Neo-Quenya/Numerals

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Numbers[edit]

0 to 10[edit]

Tengwar Quenya
ð aUt5# - t&4# 0 cumna, munta [1]
ñ t%5 1 min
ò `C1;E 2 atta
ó 5$m$ 3 neldë
ô aD4# 4 canta
õ j$r$ 5 lempë
ö `Vv$ 6 enquë
÷ `N1Y+ 7 otso
ø 1Ym^ 8 toldo
ù 5$61R 9 nertë
ðñ zlD5 - zR`C5 10 quain, quëan
  1. not the word for zero, but can be used for zero. From cumna "empty", munta "nothing".


11 to 19[edit]

The numbers 11 to 19 follow the pattern of using the stem form of the numeral with the suffix –quë. There also exists other names for several of these numbers resulting from Tolkien's experimentation of the numeral system:

Tengwar Quenya Alternate Quenya Numerals
ññ t%v$ 11 minquë
òñ hÍUv$ 12 yunquë 7D81E rasta [1]
óñ 5$jzF 13 nelquë 5$j$zF nelequë zlD5$j quainel hÍUv$4# yunquenta [2]
ôñ aD5#zR 14 canaquë aDv$ canquë zlDaD5 quaican
õñ j$qRv$ 15 lepenquë zlDj$qR5 quailepen
öñ `V5$v$ 16 enenquë zlDv$ quainquë
÷ñ `N1YzR 17 otoquë
øñ 1Yj^zR 18 toloquë
ùñ 5$1R6zR 19 neterquë
  1. There are a few words for the number 12: hÍUv$yunquë is used for counting, 7D81Erasta for "Dozen", possibly Duodecimal in origin.
  2. hÍUv$4# yunquenta being from hÍUv$yunquë and `V4#enta "another, one more", meaning "Twelve and one more".


20 to 100[edit]

Note: 20 and onwards[edit]

From here, the following numbers are conjectured constructions of what these numbers would be based on the material we know, and are not attested.
These are based on the earlier stages of Quenya, going back to Qenya, and our knowledge of Quenya word construction.

The multiples of 10, from 20 to 90, are constructed with either the suffixes –quëan, –quain or –cain:

Tengwar Quenya: -quëan Quenya: -quain Quenya: -cain
ðñ zR`C5 10 quëan zlD5 quain
ðò hÍ~MzR`C5 20 yúquëan hÍ~MzlD5 yúquain hÍ~MalD5 yúcain
ðó 5$jzR`C5 30 nelquëan 5$jzlD5 nelquain 5$jalD5 nelcain
ðô aD5#zR`C5 40 canaquëan aD5#zlD5 canaquain aD5#alD5 canacain
ðõ j$qRv$`C5 50 lepenquëan j$qRvlD5 lepenquain j$qRflD5 lepencain
ðö `V5$v$`C5 60 enenquëan `V5$vlD5 enenquain `V5$flD5 enencain
ð÷ `N1YzR`C5 70 otoquëan `N1YzlD5 otoquain `N1YalD5 otocain
ðø 1Yj^zR`C5 80 toloquëan 1Yj^zlD5 toloquain 1Yj^alD5 tolocain
ðù 5$1R6zR`C5 90 neterquëan 5$1R6zlD5 neterquain 5$1R6alD5 netercain
ððñ 1Ua|D 100 tuxa 9C7D5Ì$ haranyë [1] 7T2$ rimbë [2]
  1. Possible known word for 100 from the Númenorean calendar. Meaning uncertain whether it's the word for century, or the last year of a century.
  2. Not attested, but conjectural; meaning "host, great number, crowd"


To make a number between the multiples of 10, the units are written first, then the tens (Similar to German and Dutch Numerals):

Tengwar Quenya
ôõ aD4# j$qRv$`C5 54 canta lepenquëan

The numbers between 100 and 200 can be made in the same fashion:

Tengwar Quenya
ðôñ aD5#zR`C5 1Ua|D 140 canaquëan tuxa
ò÷ñ `C1;D `N1YzR`C5 1Ua|D 172 atta otoquëan tuxa


Just as for 12, the numbers 110 and 120 can be written in two different ways:

Tengwar Quenya Alt. Quenya
ðññ zR`C5 1Ua|D 110 quëan tuxa t%5%zR`C5 miniquëan
ðòñ hÍ~MzR`C5 1Ua|D 120 yúquëan tuxa hÍ~M5$v$`C5 yúnenquëan


100 to 1,000[edit]

To write the numbers 200 to 900 we use the same prefixes as the multiples of 10, but this time with the suffix –tuxa:

