display every data type.

This will map every variable from the SPARQL select clause to a formatted table column.

Image Grid[edit]

The #defaultView:ImageGrid shows the result data as a grid with images.

Every grid item has a big picture and opens the gallery when clicking on it.

Contents an item is the formatted row data.

Variable Data Type Mapping Description
* Commons Media Grid Item Image columns will create a grid item.

Rows containing no image will be ignored.

Options:

Option name Type Description
hide One or more variable names (strings, starting with ?), single value or array Don’t show these variables in the result.
#Even more cats, with pictures
#added before 2016-10
#defaultView:ImageGrid
SELECT ?itemDescription ?itemLabel ?item ?pic
WHERE
{
	?item wdt:P31 wd:Q146 . 
	OPTIONAL {
		?item wdt:P18 ?pic
	} 
	SERVICE wikibase:label { bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en" }
}
Try it!
Image Grid Try Out

Map[edit]

The #defaultView:Map shows the result data as map with Open Street Map data.

Variable Data Type Mapping Description
* Coordinate Map Marker Columns will create a marker on the map.
Content of that marker is the formatted row data.
?layer Map Marker Layer Creates a colored map layer that allows filtering.

Options:

Option name Type Description
hide One or more variable names (strings, starting with ?), single value or array Don’t show these variables in the result.
layer One or more variable names (strings, starting with ?), single value or array Use these variables for the map layer, instead of the default ?layerLabel, ?layer.
markercluster boolean or object
  • If the value is an object, pass these options to Leaflet.markercluster, a map plugin for clustering nearby map markers. (If the value is the empty object {}, Leaflet.markercluster is enabled with its default options.)
  • If the value is true (default for queries without map layers), Leaflet.markercluster is enabled with a special set of options that doesn’t cluster any nearby map markers (it only “spiderfies” markers with exactly identical coordinates) and attempts to replicate the default map look as much as possible. The code is #defaultView:Map{"markercluster": "true"}
  • If the value is false (default for queries with map layers), Leaflet.markercluster is not enabled.


#Big cities, grouped into map layers by population
#defaultView:Map
SELECT DISTINCT ?city ?cityLabel (SAMPLE(?location) AS ?location) (MAX(?population) AS ?population) (SAMPLE(?layer) AS ?layer)
WHERE
{
  ?city wdt:P31/wdt:P279* wd:Q515;
        wdt:P625 ?location;
        wdt:P1082 ?population.
  FILTER(?population >= 500000).
  BIND(
    IF(?population < 1000000, "<1M",
    IF(?population < 2000000, "1M-2M",
    IF(?population < 5000000, "2M-5M",
    IF(?population < 10000000, "5M-10M",
    IF(?population < 20000000, "10M-20M",
    ">20M")))))
    AS ?layer).
  SERVICE wikibase:label { bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en". }
}
GROUP BY ?city ?cityLabel
ORDER BY ?population
Try it!
Map with layers Try Out
#Airports in Belgium
#added before 2016-10
#List of airports in Belgium
#defaultView:Map
SELECT DISTINCT ?airport ?airportLabel ?coor ?range
WHERE
{
  ?airport wdt:P31 wd:Q1248784 ;
          ?range wd:Q31;
          wdt:P625 ?coor.
  SERVICE wikibase:label { bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en". }
}
Try it!
Map of airports in Belgium Try Out

Line, Area, Bar and Scatter Chart[edit]

#defaultView:LineChart, #defaultView:AreaChart, #defaultView:BarChart and #defaultView:ScatterChart shows one of these chart types.

Variable Data Type Mapping Description
* Number
Label
DateTime
X-Axis
Y-Axis
First will be X-axis, second Y-axis
* Label Category / Legend Item (optional) Will only be used after the above are mapped
* Label Storyboard / Animation (optional) Will only be used after the above are mapped

LineChart[edit]

#Number of paintings per decade
#defaultView:LineChart
SELECT ?decade (COUNT(?decade) AS ?Paintings) 
WHERE {
  ?item wdt:P31 wd:Q3305213 . # instance of painting
  ?item wdt:P571 ?inception .
  BIND( year(?inception) as ?year ). 
  BIND( ROUND(?year/10)*10 as ?decade ) .
  FILTER( ?year > 1400)
} GROUP BY ?decade
ORDER BY ?decade
Try it!
#Population of countries sharing a border with Germany
#defaultView:LineChart
SELECT ?country  ?year ?population ?countryLabel WHERE {
  {
    SELECT ?country ?year (AVG(?population) AS ?population) WHERE {
      {
        SELECT ?country (str(YEAR(?date)) AS ?year) ?population WHERE {
          ?country wdt:P47 wd:Q183.
          ?country p:P1082 ?populationStatement.
          ?populationStatement ps:P1082 ?population.
          ?populationStatement pq:P585 ?date.
        }
      }
    }
    GROUP BY ?country ?year
  }
  SERVICE wikibase:label { bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en". }
}
Try it!
Line Chart Try Out

