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Research on Tibetan Languages
A bibliography

Related Fields

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General Bibliographies of Tibetan Studies

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n order to situate this bibliography among other Tibetan studies bibliographies, it is worth mentioning what other bibliographies are available. I have used all of the ones relevant for this study. But also this may help the student navigate the secondary literature in other areas. Bibliographies of primary sources, manuscript catalogues and the like have been excluded. Perhaps most relevant here is Clark (2006) which includes a bibliography of Tibetan dictionaries.

Bibliographies of Tibetan studies concentrating on research in Japanese include Sadakane (1982, 1997) and Suo (1999). A useful bibliography of Chinese and Tibetan language works has been issued in three volumes covering the period 1949-2000 (Zhongguo Zangxue shumu 1994, 1997, 2001). The somewhat longer period 1872-2004 is covered in another two volume bibliography (Zhongguo zangxue lunwen 1999, 2006). However whereas the former has information in Tibetan and English as well as Chinese, the latter is a monolingual publication. Bibliographies focusing on work in other languages include French *(Aubin 1993), German *(Aschoff 1992), and Italian *(Angelini 1994).


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Tibetan is generally considered a member of the Tibeto-Burman (also called Sino-Tibetan) family. Bibliographies of Tibeto-Burman studies include Shafer (1957), Hale (1982), and LaPolla and Lowe (1994). Another important bibliographic resource is van Driem (2001). Attempts to reconstruct Tibeto-Burman (none terribly successful) include Shafer (1966-???), Benedict (1972), and Matisoff (2003). MENTION SUB BRANCH RECONSTRUCTIONS. and GONG

The Bodish Languages

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Apart from the Tibetan languages the Bodish subbranch of Tibeto-Burman is probably among the least researched branches of Tibeto-Burman. Languages regarded as members of this family include Bumthang (Michailovsky and Mazaudon 1994; van Driem 1995), Tshangla (Stack 1897, Hoffrenning 1959, Das Gupta 1968, Hoshi 1987; Andvik 1999), Monpa (Lu 1986; Nishida 1988, Sun et al. 1991, Lu 2002), and Zhangzhung (Nagano and LaPolla 2001). Zeissler (2004) is an attempt to postulate a broad theory of Bodish syntax in both its diachronic and geographic varieties, but attempts more than it achieves, and appears to have been based solely on secondary literature. Some papers on Kurtoep include Hyslop (2008a, 2008b, 2009).

The indigenous grammatical tradition

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The study of the indigenous Tibetan grammatical tradition, while of course offering much insight into the language, is a field in itself. Therefore, no attempt to comprehensively discuss the Tibetan genres of Sum rtags and Brda gsar rnying will be made in this bibliography. Studies of the Tibetan grammatical tradition include Inaba (1989), Miller (1976, 1993) and Verhagen (1994, and 2001). It remains a discipline in its infancy.

The Tibetan alphabet and paleography

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Uray 1955, van Schaik. also articles on the alphabet by Francke, Filliozat (?), and Laufer.

Tibetan in contact with other languages

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Studies of loanwords from Tibetan into other languages include Róna-Tas (1962, 1966) for Mongour, Emmerick (1983, 1985) for Khotanese, de Roerich (1957) for Mongolian, and Jacques (2004) for Japhug Rgyalroṅng. Studies of loanwords into Tibetan include Laufer (1916/18 and 1919) from various languages, Emmerick (1983, 1985) from Khotanese, and Beckwith and Walter (1997) from Indo-European, and Norbu and Takeuchi (1991) from Mongolian. Studies of Tibetan words written in other scripts include Laufer (1914), Miller (1955b), Li Fang-Kuei (1979), Zhang (1987), Che (1991) and Róna-Tas (1992). Studies concerning the influence of Tibetan on Tokharian include Sapir (1936) and Ivanov (1961).

Varieties of Written Tibetan

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ery little rigorous work has been done on the classification of forms of Written Tibetan. The two categories that appear relatively well defined are "Old Tibetan" and "Modern Literary Tibetan". The former, "Old Tibetan" consists of imperial stone inscriptions on the one hand and Dunhuang documents and wood slips on the other hand. The latter, "Modern Literary Tibetan" may be defined as writing in Tibetan after the communist takeover of Tibet, or generically as the form of writing found in newspapers and modern secular publications such as novels and short stories. It is convenient to define "Classical Tibetan" negatively as all forms of Written Tibetan not belonging to these two categories.

Classical Tibetan

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Classical Tibetan Grammars

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The first published Tibetan grammar was that of de Koros, this was translated into German and slightly amended by Schmidt. Schmidt also has a Russian version. Foucaux learned Tibetan using de Koros materials but came to write his own grammar. Cordier (1907) is one of the few grammars to incorporate the various studies of Schiefner.

Beyer's grammar (1992) is insufficient in various respects. Despite being positively reviewed (Behr 1994, Davidson 1996, Eimer 1993, LaPolla 1994, Miller 1994). Beyer cites neither his predecessors nor his textual examples. He contributes little new, and muddles much of his sources. Other Tibetan grammars include: Inaba (1954), Hahn (1994), Hodge (1990), Bskal bzang vgyur med (1981, 1992), Wilson (1992), and Schwieger (2006). (DESCRIPTION OF EACH NEEDED)


Classical Tibetan Phonology

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Classical Tibetan Morphology

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Wolfenden (1928) discusses the 'prefix' m- used with nominals. Uray's papers on duplication (1954), -e (1953), and the diminutive (1952). Zhang Jichuang (2009) describes Classical Tibetan lexical morphology from the 'word family' perspective. Anton Schiefner (1877) and Michael Hahn (1978) have insightful studies of how the plurals -dag and -rnams differ. Hoshi (2012) explores the use of the polar question marker e arguing that it was borrowed into Classical Tibetan from eastern Tibetan dialects.

Lyovin (1970) makes some desultory remarks on the internal reconstruction of the verbal system, which in some ways presage the more thoroughgoing and more influential work of Coblin from a few years later.

Coblin (1976) undertakes an internal reconstruction of Tibetan that has been highly influential. His internal reconstruction eliminates all vowel and auslaut alternations from the verb stems.

Classical Tibetan Syntax

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Taube (1953-1954) compares the verbal categories of Tibetan and Sanskrit as reflected by the Tibetan translation of the Bodhicaryāvatāra.

There is an excellent article on zero-anaphora in Classical Tibetan by Andersen (1987), which unfortunately seems not to have been noticed much by other researchers. Andersen discusses in particular the use of -pa-dang to block zero-anaphora. He also discusses constructions which are comparable to the passive and anti-passive.

The syntactic effect of converbial markers has also been addressed by Abel Zadoks and Felix Haller from the perspective of 'switch-reference'. Unfortunately none of the studies of Zadoks have been published, the handouts he presented at various conferences in the early 2000s are however invaluable. The study of Haller (2009) is mostly devoted to Shigatse dialect. In his treatment of Classical Tibetan (based on the Mila rnam thar) he acknowledges neither the previous work of Andersen and Zadoks, nor does he present sufficient examples to demonstrate his claims. Beer (2019) gives more in depth treatment of switch reference in Classical Tibetan.

Oetke (1977) discusses the use of vgyur, byed, and yin as auxiliary verbs, in particular with reference to conditional clauses in Buddhist literature. He suggests that the main distinction is one of 'control' versus 'non-control'. His seems to be the earliest discussion of this important distinction in any variety of Tibetan.

Sato (1994) discusses ergativity in Classical Tibetan. On the same topic is the disastrous article by Saxena (1989) which must be read together with the response to it by Dempsey (1993). Nagano (1994) discusses two examples one from Old TIbetan and one from Classical where he believes the suffix -kyis marks the patient of a transitive clause. He has another paper about this too somewhere.

Hoffmann (1955) has a nice discussion of -gis as a converbial marker. He finds that it marks the future, primarily of first persons, whether singular or plural.

Studies on the language of specific Classical Tibetan Documents

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Roesler (2011) discusses the grammar of the Dpe chos of Po-to-ba Rin-chen-gsal. Hoshi (2010) discusses existential verbs in the Rgyal rabs gsal ba'i me long.

Classical Tibetan Dictionaries and General Works of Tibetan Lexicography

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Pre-modern dictionaries including Manchu-Tibetan, and Sanskrit-Tibetan dictionaries have been excluded. see Simon's article, the bibliography of Walters, and the article by Ruegg (1998).

The first Tibetan dictionary by a western author is a manuscript Tibetan-Latin dictionary by the Cappucian missionaries Giuseppe da Ascoli, Franceso Maria da Tours and F. Domenico da Fano (1674-1728), compiled between 1708 and 1713. This dictionary unfortunately remains unpublished but according to Simon (1964: 85) an extract is held at the Bibliothèque Nationale (Fonds Tibétain No. 542). Because this dictionary reportedly carries indication of pronunciation it could be of significant interest for Tibetan historical phonology.

