Neo-Quenya/U-stems

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Nouns in -o that keep -o in all cases[edit]

They are declined as follows (we use aD6qY carpo "frog"):

Singular Plural Dual Partitive Plural
Nominative aE6qY
carpo
aE6qY6
carpor
aE6qY1
carpot
aE6qYj%
carpoli
Genitive aE6qY
carpo
aE6qY7Y5
carporon
aE6qY1Y
carpoto
aE6qYj%`N5
carpolion
Possessive aE6qYyE
carpova
aE6qlY
carpoiva
aE6qY1nE
carpotwa
aE6qYj~ByE
carpolíva
Dative aE6qY5
carpon
aE6qlY5
carpoin
aE6qY4
carpont
aE6qYj%5
carpolin
Ablative aE6qYj°^
carpollo
aE6qYj°^5
carpollon
aE6qYj°^6
carpollor
aE6qYj1Y
carpolto
aE6qYj%j°^5
carpolillon
aE6qYj%j°^6
carpolillor
Allative aE6qY5"#
carponna
aE6qY5"#6
carponnar
aE6qY4#
carponta
aE6qYj%5"#
carpolinna
aE6qYj%5"#6
carpolinnar
Locative aE6qY,F
carpossë
aE6qY,F5
carpossen
aE6qY1R+
carpotsë
aE6qYj%,F
carpolissë
aE6qYj%,F5
carpolissen
Instrumental aE6qY5$5
carponen
aE6qlY5$5
carpoinen
aE6qY4$5
carponten
aE6qYj~B5$5
carpolínen
Respective aE6qY8
carpos
aE6qlY8
carpois
aE6qY1R8
carpotes
aE6qYj%8
carpolis


The u-duals in this group are declined as follows (we use `N2^ ondo "stone"):

Case Nominative Genitive Possessive Dative Ablative Allative Locative Instrumental Respective
Dual Form `N2&
ondu
`N2&`N
onduo
`N2&yE
onduva
`N2&5
ondun
`N2&j°^
ondullo
`N2&5"#
ondunna
`N2&,F
ondussë
`N2&5$5
ondunen
`N2&8
ondus


Nouns in -u that keep -u in all cases[edit]

There also exist words that end in the nominative in \`Mu, these are however not U-stems. They differ from the U-stems in the nominative and the genitive plural. These nouns due to retaining the \`Mu, the dual forms are always distinguished with the \1t dual form.

They are declined as follows (we use 9R7U heru "lord"):

Singular Plural Dual Partitive Plural
Nominative 9R7U
heru
9R7U6
herur
9R7U1
herut
9R7Uj%
heruli
Genitive 9R7U
heru
9R7U7Y5
heruron
9R7U1Y
heruto
9R7Uj%`N5
herulion
Possessive 9R7UyE
heruva
9R7lUyE
heruiva
9R7U1nE
herutwa
9R7Uj~ByE
herulíva
Dative 9R7U5
herun
9R7lU5
heruin
9R7U4
herunt
9R7Uj%5
herulin
Ablative 9R7Uj°^
herullo
9R7Uj°^5
herullon
9R7Uj°^6
herullor
9R7Uj1Y
herulto
9R7Uj%j°^5
herulillon
9R7Uj%j°^6
herulillor
Allative 9R7U5"#
herunna
9R7U5"#6
herunnar
9R7U4#
herunta
9R7Uj%5"#
herulinna
9R7Uj%5"#6
herulinnar
Locative 9R7U,F
herussë
9R7U,F5
herussen
9R7U`R+
herutsë
9R7Uj%,F
herulissë
9R7Uj%,F5
herulissen
Instrumental 9R7U5$5
herunen
9R7lU5$5
heruinen
9R7U4$5
herunten
9R7Uj~B5$5
herulínen
Respective 9R7U8
herus
9R7lU8
heruis
9R7U`R8
herutes
9R7Uj%8
herulis

Nouns in -o with a U-stem[edit]

These are the real U-stems. But there are two exceptional categories: the nouns in \aH -co and the nouns in \s^ -ngo.

The others are declined as follows (we use t#j^ malo, t#j&\ malu- "pollen"). Note that these nouns don't follow the normal rule for the formation of the plural: they get \`B -i as extension instead of the \6 -r that ordinarily follows vowels.

Singular Plural Dual Partitive Plural
Nominative t#j^
malo
t#jlU
malui
t#j&1
malut
t#j&j%
maluli
Genitive t#j&`N
maluo
t#jlU`N5
maluion
t#j&1Y
maluto
t#j&j%`N5
malulion
Possessive t#j&yE
maluva
t#jlUyE
maluiva
t#j&1nE
malutwa
t#j&j~ByE
malulíva
Dative t#j&5
malun
t#jlU5
maluin
t#j&4
malunt
t#j&5
malulin
Ablative t#j&j°^
malullo
t#j&j°^5
malullon
t#j&j°^6
malullor
t#j&j1Y
malulto
t#j&j%j°^5
malulillon
t#j&j%j°^6
malulillor
Allative t#j&5"#
malunna
t#j&5"#6
malunnar
t#j&4#
malunta
t#j&j%5"#
malulinna
t#j&j%5"#6
malulinnar
Locative t#j&,F
malussë
t#j&,F5
malussen
t#j&1R+
malutsë
t#j&,F
malulissë
t#j&,F5
malulissen
Instrumental t#j&5$5
malunen
t#jlU5$5
maluinen
t#j&4$5
malunten
t#j&j~B5$5
malulínen
Respective t#j&8
malus
t#jlU8
maluis
t#j&1R8
malutes
t#j&j%8
malulis