AreaChart[edit]

#Cancer deaths per year and cancer type
#defaultView:AreaChart
SELECT ?cid (str(SAMPLE(?year)) AS ?year )  (COUNT(*) AS ?count)  ?cause WHERE {
  ?pid wdt:P31 wd:Q5.
  ?pid wdt:P509 ?cid.
  ?cid wdt:P279* wd:Q12078.
  OPTIONAL {
    ?cid rdfs:label ?cause.
    FILTER((LANG(?cause)) = "en")
  }
  ?pid wdt:P570 ?_date_of_death. 
  BIND ( YEAR(?_date_of_death) AS ?year )
  FILTER( BOUND(?cause)  )
  FILTER( BOUND(?year)  )
  FILTER( ?year > 1960 )
}
GROUP BY ?cid ?cause ?year
Try it!
Area Chart Try Out

BarChart[edit]

#Battles per year per continent and country last 80 years (animated)
#defaultView:BarChart
SELECT (SAMPLE(?_continentLabel) AS ?contient) (COUNT(?_country) AS ?battles) (SAMPLE(?_countryLabel) AS ?_countryLabel) (SAMPLE(?year) AS ?year)  WHERE {
  ?subj wdt:P31 wd:Q178561.
  OPTIONAL { ?subj wdt:P580 ?d1. }
  OPTIONAL { ?subj wdt:P585 ?d2. }
  OPTIONAL { ?subj wdt:P582 ?d3. }
  BIND(IF(!BOUND(?d1), IF(!BOUND(?d2), ?d3, ?d2), ?d1) AS ?date)
  BIND(str(YEAR(?date)) AS ?year)
  ?subj wdt:P276 ?_loc.
  ?_loc wdt:P17 ?_country.
  ?_country wdt:P30 ?_continent.
  ?_country rdfs:label ?_countryLabel.
  ?_continent rdfs:label ?_continentLabel.
  BIND((NOW()) - ?date AS ?distance)
  FILTER(BOUND(?year))
  FILTER((LANG(?_countryLabel)) = "en")
  FILTER((LANG(?_continentLabel)) = "en")
  FILTER((0 <= ?distance) && (?distance < 31 * 12 * 80))
}
GROUP BY ?year ?_country
ORDER BY ?_countryLabel
Try it!
Bar Chart (Animated)Try Out

ScatterChart[edit]

# Scatter Chart river watershed area in km² plotted over length in km
PREFIX wikibaseβ: <http://wikiba.se/ontology-beta#>
#defaultView:ScatterChart
# river watershed area in km² plotted over length in km, using new normalized units support
# (rivers shorter than 500 km excluded to avoid crashing the browser when trying to render too many results)
SELECT ?river (SAMPLE(?length) AS ?length) (SAMPLE(?area) AS ?area) ?riverLabel WHERE {
  ?river wdt:P31/wdt:P279* wd:Q355304;
         p:P2043/psn:P2043/(wikibase:quantityAmount|wikibaseβ:quantityAmount) ?lengthInMetres;
         p:P2053/psn:P2053/(wikibase:quantityAmount|wikibaseβ:quantityAmount) ?areaInSquareMetres.
  BIND(?lengthInMetres / 1000 AS ?length).
  BIND(?areaInSquareMetres / 1000000 AS ?area).
  FILTER(?length > 500).
  SERVICE wikibase:label { bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en". }
}
GROUP BY ?river ?riverLabel
Try it!
#Number of films by year and genre
#defaultView:ScatterChart
SELECT   ?year  (COUNT(?_genre) AS ?count ) (SAMPLE(?_genreLabel) AS ?label )  (?year as ?year_shown) WHERE {
  ?item wdt:P31 wd:Q11424.
  ?item wdt:P577 ?_publication_date.
  ?item wdt:P136 ?_genre.
  ?_genre rdfs:label ?_genreLabel.
  BIND(str(YEAR(?_publication_date)) AS ?year)
  FILTER((LANG(?_genreLabel)) = "en")
  FILTER (?_publication_date >= "2000-00-00T00:00:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime)
}
GROUP BY ?_genreLabel ?year
HAVING (?count > 30)
Try it!
Scatter Chart (animated) Try Out

Bubble Chart[edit]

The #defaultView:BubbleChart shows a bubble chart where the size and the color of the bubble can configured.