A Tibetan Italian dictionary was compiled by F. Francesco Orazio della Penna (1680-1745), a student of da Fano. The text of this work was translated into English and considerably mangled. The English version became the first published Tibetan dictionary (Schroeter 1826) but the original remains unpublished. These first two dictionaries and well as those of de Kőrös (1834), Schmidt (1841), Jäschke (1881), Desgodins (1899), and Das (1902) are well discussed by Simon and require no lengthy discussion here. de Kőrös is widely regarded as the founder of Tibetology as an academic discipline He has himself been the subject of a significant amount of research. Schmidt (1841) is largely a translation of de Kőrös (1834) into German, but it has been supplemented with lexicographical entries from some Tibetan-Mongolian glossaries at Schmidt's disposal. (WHICH ONES). Schmidt also prepared a Tibetan-Russian dictionary, which however I have not examined. A biography of Schmidt is provided in Babingen (1920). In Jäschke's first dictionary of 1866, the entries are alphabetized by their phonetic romanization, according to Latin alphabetical order. Tibetan script equivalents given for each entry, and differences of dialect are reported; information on verb syntax or stem variation occasionally reported. This dictionary was intended for practical use in the colloquial language. (OF LADAKH OR CENTRAL TIBET???) His 1881 dictionary does not differ significantly from the 1871 dictionary (IS THIS TRUE??). This is the first Tibetan dictionary of real caliber, and indeed as a work of lexicography is unrivaled to this day.

In the history of Tibetan lexicography special place must be afforded to the word of Chos kyi grags pa (1946). This is the first indigenous Tibetan dictionary (although the author was actually ethnically a Mongolian) to be organized alphabetically. Chos kyi grags pa received the aid of Dge 'dun chos 'phel in compiling the work. The latter has become a subject of scholarly inquiry in his own right, which now verges on a subdiscipline within Tibetan Studies (CITATIONS). Until recently this was used very widely be Tibetan as well as Western scholars. A number of lexeme from this dictionary are discussed in Wilhelm, F. (1962).

Gould and Richardson (1943) produced an interesting lexical resource. In a series which included Tibetan Verbs, and Tibetan Sentences. Each of 2950 syllables is numbered. Compound words are listed under each heading, and crossreferenced to each of their members. A phonetic transcription is given. Intransitive and transitive verbs are marked, as well as honorifics and high honorifics. A real contribution to Tibetan etymology and word analysis which has not be properly followed up on. For a similar work see Tshe dbang rnam rgyal ([1958] 1997). Gould’s work is reviewed by Edgerton (1944), Barnett (1946) and Steward (1947).

A number of dictionaries can be mentioned all of which serve more or less the same function and are of roughly equal quality, i.e. derivative, somewhat unreliable, unscientific, but useful. In this category would be a French-Tibetan dictionary (Giraudeau and Goré 1956) closely based on Desgodins (1899) but incorporating more modern technology as well, the Tibetan-Russian dictionary of Semichov (1963), which includes an appendix of verb tables, the Tibetan-German dictionary of Richter (1965), the Tibetan-English dictionary Buck (1969), which relies heavily on the French Catholic lexicographical tradition.

The luminous figure of early twentieth century Tibetology, George Nicholas de Roerich, left a long manuscript Tibetan-English dictionary as part of his Nachlass. It was edited and translated into Russian to form a twenty volume Tibetan-English and Russian dictionary. The size of the work and erudition of its author recommend it. Unfortunately not citing any sources it is not a methodological improvement on its peers, and is now rather difficult to obtain. CITATION

A number of other Tibetan-Tibetan or Tibetan-Chinese dictionaries were published in Tibet during the fifties, unfortunately they have all so far evaded me and it seems unproductive to share the inadequate bibliographic scrapes which I have managed to collect.

A Tibetan-Tibetan dictionary of lasting importance is Tsan chung (1979). This is an excellent dictionary, with carefully written definitions. The cross references are excellent, and the handling of verbs is more sophisticated and reliable than in most dictionaries. Its relatively small size means that obscure words are not to be found, though it does have a strength in colloquial words and eastern dialect words. The examples appear to have been invented by the authors. While not a contribution to the scientific description of the Tibetan language, for a dictionary of its nature and size it is the best that can be achieved. Western students of Tibetan who do not yet know most basic vocabulary and are making the transition from using bilingual to monolingual dictionaries will find a particular asset in this work. It has been unfortunately somewhat upstaged by its larger but less carefully edited successor, to be treated in the next paragraph. The dictionary which has become the current unrivaled standard is that of Zhang (1985). It is certainly a very large and useful work, but its merit is somewhat overrated. The definitions are so laconic as to sometimes be unintelligible, in particular words close in meaning are poorly differentiated. As usual, the compilers do not cite their examples or provide information on their sources. They have also haphazardly included geographical and biographical information properly outside the scope of a dictionary. Begun in 1928, as a translation of Jäschke (1881) the only mention of sources I am aware of cites western works, and Qing dynasty works in general. This work has been the subject of an translation into English (Skorupski 2001) though so far only until the letter nya, and supplement of more recent words has been compiled by Hackett (2001). The handling of tshad ma terminology in Zhang (1985) has been criticized by Bkra shis bzang po (1999). The verb entries have been excerpted and published separately as Li yung khrang (1989). Hackett (2003a) is a dictionary of verb stems and verbal collocations with lexical semantic information and paradigm example sentences taken from classical literature using techniques of corpus linguistics. Hill (2010) is a dictionary of verb stems collected from previous sources.

Old Tibetan

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Takeuchi (2012) treats the periodization of Old Tibetan.

Old Tibetan Grammars

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As yet no grammar of Old Tibetan has been written.

Old Tibetan Phonology

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Hill (2010b) provides an overview of Old Tibetan synchronic phonology. Contributions to particular issues in Old Tibetan phonology include Beckwith (2006), Che (1981, 1984), Dragunov (1936, 1939), and Hill (2005b, 2006, 2007, 2009). Zhang Jichuan 張濟川 (1982) studies stop finals, sandhi with case markers, and the effects of the da-drag.

A newly discovered source for Tibetan historical phonology is a collection of Dunhuang texts which are the transcripts of oral teachings, and give information about the pronunciation of Tibetan in medieval Dunhuang (van Schaik 2007).

Nancy Caplow has reconstructed stress for proto-Tibetan (Caplow 2009). Jacques (2009a) has argued that consonants of the type Cwa originate from *Cuba in pre-Tibetan. Temple (2012) explores the conditioning of palatalization in Old Tibetan.

Old Tibetan Morphology

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Hill (2005a) treats changes in the inflection of the verb for 'to write', Jacques (2010) extends the same argument to a further group of verbs. Hill (2010a) discusses the case marker -las after verbal nouns. Hill (2012b) discusses case grammar. Jacques (2012) speculates about the history of verbal morphology.

Old Tibetan Syntax

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Zeisler (2002) takes note of a potentialis use of the imperative stem in Old Tibetan.

Zeisler (2018) discusses evidentiality in Classical Tibetan.

Old Tibetan Dictionaries

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To date only one work has been published which can be properly called a dictionary of Old Tibetan, this being Btsan lha ngag dbang tshul khrims (1997). This work carefully quotes and cites its sources, however not specifically enough to afford confirmation. Citations have been culled from Dunhuang texts as well as the Bdra gsar rnying, and commentarial literature. Thus it exceeds the scope of Old Tibetan per se, but this only adds to its utility. Despite the very high quality of this work, which exceeds that of most scholarship emitting from the PRC, in my view a comprehensive dictionary-cum-thesaurus of Old Tibetan texts making specific citations is a remaining desideratum of both Tibetan and Tibeto-Burman studies. Another Old Tibetan dictionary is that of Rnam-rgyal Tshe-ring (2001) which I have not yet seen. Although not dictionaries as such the glossaries of Li and Coblin (1987), Richardson (1985), and F. W. Thomas (1935-1965) should be mentioned as lexicographical resources for Old Tibetan. Although the last is now quite outdated. A number of Old Tibetan texts have been fully indexed, though without any definitions or commentary in Choix 3 and 4, and in Takeuchi (1995), and (1997-1998). Although, Takeuchi (1995) does contain a short glossary of terms, and a variety of invaluable lexicographical data and discussion throughout. Work on Tibetan and Tibeto-Burman historical linguistics must reply foremost upon Old Tibetan, and although more work can be done in Old Tibetan lexicography, enough resources are already available to make the common practice of many Tibeto-Burmanists of replying exclusively on Jäschke 1881 now inexcusible. There is an indigenous tradition of providing glossaries of Old Tibetan words and phrases in Classical Tibetan, such works are extensively employed by Btsan lha ngag dbang tshul khrims (1997), Mimaki has made two studies of one of the earliest by Dbu pa blo gsal (Mimaki 1990, 1992). An overview of this literature in general is provided in an article by Manfred Taube.

