These are nouns that are constructed out of verbs.
The main types are:
1. The ending \t$ -më is used for abstract things:
- t$j\ mel- "love" → t$jt$ melmë "love"
- aD6\ car- "make, build, do" → aD6t$ carmë "art"
2. The ending \`B`V -ië is used for a noun that indicates that the action is still going on:
- 1ÎEj\ tyal- "play" → 1ÎEj%`V tyalië "a play"
- qR7ÎD perya- "halve" → qR7T`V perië "a halving"
3. Verbs on \1E -ta can be used as nouns without changing anything:
- yE4# vanta- "walk" → yE4# vanta "a walk"
- j#4# lanta- "fall" → j#4# lanta "a fall"
4. The ending \`V -ë together with a lengthened stem-vowel are used to make nouns that describe a consequence of the verb:
- iR6\ ser- "rest" → 8~V7R sérë "peace"
- j%6\ lir- "sing" → j~B7R lírë "song"
5. To make nouns that denote concrete things we use the ending \j$ -lë with A-verbs and U-verbs:
- 5&61E\ nurta- "hide" → 5&61Ej$ nurtalë "a hiding"
- qR6yE perya- "halve" → qR6yEj$ peryalë "a half"
- 5&7;U nurru- "grumble" → 5&7;Uj$ nurrulë "a grumble"
and for primitive verbs we add \`Cj$ -alë to the past tense stem:
- zR1\ quet- "talk" → zR4#j$ quentalë "a story"
This fifth type of nouns is the type most frequently found.
Note: Following examples concerning gender are Qenya forms that may not be valid in Late-Quenya.
To denote someone who performs an action we have the endings: \7Y - \7R -ro/-rë and \`B2^ - \`B2$ -indo/-indë.
The endings on \`N -o are masculine, and those on \`V -ë are feminine.
The first two endings are applied to A-verbs and U-verbs:
- t#81E\ masta- "bake"
- t#81E7Y mastaro "baker" (m.)
- t#81E7R mastarë "baker" (f.)
and the other two to primitive verbs:
- aD6\ car- 'make, build, do"
- aD7T2^ carindo "maker, builder" (m.)
- aD7T2$ carindë "maker, builder" (f.)
Sometimes the ending \7Y -ro is replaced by the short form \6 -r, e.g. `B81E6 istar "wizard" from `B81E\ ista- "know".
To make the plurals of the masculine form on -ro I would personally always prefer this shortened form:
- t#81E7T mastari instead of t#81E7Y6 mastaror
Usage of cases[edit | edit source]
The connection of a verbal noun to a verb means that it is often a condensed sentence, so that is why such nouns can have a subject and an object:
- `Cj1E7T`Vj°^ 5lD5%`V Altariello nainië "the lament of Galadriel"
We call this a subject genitive because Galadriel is the one who laments.
When a verbal noun has an object we use the possessive case:
- jlD1Ej$ `N7Yt~VyE laitalë Oroméva "honoring of Orome"
By this we mean that Orome is honoured, so it is the object of "honour", and this is called an object possessive.
Of course both can be present with the same verbal noun:
- `V7U`N t$jt$ `C1E5%yE Eruo melmë ataniva "the love of God for men" (or, "God's love of men")
- `C1E5%`N5 t$jt$ `V7UyE atanion melmë Eruva "the love of men for God" (or, "men's love of God")