When an item is provided a bubble is linked to Wikidata.org.

Variable Data Type Mapping
* Label Bubble Label
* Number Bubble Size
* Item Bubble Link (optional)
?rgb Color Bubble Color (optional)
#Overall causes of death ranking
#added before 2016-10
#defaultView:BubbleChart
SELECT ?cid ?cause (count(*) as ?count)
WHERE
{
	?pid wdt:P31 wd:Q5 .
	?pid wdt:P509 ?cid .
	OPTIONAL {
		?cid rdfs:label ?cause 
		filter (lang(?cause) = "en")
	}
}
GROUP BY ?cid ?cause
ORDER BY DESC(?count) ASC(?cause)
Try it!
Bubble Chart Try Out

Tree Map[edit]

#defaultView:TreeMap shows a zoomable tree map.

Variable Data Type Mapping Description
* Label Label 1st label in a row will be 1st level in tree map.
2nd label will be 2nd level.
3rd label will be 3rd level etc..
* Item Link (optional)
#Popular television series (in treeview)
#added before 2016-10
#defaultView:TreeMap
SELECT ?show ?showLabel  ?season ?seasonLabel ?episode ?episodeLabel
WHERE 
{
	{	BIND(wd:Q886 as ?show) .      # The Simpsons
		?season wdt:P361 ?show .
		?episode wdt:P361 ?season .
	} UNION 
	{	BIND(wd:Q16538 as ?show) .    # South Park
		?season wdt:P361 ?show .
  		?episode wdt:P361 ?season .
	} UNION
	{	BIND(wd:Q147235 as ?show) .   # How I Met Your Mother 
		?season wdt:P361 ?show .
  		?episode wdt:P361 ?season .
	} 
	SERVICE wikibase:label {  bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en" }
}
Try it!
Tree Map Try Out

Tree[edit]

#defaultView:Tree shows an expandable tree.

Variable Data Type Mapping Description
* Item Node ID First item will be a root node
The following items in the same row will be nested.
* Label Node Label (optional) Labels will be appended to current node.
* Number Node Label (optional)
* Commons Media Item image
#defaultView:Tree
SELECT ?continent ?continentFlag ?continentLabel ?country ?countryLabel ?countryFlag ?region ?regionLabel ?regionFlag ?city ?cityLabel ( 'Population:' as ?popLabel )  ?pop  ?cityImage 
WHERE
{
  {
    SELECT * WHERE {
      ?continent wdt:P31 wd:Q5107.
      ?country wdt:P30 ?continent.
      ?country wdt:P31 wd:Q6256.
      ?country wdt:P150 ?region.
      OPTIONAL {
        ?continent wdt:P242 ?continentFlag.
        ?country wdt:P41 ?countryFlag.
        ?region wdt:P41 ?regionFlag.
      }
      OPTIONAL {
        ?region wdt:P36 ?city.
        ?city wdt:P31 wd:Q515.
        ?city wdt:P1082 ?pop.
        ?city wdt:P18 ?cityImage.
      }
    }
  }
  SERVICE wikibase:label { bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en". }
}
Try it!
Tree Try Out

Timeline[edit]

#defaultView:Timeline shows an explorable timeline.

Variable Data Type Mapping Description
* DateTime Item Point in Time
Item End Point in Time
First date in a row sets the item position in the timeline.
If a second date is present a start and end date will be set.
* Commons Media Item image

Options:

Option name Type Description
hide One or more variable names (strings, starting with ?), single value or array Don’t show these variables in the result.
#defaultView:Timeline
SELECT ?item ?itemLabel ?launchdate (SAMPLE(?image) AS ?image)
WHERE
{
    ?item wdt:P31 wd:Q26529 .      # Space probe
    ?item wdt:P619 ?launchdate .
    OPTIONAL { ?item wdt:P18 ?image }
    SERVICE wikibase:label { bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en" }
}
GROUP BY ?item ?itemLabel ?launchdate
Try it!
Timeline (of an other query) Try Out

Dimensions[edit]

#defaultView:Dimensions shows dimension and their links.

It also allows filtering them by selecting an axis fraction.