Modern Literary Tibetan

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Modern Literary Tibetan Grammars

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In the later part of the 20th century one of the most active figures in Tibetan lexicography has been Melvyn C. Goldstein. His work is especially strong in political and military terminology. His first dictionary was published in 1975. It is very positively reviewed by Wylie (1980). Goldstein (1984) later compiled an English-Tibetan dictionary. The carefulness of editing seems uncharacteristic of Goldstein’s work. In 2001 he published a dictionary which is ostensibly a new edition 1975 dictionary though many times its size. It suffers from many basic problems such as cross་references which lead nowhere, and mistakes in alphabetical order. Although ostensibly centered around the language of contemporary news and literature, because the work incorporates other dictionaries more or less in totol, this work even contains Old Tibetan vocabulary. As the first place to turn for a word it has its place. Although this work is useful for reading texts, especially modern, because of its large vocabulary, it fails to contribute to scientific lexicography. The negative comments of the reviewers are well deserved (Beckwith 2001, Denwood 2002, Tsering 2002 CONSULT THIS ONE). Hackett (2001) edited and oversaw the compiling of a dictionary of neologisms compiled from PRC newspapers. This dictionary contains words not already in Zhang (1985), and is intended to serve as a supplement to it. Many quotations are provided drawn from "The Tibet Daily" (བོད་ལྗོངས་ཉིན་དེའི་ཚགས་པར་) and "Lhasa Evening News" (ལྷ་སའི་དགོང་དྲོའི་ཚགས་པར་), but no specific citations are provided. A older, smaller lexicon of newspaper terms can be found in the reader of Sedláček (1972), but many are outdated.

Spoken Tibetan Languages

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escriptive work on Tibetan dialects began in a piecemeal fashion through the work of missionaries and explorers in the 19th century. Inevitably this research focused on the languages of border regions either in the far West or East. Subsequent work on spoken Tibetan languages has focused above all on Lhasa dialect, the 'lingua franca' of Central Tibet and the Tibetan exile community. These three forms of language are often confused in the literature. Recent work on a number of other dialects has filled out the picture.

Surveys and comparative works

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Bonnerjea (1936) offers a pioneering contribution in the comparative phonology of Tibetic languages. His 1937 efforts at comparative morphology, entirely constrained by the straight-jacket of Latinate terminology, is however disappointing (Bonnerjea 1937).

The Tibetan Dialects Project at the University of Berne has been collecting data for a Comparative Dictionary of Tibetan Dialects. This massive project, headed for many years by Roland Bielmeier, is documenting the exact phonetic realisation of Tibetan-derived vocabulary in dozens of Tibetan languages in five countries.

Gesang Jumian & Gesang Yangjing (2002) provide a short introduction to several Tibetan dialects.

Wang Yao (1996) treats the phonetic evolution of the word zla-ba 'moon', and the phonetic evolution of zl- more generally, in several dialects. In the same year, Denwood (1996) treated the same set of questions.

Western Dialects

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Jacques (2009b) has an article showing that what has been argued to be an archaism in the Western Tibetan vowel system is in fact an innovation.


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Some early word lists for Balti include Vigne (1842), Austen (1866:PAGES), and Jäschke (1881: PAGES).

Balti Grammars

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Lobsang, Ghulam Hassan (1995)

Eunice Jones (2009) has an MA thesis devoted to evidentiality and mirativity in Balti.

Balti Dictionaries

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Sprigg (2002)


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Miller (1956), Koshal (1976)


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A Tibetan script Ladakhi text is Francke (DATE 2000).


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Grammars of Ladakhi include Francke ([1901] 1979), Koshal (1979, 1982), Norman (2001). Tournadre (1996) and Zeisler (2004) treat specific topics in Ladakhi grammar.


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Sandberg (1894) includes a long vocabulary of Ladakhi words. Dictionaries of Ladakhi include Ramsay (1890), Norberg-Hodge and Paldan (199?) and Hamid (1998). Rebecca Norman is compiling a Ladakhi dictionary which will exceed all previous efforts in scope.

Works dealing with social linguistics include Zeisler (2006). Works that I have to read before evaluating include Dey (1975) and Koshal (1990).


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Hoshi Michiyo (1978) has a glossary.


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Bailey (1920: PAGES), short grammar, text and vocabulary.


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Qu and Tan (1983)

Central Tibetan (Ü-Tsang) (including Southern dialects)

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Lhasa, 'Central', and 'Modern Standard'

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Because many researchers do not rigorously distinguish the speech of the city of Lhasa per se from other forms of speech dubbed 'Lhasa Tibetan' it is convenient to treat Lhasa dialect together with the other dialects of Central Tibet which have been referred to as 'Lhasa' or generically as 'Central' Tibetan. In addition the lingua franca of the Tibetan exile often all called 'Lhasa' Tibetan is covered in this section.

Handbooks and Manuals

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A number of works treat 'Central Tibetan' without referring more specifically to dialect. Grammars of 'Central Tibetan include Sandberg (1894), and Roerich and Phuntshok (1957) both of which include fairly extensive vocabularies. Early handbooks include Lewin (1879), Sandberg (1894), and Henderson (1903), Bell (1905). Roerich and Phuntshok, Amundsen It is not really clear that Lewin is describing Lhasa dialect.

A good discussion of the previous literature is in Haller's Shigatse grammar, which would almost be worth just translating here.

A discussion of the phonemes of Dbu-gtsang dialect is found in P. Miller (1951).

Handbooks and Manuals include those of the Changs, Goldstein and Nornang (1970), working with one of the same informants. Hu Tan (1989), which is very popular in China. Recently, and popular in Europe and North America is Tournadre and Dorje (2003).


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Hoshi (2003) is a colloquial Tibetan-Japanese verb dictionary. Kitamura and Nagano (1990) is a Tibetan Japanese dictionary which I have not yet seen.


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Kitamura (1977) has a short grammar. Hoshi M. (1988) also has a grammar. There is a longer grammar in Chinese by Wang Zhijing (1994). A Tibetan to Chinese dictionary of Lhasa dialect which i also haven't seen is yu et al. (1983).


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The phonology of Lhasa dialect, in particular the analysis of tone has been rather controversial. Sprigg (1955, 1961, 1993).

Hári (1979) studies tone.

The retention and over-application of -bC- word internally has been studied by Chang and Chang (1967) and Shirai (1999).

Pao et al. (1992) has a study of instrumental phonetics. Tang and Kong (1991) discuss vowels, vowel length and tone.

Róna-Tas (1984) compares the analysis of the vowel system across several authors, focusing of the description of Chang and Chang, from a typological perspective.

Hu Tan (1991b) has a study of final consonants.

Chang and Chang Sprigg Chao, Jin Peng (1958) treats mostly phonology. He suffers from the Chinese obsession of giving the "same" sentence in several dialects. Zhou Li (1986) teaches how to read Tibetan script in the pronunciation of Lhasa. His description of phonology closely matches that of Tournadre, with a more detailed treatment of tone and tone sandhi.

Dawson wrote a PhD thesis (1980) on Lhasa phonology in keeping with the tradition of Goldstein and Nornang. She has also written a related paper on Lhasa vowels (1985).

Geziben (1996) has something on trochaic structures in the tone system.


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Tourandre (1991, 1996) an article by the Changs.


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Robin and Vittrant (2007) treat reduplication in Lhasa dialect. Hu Tan (1991) discusses nominalization.

Verbal System

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Agha (1990, 1993) reviewed by Hongladarom 1996, who points out that he omits mention of yod-pa-red.

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Researchers into Lhasa Tibetan evidentiality divide into three groups: 1. early pedagogical grammarians who treat Lhasa evidentiality more or less as a form of person agreement, 2. linguistic researchers who analyze the three term Lhasa system as reflecting binary settings of interacting features, 3. those who describe the three semantic categories encoded by the evidential system as isomorphic with the three morphosyntactic categories used to encode them. These three approaches broadly correspond with chronologically distinct stages in research on Tibetan evidentiality and reflect an overarching movement away from a prior commitments to person and toward characterizations that are both structurally verifiable and motivated by usage in discourse. However, there are striking exceptions to the chronological pattern. The vanguard includes Yukawa Yasutoshi, a proponent of the third approach already in 1966. Although a useful heuristic, the division of researchers among these three groups is somewhat arbitrary. No researcher unambiguously equates the Lhasa system with person agreement of the Indo-European type, to do so would be foolish. Concomitantly, until recently few researchers vehemently disavowed grammatical person.