Tengwar Quenya Alt. Quenya
ððñ 1Ua|D 100 tuxa
ððò hÍ~M1Ua|D 200 yútuxa
ððó 5$j1Ua|D 300 neltuxa
ððô aD5#1Ua|D 400 canatuxa
ððõ j$qR4&a|D 500 lepentuxa
ððö `V5$4&a|D 600 enentuxa
ðð÷ `N1Y1Ua|D 700 ototuxa
ððø 1Yj^1Ua|D 800 tolotuxa
ððù 5$1R61Ua|D 900 netertuxa
ðððñ t$f$ 1,000 mencë [1] 9~Mt$ húmë [2]
  1. Theorised word from Sindarin: t5$x$73Y Menegroth "The Thousand Caves".t5$x$ meneg? (Derived from theoretical Primitive Elvish MENEK?) "thousand"?, uncertain if of Primitive Elvish origin.
  2. Attested Qenya word, may not be part of Late-Quenya.


1,000 to 10,000:[edit]

Tengwar Quenya Alt. Quenya
ðððñ t$f$ 1,000 mencë zR`C4&a|D quëantuxa
ððññ 1Ua|D t$f$ 1,100 tuxa mencë t%v$4&a|D minquentuxa
ððòñ hÍ~M1Ua|D t$f$ 1,200 yútuxa mencë hÍUv$4&a|D yunquentuxa
ððóñ 5$j1Ua|D t$f$ 1,300 neltuxa mencë 5$j$zR4&a|D nelequentuxa
ððôñ aD5#1Ua|D t$f$ 1,400 canatuxa mencë aD5#zR4&a|D canaquentuxa
ððõñ j$qR4&a|D t$f$ 1,500 lepentuxa mencë j$qRv$4&a|D lepenquentuxa
ððöñ `V5$4&a|D t$f$ 1,600 enentuxa mencë `V5$v$4&a|D enenquentuxa
ðð÷ñ `N1Y1Ua|D t$f$ 1,700 ototuxa mencë `N1YzR4&a|D otoquentuxa
ððøñ 1Yj^1Ua|D t$f$ 1,800 tolotuxa mencë 1Yj^zR4&a|D toloquentuxa
ððùñ 5$1R61Ua|D t$f$ 1,900 netertuxa mencë 5$1R64&a|D neterquentuxa


Tengwar Quenya Alt. Quenya
ðððñ t$f$ 1,000 mencë zR`C4&a|D quëantuxa
ðððò hÍ~Mt$f$ 2,000 yúmencë hÍ~MzR`C4&a|D yúquëantuxa
ðððó 5$jt$f$ 3,000 nelmencë 5$jzR`C4&a|D nelquëantuxa
ðððô aD5#t$f$ 4,000 canamencë aD5#zF`C4&a|D canaquëantuxa
ðððõ j$qRt"$f$ 5,000 lepemmencë j$qRv$`C4&a|D lepenquëantuxa
ðððö `V5$t"$f$ 6,000 enemmencë `V5$v$`C4&a|D enenquëantuxa
ððð÷ `N1Yt$f$ 7,000 otomencë `N1YzR`C4&a|D otoquëantuxa
ðððø 1Yj^t$f$ 8,000 tolomencë 1Yj^zR`C4&a|D toloquëantuxa
ðððù 5$1R6t$f$ 9,000 netermencë 5$1R6zR`C4&a|D neterquëantuxa
ððððñ zR`Ct"$f$ 10,000 quëammencë zlDt$f$ quaimencë


10,000 to 1 Million:[edit]

Tengwar Quenya Tengwar Quenya
ððððñ zF`Ct"$f$ 10,000 quëammencë ðððððñ 1Ua|Dt$f$ 100,000 tuxamencë
ððððò hÍ~MzF`Ct"$f$ 20,000 yúquëammencë ðððððò hÍ~M1Ua|Dt$f$ 200,000 yútuxamencë
ððððó 5$jzF`Ct"$f$ 30,000 nelquëammencë ðððððó 5$j1Ua|Dt$f$ 300,000 neltuxamencë
ððððô aD5#zF`Ct"$f$ 40,000 canaquëammencë ðððððô aD5#1Ua|Dt$f$ 400,000 canatuxamencë
ððððõ j$qRv$`Ct"$f$ 50,000 lepenquëammencë ðððððõ j$qR4&a|Dt$f$ 500,000 lepentuxamencë
ððððö `V5$v$`Ct"$f$ 60,000 enenquëammencë ðððððö `V5$4&a|Dt$f$ 600,000 enentuxamencë
ðððð÷ `N1YzR`Ct"$f$ 70,000 otoquëammencë ððððð÷ `N1Y1Ua|Dt$f$ 700,000 ototuxamencë
ððððø 1Yj^zR`Ct"$f$ 80,000 toloquëammencë ðððððø 1Yj^1Ua|Dt$f$ 800,000 tolotuxamencë
ððððù 5$1R6zF`Ct"$f$ 90,000 neterquëammencë ðððððù 5$1R61Ua|Dt$f$ 900,000 netertuxamencë
ðððððñ 1Ua|Dt$f$ 100,000 tuxamencë ððððððñ t%2~N7D 1,000,000 mindóra