Variable Data Type Mapping Description
* Label Dimension Every column in the result row is mapped to a dimension
* Number
* DateTime
#defaultView:Dimensions
SELECT ?elementLabel ?_boiling_point ?_melting_point ?_electronegativity ?_density ?_mass WHERE {
  ?element wdt:P31 wd:Q11344.
  ?element wdt:P2102 ?_boiling_point.
  ?element wdt:P2101 ?_melting_point.
  ?element wdt:P1108 ?_electronegativity.
  ?element wdt:P2054 ?_density.
  ?element wdt:P2067 ?_mass. 
  SERVICE wikibase:label { bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en". }
}
LIMIT 100
Try it!
Dimensions Try Out

Graph[edit]

Shows an interactive graph that allow hierarchically ordering and exploring items.

Variable Data Type Mapping Description
* Item Node ID First item in a row will have an arrow pointing to the items in the same row
* Label Node Label (optional)
* Commons Media Node Image (optional)
?rgb Color Node Color (optional)
* Number Node Size (optional)
#US presidents and spouses
#defaultView:Graph
SELECT ?p ?pLabel ?ppicture ?w ?wLabel ?wpicture
WHERE 
{
   wd:Q30 p:P6/ps:P6 ?p .
   ?p wdt:P26 ?w .
   OPTIONAL{
    ?p wdt:P18 ?ppicture .
    ?w wdt:P18 ?wpicture .
   }
   SERVICE wikibase:label { bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en". }
}
Try it!
Graph of US presidents and spouses Try Out
#Children of Genghis Khan
#added before 2016-10
#defaultView:Graph
PREFIX gas: <http://www.bigdata.com/rdf/gas#>
SELECT ?item ?itemLabel ?pic ?linkTo ?linkToLabel
WHERE
{
  SERVICE gas:service {
    gas:program gas:gasClass "com.bigdata.rdf.graph.analytics.SSSP" ;
                gas:in wd:Q720 ;
                gas:traversalDirection "Forward" ;
                gas:out ?item ;
                gas:out1 ?depth ;
                gas:maxIterations 4 ;
                gas:linkType wdt:P40 .
  }
  OPTIONAL { ?item wdt:P40 ?linkTo }
  OPTIONAL { ?item wdt:P18 ?pic }
  SERVICE wikibase:label {bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en,ru,ja,zh,az,ca" }
}
Try it!
Graph of children of Genghis Khan Try Out

Additional Information[edit]

RDF Data Type Mapping[edit]

RDF Type RDF Data Type Constraint Data Type
URI String starts with http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q Entity
URI String starts with http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:FilePath Commons Media
Literal http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime DateTime
Literal http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#wktLiteral Coordinate
Literal

http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#double
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#float
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#decimal
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#long
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#int
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#short
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#nonNegativeInteger
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#positiveInteger
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#unsignedLong
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#unsignedInt
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#unsignedShort
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#nonPositiveInteger
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#negativeInteger

Number
Literal Has no RDF Data Type Label
Literal Has property xml:lang Label
Literal String matches /^[0-9A-F]{6}$/ Color

Formatting[edit]

There is special formatting for the following data types:

Data Type Format
Entity Link to Wikidata.org
Label is shortened to wd:Qxx
Explore an item (magnify icon)
DateTime MM DD, YYYY
Tooltip shows raw ISO timestamp
Commons Media Link to Commons.Wikimedia.org
Displaying Gallery ( image icon )

Mobile / Responsive[edit]

Result views are made to work on different devices and resolutions. Their appearance may change depending on the space they can use.

Embed Mode[edit]

Result views can be linked or embedded via iframes. You can get the regarding link or code by clicking Link in the above menu. See the difference: link to a query and link to a result

or the embed code:

<iframe style="width:80vw; height:50vh;" scrolling="yes" frameborder="0" src="http://tinyurl.com/zwf4k2w">

Download results[edit]

Download results buttons

There are several ways to export the results of a query.

JSON, TSV and CSV are three different open-standard formats to download the data.

You can also download some of the graphic views as a SVG file: this feature works with all the views except table, image grid, timeline, graph builder, map, and graph.

Default View[edit]

The default view can be change for each SPARQL query by using a comment:

#defaultView:[NAME]

For example:

#defaultView:ImageGrid

Result view options[edit]

Result views can be configured with various options, which are specified in JavaScript Object Notation (Q2063) format, either following the defaultView comment or following a separate view comment.

#defaultView:Map{"layer": "?typeLabel"}
#view:ImageGrid{"hide": "?coords"}

External tools[edit]

See Wikidata:Tools/Visualize data for a list of external tools to visualize data.

References[edit]


WIKIDATA Lexicographical data SPARQL
Views
TOC