As Überbegriffe for the meanings the Lhasa categories express 'mood' or 'modality' (Takeuchi 1978, Tournadre 1996: 217, Denwood 1999: 119), 'evidentiality' (DeLancey 1992: 45, Tournadre 1996: 217, Denwood 1999: 119), and 'deixis' (Tournadre 1992, Beckwith 1992, Bartee 1996) have all enjoyed popularity. Since, as de Saussure teaches, the relationship between the signifier and the signified is arbitrary, it would be meaningless to attempt to adjudicate among these terms. No single rubric will ever capture the subtitles of the Lhasa Tibetan evidential system.

Early pedagogical grammarians
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Early pedagogical grammars of spoken Lhasa or Central Tibetan attempt to describe the language's three evidential categories as person agreement. Authors themselves acknowledge the imperfect fit. Writing that personal yod “is more commonly used with the 1st person” (1894: 46), Graham Sandberg pointedly avoids the direct identification of this category with first person agreement. Vincent Henderson habitually translates the personal verb suffixes -yin and -yod as first person and the testimonial suffixes -red and ḥdug as both second and third person, but he includes caveats along the lines that sometimes “yin is also heard with 2nd and 3rd persons” (1903: 33). Charles Bell continues to suggest that these suffixes indicate person agreement by offering paradigms such as ṅas blug-gi-yod 'I pour' (personal) and khos blug-gi-ḥdug 'He pours' (testimonial) (1905: 37). Nonetheless, when writing about the use of the relevant forms as existential verbs rather than as tense suffixes, he also draws attention to the importance of evidence. He writes that as

a general rule it may be said that yod [personal] means 'it is there, I saw it there and know that it is still there'; ḥdug [testimonial] means 'I saw it there but I am not sure whether it is still there or not'; yod-pa-red [factual] means, 'I did not see it, but have heard that it is there' (1905: 40).

Unfortunately, Bell's observations on the evidential meanings of the existential verbs languished for some time.1 Like Bell, Chang & Chang continue to treat the tense suffixes as marking person (1964: 25), while singling out the existential verbs for alternative treatment. Unlike Bell, they distinguish the latter in terms of certainty (1964: 18) rather than evidence. Also in keeping with the precedence of Bell, Goldstein & Nornang speak of person when describing the verbal suffixes (1970: 408-409) but in their discussion of existential verbs they distinguish testimonial ḥdug “actual visual knowledge” from factual yod-pa-red “hearsay and knowledge other than visual” (1970: 23). Thus, altogether early pedagogical grammars never abandoned the attempt to characterize the Lhasa Tibetan verbal system in terms of person agreement, through time the importance of information source gradually emerged. In assessing the accuracy of these pedagogical treatments, one must bear in mind the classroom context, where a com­prehensible oversimplification often commends itself.

Interacting binary features
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A ramification of the early pedagogical treatments' identification of the Lhasa personal evidential category with first person agreement is the bifurcation of the three term Lhasa system into a two way opposition of personal (associated with first person) versus factual and testimonial taken together (both associated with both first and third person). Such a tack precipitates the need to subsequently bifurcate factual and testimonial without recourse to person agreement. Thus, it is no coincidence that to the limited extent Goldstein & Nornang (1970: 408-409) invoke source of knowledge they do so to distinguish between factual and testimonial.

Whether out of deference to this pedagogical heritage or under the influence of a Jakobsonian penchant for binary features, many of the linguists who studied the Lhasa Tibetan verbal system in the latter part of the 20th century upheld this analysis of double bifurcation. Thus, Takeuchi Tsuguhito divides Lhasa Tibetan 'modus' into 内的 'inner' (personal) and 外的 'outer', with the latter subsuming 直接認識 'direct recognition' and 間接認識 'indirect recognition' (1978). Independently of Takeuchi and of each other, in 1992 a further three scholars describe the three Lhasa Tibetan evidential categories in terms of two binary contrasts. Scott DeLancey distinguishes 'conjunct' (personal) and 'disjunct', dividing the disjunct into 'mirative' (testimonial) and 'non-mirative' (factual) (1992: 45). Nicolas Tournadre distinguishes between “égophoriques” (personal) and “hétérophoriques” auxiliaries (1992: 197), dividing the latter between “constatif” (testimonial) and “assertif” (factual) (1992: 207).2 Less clearly, Christopher Beckwith posits a primary distinction of 'personal deictic class' of “first versus second and third persons” (1992: 2) but implies a recognition of 'evidentials' (1992: 11) within the latter class. Ellen Bartee (1996) repeats DeLancey's account, as does Krisadawan Hongladarom, although she notes that his classification is “not wholly adequate” (1992: 1151). Philip Denwood's description of the Lhasa Tibetan three term evidential system as resulting from binary interactions of up to four independent factors 'person', ‘evidentiality’, ‘viewpoint’, and ‘generality’ (1999: 150) represents the apogee of the Jacobsonian approach. This machinery allows him to explain the use of the relevant morphemes in a wide array of contexts, but using a descriptive apparatus of 16 possible settings to account for three paradigmatically contrasting categories is excessive. The 21st century appears to offer no new adherents to the binary feature approach.

Three contrasting forms means three contrasting functions
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The earliest pub­lished dedicated study of Tibetan evidentiality is Yukawa Yasutoshi's 1966 article on ḥdug, a revised version of his 1964 master's thesis. He followed this study with overall treatments of Tibetan predicates in 1971 and 1975. Yukawa's approach is to treat each morphological suffix in turn in all of the syntactic positions in which it occurs. In the third of these papers he says the personal 話し手〈疑問文の場合は話し相 手)にとって身近に感じられる状麓をあらわし“denotes a state with which the speaker (or the listener in interrogative sentences) feels familiar” the factual ある状態であるととを客観的に断定する“objectively asserts a certain state” and the testimonial ある状態を話し手(疑問文の場合は話し相手)の感覚で直接にとらえ...場合に用いられる“used when the speaker (or the listener in interrogative sentences) directly perceives a certain state through the senses” (1975: 4).

In some cases erstwhile adherents of the person agreement or binary features approaches later realize the wisdom of following the three-way morphosyntactic contrast as a guide to describing contrasting evidential functions. Twenty years after the publication of their textbook, Chang & Chang return to the Lhasa Tibetan evidential system with an audience of linguists rather than students in mind. Although they do not explicitly characterize the Tibetan system as 'evidential', their discussion of the personal as “the habitual or customary basis of knowledge which has been personally acquired” (1984: 605), the testimonial as “witness” (1984: 619), and the factual as “hearsay” (1984: 605) makes clear that these morphemes encode three types of information source. For Hongladarom, a mere year sufficed for her to realize the mistake of her earlier adherence to DeLancey's 'conjunct-disjunct' model. She succinctly describes

a three way evidential distinction among yöö [personal], tuu, [testimonial] and yôôree [factual] indicating the speaker's self knowledge, direct experience, and indirect source of information respectively. (1993: 52 emphasis in original).

Garrett arrives as the same analysis positing three “evidential categories in Lhasa Tibetan—ego [personal], direct [testimonial], and indirect [factual]” (2001: x et passim). Schwieger (2002: 183) explicitly rejects the association of these evidential categories with agreement. Recent pedagogical grammars also stress that the Tibetan system encodes information source and not person agreement (Tournadre & Dorje 2003, Chonjore 2003).

The pre-occupation of this discussion has been the general characterization of evidentiality in Lhasa Tibetan and an emphasis on the fact that Lhasa has a three term evidential system. This structure is most clear in the parallelism between the existential verbs yod (personal), ḥdug (testimonial), and yod-pa-red and the present tense suffixes -gi-yod (personal), -gi-ḥdug (testimonial), and -gi-yod-pa-red (factual). Probably one factor that impeded description of this system is the opacity of the system's symmetry in other parts of the verbal system. In particular, the placement of the suffixes -yoṅ, -myoṅ, and -byuṅ into the overall verbal paradigm requires further study. In Hill's contribution to this volume he recommends that bźag be analyzed as a perfect testimonial rather than a separate inferential evidential (as in DeLancey 1985: 65-67, 2003: 279, Tournadre 1992: 198, 207, 1996: 236-238, Tournadre & Dorje 2009: 140-144, 410, 413) and further suggests that the analysis of the semantics of inference as a combination of direct evidentiality with perfect tense is a useful framework for understanding phenomena in other languages.

Jin (1979) describes yod, yod-pa-red, and 'dug, but I have not read his paper.

Takeuchi (1990) provides a masterful survey of the Lhasa Tibetan verbal system and sketches the development of evidential marking from Old Tibetan to several modern dialects. Saxena (1997), in contrast, offers an ignorant and error filled attempt at a treatment of the same question, bizarrely ignoring Takeuchi's previous study.

Delancey has treated the auxiliary system of Lhasa and Modern Standard Tibetan in a number of papers. In particular he has written about the use of the morpheme 'dug to express information new to the speaker, i.e. the admirative, called 'mirative' by DeLancey. Most researchers (e.g. Tournadre, Volkart) see 'dug instead as showing visually witnessed information. Hill (2012) argues against DeLancey's analysis, which DeLancey (2012) accepts.