The u-duals in this group are declined as follows (we use iG1Y sito, iG1U\ situ- "habit"):

Case Nominative Genitive Possessive Dative Ablative Allative Locative Instrumental Respective
Dual Form iG1U
situ
iG1U`N
situo
iG1UyE
situva
iG1U5
situn
iG1Uj°^
situllo
iG1U5"#
situnna
iG1U,F
situssë
iG1U5$5
situnen
iG1U8
situs.

Note that these forms are, except for the nominative, all equal to the singular.


The noun 1U`N tuo "muscle" behaves rather strangely because its Old-Elvish stem was 1~M`M\ 'túu'-. This long ~M ú appears when the ending begins in a single consonant; when the ending starts in a consonant cluster or a vowel, we find `M u instead of ~M ú, e.g.

  • Dative singular: 1~M5 tún
  • Ablative singular: 1Uj°^ tullo

U-stems in -co[edit]

The special feature here is that the combination aJ`B cui changes in zG qui. As an example we look at `M6aH urco, `M6aJ\ urcu- "bogey":

Singular Plural Dual Partitive Plural
Nominative `M6aH
urco
`M6zG
urqui
`M6aJ1
urcut
`M6aJj%
urculi
Genitive `M6aJ`N
urcuo
`M6zG`N5
urquion
`M6aJ1Y
urcuto
`M6aJj%`N5
urculion
Possessive `M6aJyE
urcuva
`M6zGyE
urquiva
`M6aJ1nE
urcutwa
`M6aJj~ByE
urculíva
Dative `M6aJ5
urcun
`M6zG5
urquin
`M6aJ4
urcunt
`M6aJj%5
urculin
Ablative `M6aJj°^
urcullo
`M6aJj°^5
urcullon
`M6aJj°^6
urcullor
`M6aJj1Y
urculto
`M6aJj%j°^5
urculillon
`M6aJj%j°^6
urculillor
Allative `M6aJ5"#
urcunna
`M6aJ5"#6
urcunnar
`M6aJ4#
urcunta
`M6aJj%5"#
urculinna
`M6aJj%5"#6
urculinnar
Locative `M6aJ,F
urcussë
`M6aJ,F5
urcussen
`M6aJ1R+
urcutsë
`M6aJj%,F
urculissë
`M6aJj%,F5
urculissen
Instrumental `M6aJ5$5
urcunen
`M6zG5$5
urquinen
`M6aJ4$5
urcunten
`M6aJj~B5$5
urculínen
Respective `M6aJ8
urcus
`M6zG8
urquis
`M6aJ1R8
urcutes
`M6aJj%8
urculis

The u-duals are just as in the example of iG1Y sito, except for the nominative, all equal to the singular.

Two nouns behave irregularly:

  • 7.DaH rauco "demon" is only a U-stem in the singular, partitive plural and dual. The plural is formed with the stem 7.DaD\ rauca-.
  • 1RjaH telco "leg, stem" is only a U-stem in the plural and the dual. The singular and partitive plural are formed with the stem 1RjaH\ telco- (see above for nouns that end in \`N -o).

U-stems in -go[edit]

The special feature here is that the combination s& ngu + `B i changes in x% ngwi. As an example we look at `Cs^ ango, `Cs&\ angu- "snake":

Singular Plural Dual Partitive Plural
Nominative `Cs^
ango
`Cx%
angwi
`Cs&1
angut
`Cs&j%
anguli
Genitive `Cs&`N
anguo
`Cx%`N5
angwion
`Cs&1Y
anguto
`Cs&j%`N5
angulion
Possessive `Cs&yE
anguva
`Cx%yE
angwiva
`Cs&1nE
angutwa
`Cs&j~ByE
angulíva
Dative `Cs&5
angun
`Cx%5
angwin
`Cs&4
angunt
`Cs&j%5
angulin
Ablative `Cs&j°^
angullo
`Cs&j°^5
angullon
`Cs&j°^6
angullor
`Cs&j1Y
angulto
`Cs&j%j°^5
angulillon
`Cs&j%j°^6
angulillor
Allative `Cs&5"#
angunna
`Cs&5"#6
angunnar
`Cs&4#
angunta
`Cs&5j%5"#
angulinna
`Cs&5j%5"#6
angulinnar
Locative `Cs&,F
angussë
`Cs&,F5
angussen
`Cs&1R+
angutsë
`Cs&j%,F
angulissë
`Cs&j%,F5
angulissen
Instrumental `Cs&5$5
angunen
`Cx%5$5
angwinen
`Cs&4$5
angunten
`Cs&j~B5$5
angulínen
Respective `Cs&8
angus
`Cx%8
angwis
`Cs&1R8
angutes
`Cs&j%8
angulis

The u-duals are just as in the example of iG1Y sito, except for the nominative, all equal to the singular.



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