1 Million to 100 Million:[edit]

Tengwar Quenya Tengwar Quenya
ððððððñ t%2~N7D 1,000,000 mindóra ðððððððñ zF`C2~N7D 10,000,000 quëandóra
ððððððò hÍU2~N7D 2,000,000 yundóra ðððððððò hÍ~MzF`C2~N7D 20,000,000 yúquëandóra
ððððððó 5$m~N7D 3,000,000 neldóra ðððððððó 5$jzF`C2~N7D 30,000,000 nelquëandóra
ððððððô aD5#2~N7D 4,000,000 canandóra ðððððððô aD5#zF`C2~N7D 40,000,000 canaquëandóra
ððððððõ j$qR2~N7D 5,000,000 lependóra ðððððððõ j$qRv$`C2~N7D 50,000,000 lepenquëandóra
ððððððö `V5$2~N7D 6,000,000 enendóra ðððððððö `V5$v$`C2~N7D 60,000,000 enenquëandóra
ðððððð÷ `N1Y2~N7D 7,000,000 otondóra ððððððð÷ `N1YzR`C2~N7D 70,000,000 otoquëandóra
ððððððø 1Ym~N7D 8,000,000 toldóra ðððððððø 1Yj^zR`C2~N7D 80,000,000 toloquëandóra
ððððððù 5$1Ru~N7D 9,000,000 neterdóra ðððððððù 5$1R6zF`C2~N7D 90,000,000 neterquëandóra
ðððððððñ zF`C2~N7D 10,000,000 quëandóra ððððððððñ 1Ua|D2~N7D 100,000,000 tuxandóra


100 Million & Beyond:[edit]

Tengwar Quenya
ððððððððñ 1Ua|D2~N7D 100,000,000 tuxandóra
ððððððððò hÍ~M1Ua|D2~N7D 200,000,000 yútuxandóra
ððððððððó 5$j1Ua|D2~N7D 300,000,000 neltuxandóra
ððððððððô aD5#1Ua|D2~N7D 400,000,000 canatuxandóra
ððððððððõ j$qR4&a|D2~N7D 500,000,000 lepentuxandóra
ððððððððö `V5$4&a|D2~N7D 600,000,000 enentuxandóra
ðððððððð÷ `N1Y1Ua|D2~N7D 700,000,000 ototuxandóra
ðððððððð÷ 1Yj^1Ua|D2~N7D 800,000,000 tolotuxandóra
ððððððððù 5$1R61Ua|D2~N7D 900,000,000 netertuxandóra
ðððððððððñ t$f$2~N7D 1,000,000,000 mencendóra [1]
  1. Based on the Long Scale counting:
    • 1,000,000,000 = 1 Milliard, 109
    • 1,000,000,000,000 = 1 Billion, 1012
    Compared to Short Scale:
    • 1,000,000,000 = 1 Billion, 109
    • 1,000,000,000,000 = 1 Trillion, 1012


Numbers are said to follow the noun, except for `V6 er "one, alone". Before `C1;E atta "two", the noun is in "singular" form.

  • `Vm# `C1;E Elda atta "Two Eldar" - lit. "Elves two"
  • `Vm#6 5$m$ Eldar neldë "Three Eldar"


  • `Vj$5 `C1;E Elen atta "Two stars"
  • `Vj$5% 5$m$ Eleni neldë "Three stars"


Ordinals[edit]

The first three ordinals are irregular, then from four onwards, we remove the last vowel of the cardinal number and add \`V`Cëa*

Tengwar Quenya Tengwar Quenya
t%5Ì# 1st minya t%v$`C 11th minquëa
1E1ÎE 2nd tatya hÍUv$`C 12th yunquëa
5$j´# 3rd nelya 5$j$zF`C 13th nelequëa
aD4$`C 4th cantëa aD5#zF`C 14th canaquëa
j$r$`C 5th lempëa j$qRv$`C 15th lepenquëa
`Vv$`C 6th enquëa `V5$v$`C 16th enenquëa
`N1iR`C 7th otsëa `N1YzR`C 17th otoquëa
1Ym$`C 8th toldëa 1Yj^zR`C 18th toloquëa
5$61R`C 9th nertëa 5$1R6zF`C 19th neterquëa
zlD5$`C 10th quainëa hÍ~MzlD5$`C 20th yúquainëa