Hongladarom (1994) traces the history of 'dug, and argues (incorrectly) that the meaning which DeLancey refers to is quite recent. Hill (2013) however shows that 'dug, had evidential functions already in Classical if not in Old Tibetan.

Hongladarom (1993) discusses the evidential system from the perspective of sociolinguistics and conventionalized social situations.

Bartee (1996) also treats the evidential system, from the perspective of deixis and 'cognative grammar' but because her framework still accepts such categories as 'person' and 'conjunct/disjunct' it is hard to use.

Tense and Aspect
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Hoshi I. (1994a) discusses the temporal and aspectual uses of the V-ki-yod, etc. construction. A similar paper which I have not read is Hoshi I. (1994b) in Japanese. Hoshi I. also has an article on the auxiliary yong (1998) and the nominalizer mkhan (2004) in Lhasa Tibetan.

Light verbs
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'Verbalizers' are treated by Kopp (1998).


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There is a collection of texts by Chang and Chang (1978, 1981) and quite a series by Michiyo Hoshi.


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(Hermann 1989)

Western Drokpa

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(Kretschmar 1986)

Southern Mustang

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(Kretschmar 1995)


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Shigatse (Jin Peng 1958, Haller 2000). In addition Kim (1996) discusses relativization in Shigatse.

It is mainly spoken in Nepal as well as in Sikkim/India. The Sherpa language is comprised of several dialects : Shorong (Solu), Pharak, Khumbu, Rolwaling and Dram (Tournadre and al. 2009b).

Schöttelndreyer (1978) studies Sherpa discourse. Schöttelndreyer (1980) discusses what he sees as person markers, but are better described as evidential affixes.

Sherpa received further attention in an article by Woodbury (1986), exploring the interaction of evidentiality and tense in lexical verb marking. He provides a very different account to the binary-focused conjunct-disjunct analysis presented in Schöttelndreyer (1980). Woodbury argues that the Sherpa form nok is used as a visual sensory evidential in the present tense (glossing with ‘I see, have seen…’) and an inferential evidential in the past (glossing with ‘I hear, I infer…’). In the past, the form suŋ instead has sensory semantics. These two uses of nok can be attributed to it being used for ‘immediate evidence’, either evidence of the event itself taking place in the present, or the evidence of the aftermath of an event that allows the speaker to make an inferential claim. Woodbury also discusses a nok as a future inferential, and wi as a ‘gnomic’, glossed with ‘It is known’. Kelly (2004) draws on both traditions, outlining the semantics of each specific Sherpa evidential form, while also noting how it would be distributed in a conjunct/disjunct analysis. She discusses the ĩ verb suffix as a ‘first-person conjunct’ marking “a volitionally instigated event as having been directly experienced by a speaker” (Kelly 2004: 250). The form suŋ is a ‘disjunct’ used to “mark an event as having been directly witnessed by a speaker” (Kelly 2004: 250). Like Woodbury, Kelly (2004: 251-252) notes that nok can be used either as a visual sensory or inferential, but argues that instead of a tense-based distinction it is aspectual, with the sensory function in imperfective contexts and the inferential function in the inferential in the perfective. Finally wi is given as a gnomic, marking accepted ideas of how things happen.

Tournadre and al. (2009b) wrote the first Sherpa-English dictionary, based on the Khumbu dialect, which provides Tibetan provides both Tibetan and Nepali equivalents as well as the Tibetan etymology. Sherpa words are presented in a romanization system with a notation of tones. This dictionary includes a brief description of the Sherpa-speaking area, dialectal variation, and the linguistic affiliation of the language. It is the first publication to provide information about the phonological correspondences of Literary Tibetan in Sherpa. These correspondences, as well as the basic lexicon, clearly show that Sherpa is derived from Old Tibetan and is closely related to Classical Literary Tibetan. The specificities of Sherpa verb morphology are described in great detail in an appendix of this dictionary.

Sprigg (1980) in a comparative article about Tibetan verb morphology makes use of some Sherpa data. The article is quite difficult to make sense of.

Strahm (1975) discusses Jirle's clause types.

Maibaum, A. and Strahm, E.(2005) wrote the first Jirel dictionary. Tournadre and al. (2009:22) say:

"Jirel is another Tibetic language which is closely related to Sherpa. Most Jirel speakers live in Jiri, a village in the Dolakha district, near the Solu area. Jirel has preserved a number of conservative phonological features which were lost in Sherpa (such as the final /t/ sound, as discussed in section 2.1 of Appendix 3). The mutual intelligibility between Sherpa and Jirel is not high. Jirel has been more strongly influenced by Nepali and Hindu language and culture than has Sherpa."


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Vesalainen and Vesalainen (1980) discuss the case system and verbal system. Their approach to evidentiality is overly syntactic, as was typical of SIL affiliated linguistics of their day.


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This group is comprised of several dialects according to Tournadre (2005): Kyirong (Lende), Kagate, Tsum, Langtang and Yolmo (Helambu Sherpa). There is an extensive dictionary of Yolmo by Hari, A.M. and Chhegu Lama (2004) as well as a shorter grammatical description (Hari 2010). According to Tournadre and al. (2009:22):

"Yolmo is another Tibetic language spoken in Sindhupalchok and Nuwakot districts. It is often referred to as “Helambu Sherpa” by the Nepalese people. However, as demonstrated by Anna Maria Hari (2004: 699), Yolmo is closely related to Kagate, and is not a Sherpa dialect."

While Hari has worked on the Melamchi Valley variety spoken in the Sindhupalchok district, Yolmo is also spoken in the Lamjung district of Nepal (Gawne 2010), and a smaller dictionary of that variety also exists (Gawne 2011), as well as a grammatical description as part of Gawne (forthcoming). There has been considerably less work published on Kagate, with an extensive phonemic description by Höhlig and Hari (1976) and a short discussion of reference in narratives Höhlig (1978).

There is very little in the way of descriptive work on Kyirong, save for a grammar by Brigitte Huber (2005) that also includes historical annotations. Hildebrandt and Perry (2011) note that the Gyalsumdo language variety spoken in the Manage district of Nepal shows strong similarities to Kyirong, as well as Nubri, and would therefore likely be classed in the "Kyirong-Kagate" group.

For a complete bibliography of Yolmo studies see the wikibook Research on Hyolmo.

Bhutia (or Lhoke or Drenjongke)

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Spoken in Sikkim/India (Sandberg 1888)

The national language of Bhutan was dubbed 'Dzongka' and committed to writing. The native speakers of this language are known as the Ngalong. Byrne (1909) provides an early description. Walsh (1905) describes the Gro-mo dialect spoken in Chumbi. On behalf of the government of Bhutan, van Driem (1992) wrote a complete grammar.

Amdo Tibetan (North East Group)

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Early Word lists

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(Prževal'skij 1875: 259) (Széchenyi 1898, vol. 3: 421)

Sbra-nag (Grum-Gržimajlo 1899: 419, cf. Kara 1984)

Standard Amdo

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(Dṅos grub 1989)

Min et al. 1989 provide a selection of dialogues.

Various things by Hua Kan, also that textbook by K. Norbu et al. (2000). There is also a textbook by Sung et al. (2005). Roche (2008) discusses the comparative merits of three available Amdo Tibetan textbooks, viz. K. Norbu et al. (2000), Sung et al. (2005), and another one.

Ebihara (2009) treats the auxiliary verbs song and byung.

Wang & Chen (2010) is a phonetic study of aspirate fricatives.

Zhaxi Cairang (2011) compares causative constructions in Amdo and Japanese.

Amdo Sherpa

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(Nagano 1980)


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(Gō 1954, cf. Stein 1955) (de Roerich 1958)


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George de Roerich (1958) describes the Reb-gong dialect of Amdo (specifically the speech of the famous intellectual Dge-ḥdun chos-ḥphel, 1902-1951, cf. Stoddard 1985) in terms of verb agreement. For example, he gives ṅa ǰ'o ɣ̮o̊-jol’ (ṅa ḥgro-gyin-yod) ‘je vais’, č‘’o ǰ'o ɣ̮o̊-dïɣ (khyod ḥgro-gyin-ḥdug) ‘tu vas’, etc. for le present simple (1958: 43) and ṅa joṅ-no̊̄-jin (ṅa yoṅ-ni-yin) ‘je suis venu’, č‘’o joṅ-no̊̄-rel’ (khyod yoṅ-ni-red) ‘tu est venu’, etc. for one of three ways to conjugate le passé accompli (1958: 45). However, like the early researchers on Lhasa Tibetan, he makes clear that he is aware that what is at play here is not European style person agreement. For example, he notes that “[la]a conjugaison tibétaine – sauf quelques exceptions – ne connaît ni distinction de personne, ni distinction de nombre” (1958: 43) and points out that “[e]xceptionnellement la forme jin s’étend aussi à la deuxième et troisième personne” giving the example č‘’o joṅ-no̊̄-jin (khyod yoṅ-ni-yin) ‘tu est venu’ (1958: 45). A particular weakness of de Roerich’s account of the Amdo verbal system is his failure to offer any semantic distinctions among the three ways of forming the passé accompli, which respectively exhibit rel’, zïɣ , and t‘a as their exponents (1958: 45-46). Thus, Sun is justified in his criticism that in de Roerich’s work the “evidential morphology is buried unanalyzed in his section on 'morphologie'” (Sun 1993: 948 note 6).


