Radiation Biology for Physical Scientists/Cell Response to Radiation Mutagenesis
Cell death of non-proliferating (static) cells is defined as the loss of a specific function, while for stem cells and other cells capable of many divisions it is defined as the loss of reproductive integrity (reproductive death).
The cell commits a pre-programmed suicide called 'apoptosis' before or after it divides or dies when attempting mitosis.
The cell is arrested and repaired in the late G2 phase by the p53 checkpoint gene prior to mitosis.
The cell survives with mutations that active a loss of the function of gene groups for tumor suppressions, as well as, DNA stability and gain in the function of gene groups for proliferation - oncogenes. These series of events could lead to the progression of cancer.
Ionizing radiation can produce adverse pregnancy outcomes depending on the stage of gestation at the time of exposure. In utero radiation exposure is particularly harmful during the period of organogenesis during early gestation and 2nd trimester. Examples of radiation effects include intrauterine death, anencephaly, microcephaly and mental retardation.
The mutation stays dormant then appears as hereditary effects. This usually has a time line of generations.
The irradiated cell is stimulated to react and become more resistant to subsequent irradiation.