Fractions[edit]

Fractions can be made by compounding the numeral with the word `C81E asta "month; division, part (esp. one of other equal parts)":

Tengwar Quenya Tengwar Quenya Alt. Quenya
`CzD aqua 1/1 t%v$81E minquesta 1/11
qR7R81E peresta 1/2 hÍUv$81E yunquesta 1/12
5$m$81E neldesta 1/3 5$j$zF81E nelequesta 1/13 5$jzF81E nelquesta
aD4#81E canasta 1/4 aD5#zF81E canaquesta 1/14 aDv$81E canquesta
j$qR81E lepesta 1/5 j$qFv$81E lepenquesta 1/15
`Vv$81E enquesta 1/6 `V5$v$81E enenquesta 1/16
`N1Y81E otosta 1/7 `N1YzR81E otoquesta 1/17
1Yj^81E tolosta 1/8 1Yj^zR81E toloquesta 1/18
5$7R81E neresta 1/9 5$1R6zR81E neterquesta 1/19
alD81E caista 1/10 hÍ~MalD81E yúcaista 1/20


Quotientials[edit]

There also exists quotientals that are used when something has happened a certain number of times. They are used as adverbs:

  • `V6 er "once"
  • hÍ~M twice
  • 5$j nel "thrice / three-times"
  • aD5 can "four-times"

The higher numbers are formed with the suffix \j°&t$llumë:

Tengwar Quenya English Tengwar Quenya English
j$r$j°&t$ lempellumë five-times t$f$j°&t$ mencellumë thousand-times
`Vv$j°&t$ enquellumë six-times zR`Ct"$f$j°&t$ quëammencellumë ten thousand-times
zR`Cj°&t$ quëallumë ten-times 1Ua|Dt$f$j°&t$ tuxamencellumë hundred thousand-times
1Ua|Dj°&t$ tuxallumë hundred-times t%2~N7Dj°&t$ mindórallumë million-times


Tengwar Numerals[edit]

Writing the numerals in Tengwar is quite different to write compared with Arabic numerals, but not too different from them to give any form of great difficulty in learning it.

As the elves originally used the duodecimal (base-12) number system, they had need for 12 single digits.
Note that the letters A and B are used for the values of 10 and 11 in duodecimal.

Duodecimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B 10
ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú û ðñ
Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ðñ ññ òñ

Tengwar numerals are written from right to left, with the lowest power written first, followed by the next higher power:


Reading Decimal[edit]

  • ðñ = 01 = 0 ones / 1 ten = 10
  • ððñ = 001 = 0 ones / 0 tens / 1 hundred = 100
  • óòñ = 321 = 3 ones / 2 tens / 1 hundred = 123
  • ðòôñ = 0241 = 0 ones / 2 tens / 4 hundreds / 1 thousand = 1420


Writing Decimal Notations

Decimal numbers can be given a single dot above the numeral to indicate a decimal number:

  • ðGñT

Larger numbers in decimal can be given a single bar above the numerals:

  • ðñìòîóìôîõîöì÷îøìùì


Example:

  • ö%ñGðGò% = 6102 = 2016 or öìñîðîòî = 6102 = 2016


Reading Duodecimal[edit]

Guide to Duodecimal powers (Duodecimal = Decimal):

0 = 0 - "one", 10 = 12 - "twelve/dozen", 100 = 144 - "gross", 1,000 = 1,728 - "great-gross"


  • ðñ = 01 = 0 ones / 1 twelves = 10 = 12 in Decimal
  • ððñ = 001 = 0 ones / 0 twelves / 1 gross = 100 = 144 in Decimal
  • óòñ = 321 = 3 ones / 2 twelves / 1 gross = 123 = 167 in Decimal
  • ôúù = 4A9 = 4 ones / A:10 twelves / 9 grosses = 9A4 = 1420 in Decimal
  • ûððñ = B001 = B:11 ones / 0 twelves / 0 grosses / 1 great-gross = 100B = 1739 in Decimal


Writing Duodecimal Notations

Duodecimal numbers are indicated by having single dot tehta placed below the numbers. The second digit however is given a circular tehta instead:

  • ðÊñ¨òÈóÈôÊõÈöÉ÷ÉøÉùÈúÊûÊ

Like large decimal numbers, the larger duodecimal numbers can also be given a bar, but is placed below instead:

  • ðñíòíóíôïõïöí÷ïøíùíúïûï


Example:

  • ðÊð¨òÈñÊ = 0021 = 1200 Duodecimal = 2016 Decimal
  • ððíòïñï = 0021 = 1200 Duodecimal = 2016 Decimal


Not much is known on the names of duodecimal numbers, but a theorised construction of these names can be found at the duodecimal numerals here.



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