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(Sun 1986, 1993)


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Despite his criticism of de Roerich, Sun does not shake off reference to person. He recognizes a distinction between ‘self person’ and ‘other person’, which he equates with ‘conjunct’ /‘disjunct’ person marking. His use of this distinction is however inconsistent. At times he appears to use ‘self person’ as a name for a morphological category, for example writing that “the volitional self-person forms (the default marking) represent direct knowledge of the volition” (1993: 961), but at other times ‘self person’ in his usage refers to a type of sentence regardless of how it is marked morphologically, for example writing that “[s]elf-person sentences containing such verbs are usually marked with the direct evidential” (1993: 692). From Sun’s claim that “no particular evidential marking is employed for volitional self-person sentences” (1993: 958) one may surmise that the personal (i.e. ‘conjunct’ or ‘egophoric’) is zero-marked in this variety. Nonetheless, his comment that as “in other Tibetan dialects, the equative copulas jən [yin] and re [red] … carry inherent epistemological values: jən indicates that the reported situation is well-known to the speaker, otherwise re is used” (Sun 1993: 951 note 10) suggests that personal evidentially may in fact be marked in some cases. Some questions must await answer until further research on Mdzo-dge Tibetan becomes available. What is clear is that this variety exhibits personal evidentially, but rather than recognizing it as an evidential category Sun bifurcates it off as a peculiar type of person marking. Another oddity of Sun’s analysis is his treatment of se as a ‘quotative’ evidential marker. Although the “quotative morpheme se is, on both categorical and distributional counts, at variance with the other three evidential markers” (1993: 991), Sun decides to list the quotative with the others because “it is quite common for evidentials not to constitute a unitary morphological category in a given language” (1993: 992). In this way, previous methodologically unjustifiable analyses beget new unjustifiable analyses. The ‘quotative’ is compatible with the others evidential categories and its cognate in other Tibetan varieties is not normally considered an evidential suffix. Omitting the ‘quotative’ form his analysis and adding the ‘personal’, which he avoids describing as evidential, the system he describes equates to three evidential settings in the past tense, ‘personal’ (unmarked), ‘direct’ (tʰæ), and ‘indirect’ (zəg), and two evidential settings in the present tense ‘personal’ (again unnamed), and ‘immediate’ (ʰkə).

Dpa ri

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Hermanns (1952), Hua and Ma (1992), Ma (1994), Bessho and Ebihara (2007), Ebihara (2012)


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(Wu 1982)


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(Sun 2003)


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(de Roerich 1958) (Sprigg 1987)


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Suzuki 2004. Ebihara 2008.


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Suzuki & Yeshemtsho 2006.

Rma chu

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Zhou Maocao 2003

A rig

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Shao Mingyuan 2011

Khams Tibetan (Eastern Groups)

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Early Works

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The language of Qoqonor, Sbatang, and Tsarong in Rockhill (1891: 361-370).

Chab mdo (Needham 1886, Jin Peng 1958)

Khams (Jäschke 1881: xvi-xvii)

Khams (de Roerich 1958)

Khams, Dar-rtse-mdo 1 (Migot 1957)

Khams, Dar-rtse-mdo 2 (Migot 1957)

Khams, Rtaḥu (Migot 1957) : Amdo nomadic variety

Khams, Dkar-mdzes (Migot 1957)

Khams, Sde-dge (Migot 1957)

Derge (sDedge)

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Häsler 1999


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Causemann 1989


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Bartee 2007

Other Dialects

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There is a dialect Baima, which has undergone such radical phonetic developments that some scholars believe it is not a Tibetan dialect. Chirkova has devoted a number of studies to this dialect.

Tibetan Computational and Corpus Linguistics

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Hackett, P. (2000a, 2000b) present the theory and initial results of experiments in the construction of a Tibetan Information Retrieval system using the first publicly available corpus of classical literary Tibetan (ACIP). In particular, both works highlight the construction of an automatic rule-based part-of-speech tagger in combination with a word-segmentation algorithm.

Hackett, P. (2003b) presented theoretical and statistical estimates for the morphological entropy of literary Tibetan.

Wangher, Andreas and Bettina Zeisler (2004). (DESCRIPTION NEEDED)

Tsering Rgyal (2005). (DESCRIPTION NEEDED)


Hackett, P. (2010) presents techniques of topic-boundary detection for precision indexing of corpora of Tibetan classical literature.

Caizhijie and Cairang Zhuoma (2010) discuss the development of the 'Pandita' dictionary for Tibetan auto-segmentation and part-of-speech tagging.

Cairang Zhuoma and Cai Zhijie (2011) describes an algorithm used for "decomposing" Tibetan words, which seems to mean to assigning each letter to its place in the syllable, e.g. -g- in bsgrubs is the ming-gzhi, -s is the yang-'jugs, etc. I am not really clear what practical purpose such a system serves.

Tsering Rgyal and Dbangphyug Tsering (2010) presents an overview of a dictionary-based part-of-speech tagger, including a detailed list of the categories and entities they attempted to tag.

Liu, H. et al. (2010), (2015) treat word segmentation. Sun, Y. (2010). (DESCRIPTION NEEDED)

Chungku, C., J. et al. (2010) discusses a project to developed a Dzongka corpus and tag set.

Jiang Di (2003) is working on syntactic chunking.

P. V. Arun (2014) is work on Dzongka from a computational perspective.


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Agha, Asif

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  • (1990) Lexical structure and grammatical categories in Lhasa Tibetan.Ph.D., The University of Chicago.
  • Agha, Asif (1993). Structural form and utterance context in Lhasa Tibetan: grammar and indexicality in a non-configurational language. New York: Peter Lang. ISBN 9780820420912.

Angelini, Pietro

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Angelini, Pietro (1994). Leggere il Tibet: bibliografia italiana del paese delle nevi, 1624-1993. Bologna: Il Nove.

Amundsen, Edward

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  • Amundsen, Edward (1903). Primer of Standard Tibetan. Ghoom: The Scand. All. Tibetan Mission Press. {{cite book}}: Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)

Andersen, Paul Kent.

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  • Andersen, Paul Kent (1987). "Zero-anaphora and related phenomena in Classical Tibetan". Studies in Language. 11: 279–312. doi:10.1075/sl.11.2.02and. {{cite journal}}: Cite has empty unknown parameters: |trans_title= and |coauthors= (help)

Andvik, Erik

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  • (1999). Tshangla Grammar. Ph.D. Thesis University of Oregon.

Arun, P. V.

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  • Arun, P. V. (2014). "A semantic parsing approach for Bhutanese language of Dzongkha". International Journal of Speech Technology. 17: 161–165. {{cite journal}}: Cite has empty unknown parameters: |trans_title= and |coauthors= (help)

Aschoff, Jürgen C.

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  • (1992). Nepal und der Kulturraum des Himalaya: (mit Ladakh, Sikkim und Bhutan): Kommentierte Bibliographie deutschsprachiger Bücher und Aufsätze 1627 bis 1990 (Aufsätze bis zum Jahre 1900). Dietikon: Garuda-Verlag.

Aubin, Françoise

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  • Aubin, Françoise (1993). Ecrits récents sur le Tibet et les Tibétains: bibliographie commentée. Paris: Fondation nationale des sciences politiques, Centre d’études et de recherches internationales. {{cite book}}: Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)

Austen, H. H. G.

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  • (1866). "A Vocabulary of English, Balti and Kashmiri." Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 35: 233.

Babinger, F.

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  • (1920). “Isaak Jakob Schmidt 1779-1847, Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Tibetforschung.” Festschrift für Friedrich Hirth zu seinem 75. Geburtstag, 16, April 1920. Berlin: PUBLISHER, 7-21.

Bailey, T. Grahame

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  • Bailey, T. Grahame. Linguistic Studies from the Himalayas. Asiatic Society Monographs. Vol. 18. London: Royal Asiatic Society.

Barnett, L. D.

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  • (1946). Review of Gould and Richardson (1943). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 11: 445-446.

Bartee, Ellen

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  • (1996). Deixis and spatiotemporal relations in Lhasa Tibetan. M.A., The University of Texas at Arlington.
  • (2007). A grammar of Dongwang Tibetan. PhD Dissertation, University of California Santa Barbara.
  • Bartee, Ellen (2011). "The role of animacy in the verbal morphology of Dongwang Tibetan". In Turin, Mark; Zeisler, Bettina (eds.). Himalayan Languages and Linguistics: Studies in Phonology, Semantics, Morphology and Syntax. Leiden: Brill. pp. 133–182.

Beckwith, Christopher I.

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  • Beckwith, C.I. 1992, "Deictic class marking in Tibetan and Burmese", in Papers from the First Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society, ed. M. Ratliff and E. Schiller, pp. 1-14. Arizona State University, Program for Southeast Asian Studies.
  • (1994). "Tibetan language reform: History and future." Language reform: History and future. Ed by I. Fodor and C. Hagege. Vol. VI. Hamburg: Helmut Buske: 73–84.
  • (1996). "The Morphological Argument for the Existence of Sino-Tibetan." Pan-Asiatic Linguistics: Proceeings of the Fourth International Symposium on Languages and Linguistics, January 8th-10th, 1996. Vol 3. Bangkock: Institute of Language and Culture for Rural Development Mahidol University at Salaya: 812-826.
  • and Michael Walter. (1997). “Some Indo-European Elements in Early Tibetan Culture.” Ernst Steinkellner (ed.), Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the 7th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Graz 1995. Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Denkschriften, 256. Band. Vol II. Vienna: Östereichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. 1037-1055.
  • (2001). Review of Goldstein 2001. Anthropological Linguistics 43.3: 396-399.
  • (2006). “The Sonority Sequencing Principle and Old Tibetan Syllable Margins.” Medieval Tibeto-Burman Languages II. Leiden: Brill, 45-57.

Beer, Zack

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  • Beer, Zack (2019). "Switch-reference in the Ye shes rgyas pa'i mdo". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland. 3. Cambridge University Press. 29 (2): 249–256. doi:10.1017/S1356186318000731. {{cite journal}}: Cite has empty unknown parameters: |trans_title= and |coauthors= (help)

Behr, Wolfgang

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  • (1994). [Review of Beyer 1992] Oriens 34: 557-563.

Bell, Charles

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  • Bell, Charles (1905). Manual of Colloquial Tibetan. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press. {{cite book}}: Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)

Benedict, Paul

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  • Benedict, Paul (1972). Sino-Tibetan: A Conspectus. Cambridge: at the University Press. {{cite book}}: Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help) [reviewed: Bodman, N. (1975), Chang, K. (1973), Coblin, W. S. (1972-3), Haudricourt, A (1973), Lehman, F. K (1975), Matisoff, J. (1975), Miller, R. A. (1974), Sedláček, K. (1974), Sprigg, R. K. (1973)]

Bessho Yusuke 別所 裕介 and Ebihara Shiho 海老原 志穂

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  • (2007). "チベット語天祝方言とその言語使用状況について dPa's ris Dialect of Tibetan and its Language Use." 京都大学言語学研究 26: 77-91.

Beyer, Stephan V.

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  • Beyer, Stephen (1992). The Classical Tibetan language. New York: State University of New York. {{cite book}}: Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help) Reprint 1993, (Bibliotheca Indo-Buddhica series, 116.) Delhi: Sri Satguru.

Bielmeier, Roland

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  • (1985). Das Märchen von Prinzen Čobzaṅ. (Beiträge zur tibetische Erzählforschung 6) Sankt Augustin: VGH Wissenschaftsverlag.

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Chos kyi grags pa

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Suzuki Hiroyuki 鈴木 博之

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  • (2006) " チベット語塔公[Lhagang] 方言の方言特徴とその背景(Chibettogo Tōkō [Lhagang] Hōgen no Hōgentokuchō to sono Haikei) Dialectal Characteristics of Tibetan Lhagang Dialect and its Background" NIDABA 『ニダバ』 35: 39-47.
  • (2006) " アムドチベット語中阿壩[rNgawa]方言の音声分析(Amudo Chibettogo Tyuu-Aba [rNgawa] Hōgen no Onseibunseki) Amdo Tibetan rNgawa dialect : Phonetic Analysis" Asian and African Languages and Linguistics (AALL) 『アジア・アフリカの言語と言語学』(Azia Afurika no Gengo to Gengogaku) 1: 59-88. (collaborated with Yeshemtsho)
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  • (2007) " カムチベット語新都橋[Rangakha]方言の音声分析(Kam Chibettogo Shintokyō [Rangakha] Hōgen no Onseibunseki) Khams Tibetan Rangakha dialect : Phonetic Analysis" Asian and African Languages and Linguistics (AALL) 『アジア・アフリカの言語と言語学』(Azia Afurika no Gengo to Gengogaku) 2: 131-162.
  • (2007) " チベット語包座[Babzo]方言の音声分析とその方言特徴(Chibettogo Hōza [Babzo] Hōgen no Onsei Bunseki to sono Hōgen Tokuchō) Tibetan Babzo Dialect: Phonetic and Dialectal Analysis" Journal of Asian and African Studies 『アジア・アフリカ言語文化研究』(Azia Afurika Gengo Bunka Kenkyuu) 74: 101-120.
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Yukawa Yasutosi 湯川泰敏

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  • (1966). "チベット語のduuの意味 Chibettogo no duu no imi [The meaning of Tibetan duu.]" 言語研究 Gengo Kenkyū 49: 77-84.
  • (1971) "チベット語の述部の輪郭 Chibettogo no jutsubu no ringaku [Outline of Tibetan Predicates]" 言語学の基本問題 Basic problems in linguistics. 178-204. 大修館 Taishūkan
  • (1975)「チベット語のgiの意味」The Meaning of Tibetan gi".アジア・アフリカ言語文化研究所通信 ILCAA Newsletter 23: 38-39.
  • (1975) チベット語の述語 Chibettogo no jutsugo [The Predicates of Tibetan] アジア・アフリカ文法硏究 Ajia Afurika bunpō kenkyū Asian & African Linguistics. 4: 1-14. Tokyo: ILCAA.

Zemp, Marius

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  • (2006). Synchronic and Diachronic Phonology of the Tibetan Dialect of Kargil. Master's Thesis, Bern.

Zeisler, Bettina

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  • (2000). Narrative conventions in Tibetan languages: The issue of mirativity. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 23.2: 39-78.
  • (2001). "The development of temporal coding in Tibetan: some suggestions for a functional internal reconstruction. Part II: The original semantics of the 'past stem' of controlled action verbs and the re-organisation of the Proto-Tibetan verb system. Zentralasiatische Studien 31: 169-216.
  • (2002): "The development of temporal coding in Tibetan: some suggestions for a functional internal reconstruction. (1): Unexpected use of the 'imperative' stem in Old Tibetan and Themchen (Amdo Tibetan)." In: Henk Blezer (ed.), Tibet, Past and Present. PIATS 2000: Tibetan studies: Proceedings of the Ninth Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies. Leiden 2000. (Brills Tibetan Studies Library, 2/1.) Leiden etc.: Brill: 441-453.
  • (2004). Relative tense and aspectual values in Tibetan languages: a comparative study. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • (2006). “Why Ladakhi must not be written – Being part of the great tradition: Another kind of global thinking.” Anju Saxen & Lars Borin (eds.), Lesser-Known Languages of South Asia. Status and Policies, Case Studies and Applications of Information Technology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 175-94.
  • (2009). “Reducing phonological complexity and grammatical opaqueness: Old Tibetan as a lingua franca and the development of the modern Tibetan varieties”. In Complex Processes in New Languages, Aboh, Enoch O. and Norval Smith (eds.), 75–95.
  • Zeisler, Bettina (2017). 'Hypothetical sound laws and sound potential meaning. Once again on the uncommon Tibetan verb paradigm za, zos, zo ‘eat’.' International Journal of Diachronic Linguistics and Linguistic Reconstruction 14: 77–117.
  • Zeisler, Bettina (2018). "Evidence for the development of 'evidentiality' as a grammatical category in the Tibetic languages". In Foolen, Ad; de Hoop, Helen; Mulder, Gijs (eds.). Evidence for Evidentiality. Human Cognitive Processing. Vol. 61. John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 227–256. doi:10.1075/hcp.61.10zei. {{cite book}}: Cite has empty unknown parameter: |nopp= (help)

Zhang Jichuan 張濟川

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  • Zhang Jichuan 張濟川 (1982). "古藏语塞音韵尾读音初探". 民族語文 Mizu Yuwen (in Chinese). 6: 17–30. {{cite journal}}: Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help); Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (|trans-title= suggested) (help)
  • Zhang Jichuan 張濟川 (1996). "古代藏語方音差別與正字法 Gudai Zangyu fangyin chabie yu zhengzifa". 民族語文 Mizu Yuwen (in Chinese). 3: 22–24. {{cite journal}}: Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help); Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (|trans-title= suggested) (help)
  • (2009) 藏語詞族研究 Zangyu cizu yanjiu [Tibetan Word Family Research]. Beijing: Shehui kexue chubanshe.

Zhang Liansheng

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  • (1985) The phonetic structure of ABCB type words in modern Lhasa Tibetan. Soundings in Tibetan civilization. B.N. Aziz, M. Kapstein, eds. Delhi: Manohar. 20-34.
  • (1986). “The puzzle of da-drag in Tibetan.” Linguistics of the Tibeo-Burman Area 9/1:47-64
  • (1987). “The consonant system of middle-old Tibetan and the tonogenesis of Tibetan.” Ph.D. thesis University of California, Berkeley
  • (1988)“A quantative study of the Preservation in Modern Tibetan of Ancient Tibetan Final stop *-k.” Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the 4th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies Schloss Hohenkammer — Munich 1985. Helga Uebach and Jampa L. Panglung, eds. (Studia Tibetica 2). Munich: Kommission für Zentralasiatische Studien Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 567-582.

Zhang Yisun 张怡荪 / Krang dpyi sun

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  • (1985). Bod rgya tshig mdzod chen mo / 藏汉大辞典 Zang Han Da Cidian. Beijing: Mi rigs dpe skrun kang / 民族出版社 Minzu Chubanshe, 1985, 1993, 2000.

Zhaxi Cairang 札西才譲

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  • (2011) 日本語とアムド・チベット語の使役表現の対照研究 Nihongo to Amudo Chibettogo no shieki hyōgen no taishō kenkyū. [A comparative study of causatives in Japanese and Amdo Tibetan] Tokyo: 笠間書院 Kasama Shoin.

Zhou Maocao 周毛草

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  • (2003) 玛曲藏语研究 Maqu Zangyu yanjiu. Beijing: 民族出版社 Minzu chubanshe, 2003.

Zhou Li

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  • (1986) Bod yig gi sgra sbyor slob deb: Lha sa'i skad / 藏文拼音教材Zangwen-pinyin-jiaocai. Beijing: Minzu Chubanshe.

Choix III 1990: Yoshiro Imaeda and Tsuguhito Takeuchi, Choix de documents tibétains conservés à la Bibliothèque nationale, Tome III, Corpus syllabique. Paris: Bibliothèque nationale. Choix IV 2001: Yoshiro Imaeda, Tsuguhito Takeuchi, Izumi Hoshi, Yoshimichi Ohara and Iwao Ishikawa, Choix de documents tibétains conservés à la Bibliothèque nationale, Tome IV, Corpus syllabique, Tokyo: ILCAA, Université des Langues Étrangères de Tokyo.

Franke, Herbert, ed. (2005-). Wörterbuch der tibetischen Schriftsprache. Munich: Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Kommission beim Verlag C. H. Beck.

Richardson, Hugh (1985). A Corpus of Early Tibetan Inscriptions. (James G. Forlong series 29). London: Royal Asiatic Society.

Sagart, Laurent (2006). [Review of Matisoff 2003] Diachronica 23.1: 206-223

Schroeter, Rev. Frederic Christian Gotthelf 1826. A Dictionary of the Bhotanta or Boutan Language. Serampore.

Simon, Walter (1964). "Tibetan Lexicography and Etymological Research." Transactions of the Philological Society : 85-107.

Snellgrove, David (1954). (review of Marcelle Lalou's) “Manuel elementaire de tibétain classique.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 16.1: 198-199.

[Zhongguo zangxue lunwen 1999] 中国藏学论文资料索引 Zhongguo Zangxue lunwen zi liao suoyin. 1872-1995. Beijing : Zhongguo Zangxue chubanshe 中国藏学出版社, 1999.

  • [Zhongguo zangxue lunwen 2006] 中国藏学论文资料索引 Zhongguo Zangxue lunwen zi liao suoyin 1996-2004. Beijing : Zhongguo Zangxue chubanshe 中国藏学出版社, 1999.

[Zhongguo zangxue shumu (1994).] 中国藏学书目Zhongguo Zangxue shumu 1949-1991 / Krung-goʾi Bod rig paʾi dpe chaʾi dkar chag, 1949-1991 / Catalogue of Chinese Publications in Tibetan Studies, 1949-1991. Beijing: 外文出版社Waiwen chubanshe 1994.

[Zhongguo zangxue shumu (1997).] 中国藏学书目续编 Zhongguo Zangxue shumu xubian 1992-1995,/ Kruṅ-goʾi Bod rig paʾi dpe chaʾi dkar chag, 1949-1991 / Catalogue of Chinese publications in Tibetan studies, 1992-1995. Beijing : 外文出版社 Waiwen chubanshe, 1997.

[Zhongguo zangxue shumu (2001).] 中国藏学书目三编 Zhongguo Zangxue shumu sanbian (1996-2000). Kruṅ-goʾi Bod rig paʾi dpe chaʾi dkar chag gsar bsgrigs (1996-2000) / Catalogue of Chinese publications in Tibetan studies (1996-2000). Beijing : 外文出版社 Waiwen chubanshe, 2001.

LaPolla, Randy J. “Phonetic Development of Tibetan.” Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman area 11.2 (1988): 93-97.

Review of Inaba in East and West 6.

Delancy, Scott. (1987). "Etymological notes on Tibeto-Burman case particles." Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 8. 59-77.

E. H. C. Walsh ‘The Tibetan Language and Recent Dictionaries’ JASB 72 (1903/4) p. 65-86. (a review of Das?)

in Die Erforschung des Tocharischen (1960-1984) von Werner Thomas. Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden GMBH, Stuttgart 1985. we have Ivanov, V. V. Tibetskie kal'ki v tocharskich tekstach [Tibetische Lehnwörter /Lehnübersetzunen/ in den tocharischen Texten] KSINA 57 (1961) 35-40. KSINA : Kratkie soobshchenija instituta narodov Azii.

Simonsson, Nils. "Sanskrit na, Tibetan ma yin" Orientalia Suecana 9 (1960): 11-27. Simonsson, Nils. "On the concept of sentence in ancient Indian and tibetan theory and on the function of case particles in Tibetan according to Tibetan Grammarians," Fenno-Ugrica Suecana 5 (1982): 281-291.

Here are some bibliographic notices from Pavel Poucha's "The Tibetan Language as Example of General Validity of Linguistic Laws" Asienwissenschaftliche Beitrage: Johannes Schubert in memoriam. Eds. Eberhardt Richter and Manfred Taube. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1978: 113-122.

A. A. Dragunov, Voiced plosives and affricates in Ancient Tibetan, Acad. Sinica 7, 1936 (:Buletin of the Institute of History and Philology) pp. 165ff. the same, Osobennosti fonologicheskoj sistemy drevnetibetskogo jazyka, Zapiski Inst. vostokovedenija AN SSR, 7, 1939, p. 284ff. J. H. Edgar, The Tibetan Tonal System, G. W. Ch. Border Res. Soc. 5, 1952, pp. 64ff. Robert Shafer, Prefixed n-, ng- in Tibetan, Sino-Tibetica 1, 1938; Prefixed m- in Tibetan, ib. 3, 1938, p. 11ff. The vocalism of Sino-Tibetan, JAOS 60, 1940, p. 302ff., 61, 1941, pp. 18ff., Problems of Sino-Tibetan phonetics, JAOS, 70, 1950 pp. 96ff. Phonétique comparée de quelques préfixes simples en sino-tibétain, BSL. 46, 1950, pp. 144ff. and other works of this author mentioned in this Bibliography of Sino-Tibetan Languages, Wiesbaden 1957. Further W. Simon, Certain Tibetan suffixes and their combinations, HJAS. 5, 1940, pp. 372ff., The Range of sound alternations in Tibetan word families, AM. Ser. 2, vol. 1, 1949, pp. 3ff. Rolf Stein, Notes d'etymologie tibétaine, BEFEO, 41, 1941. fasc. 2 pp. 203ff. Geza Uray, Some problems of the ancient Tibetan verbal morphology, methodical observations on recent studies, Acta Linguistica 3, Budapest 1953, pp. 37ff. Stuart N. Wolfenden, The prefix m- with certain substantives in Tibetan, Language 4, 1928 pp. 277ff. Significance of early Tibetan wordforms, JRAS, 1928, pp. 896ff. To the B. Laufer's Loan-Words in Tibetan, T'oung Pao 1916, pp. 403ff. there is a supplement by the same authors Sino-Iranica, Chinese contributions to the History of Civilization in Ancient Iran, Chicao 1919, in the chapter "Additional notes on loan words in Tibetan" pp. 591ff. A contribution to the development of Tibetan is also the stud by Chin P'eng, Verbal Inflection in Classical Tibetan and Present-day Lhasa Dialect, Linguistic researches, 1, 1958, pp. 169ff. {{{1}}}