From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Usage[edit | edit source]

The locative corresponds to the prepositions "in", "on" and "upon".

It is always used for places:

  • `V`C5 aY`C,R ëan coassë "I am in a house"
  • `B aG7ÎEt^ `V`C `B aG7ÎE,R i ciryamo ëa i ciryassë "the sailor is on the ship"
  • `B lDnG 9~Ct# `NjnE,R i aiwe háma olwassë "the bird sits upon a branch"

or for a moment or period in time when something happens:

  • `M1~Mj%`V5 `B j~Nt%,R utúlien i lómissë "I have come in the night"

There are two situations in which we don't use the locative:

The preposition "into" is translated by t%6 mir followed by a nominative:
  • 5~V6 yE4#5$ t%6 `B t#j°$ nér vantanë mir i mallë "a man walked into the street"
The preposition "in" can also be used to denote a condition or feeling someone has, in that case we use the preposition t% mi (or t~B , this is short for t% mi + `B i):
  • 5~V6 yE4#5$ t% t^65%`V nér vantanë mi mornië "a man walked in darkness"
  • 5~V6 yE4#5$ t~B 7Ts# nér vantanë mí ringa "a man walked in the cold"

Formation[edit | edit source]

Singular[edit | edit source]

The basic ending is \,R -ssë after vowels and \`V,R -essë after consonants.

Most words simply add this ending:

  • `C7E5 aran "king" → `C7E5$,R aranessë
  • 1~C7T tári "queen" → 1~C7T,R tárissë
  • yR2$ vendë "girl" → yR2$,R vendessë
  • 9~C5^ háno "brother" → 9~C5^,R hánossë

Words that have a stem-form use this stem-form:

  • iD6 sar "pebble" → iDuR,R sardessë (stem-form iDu\ sard-)
  • aU7Y curo "device" → aU7U,R curussë (stem-form aU7U\ curu-)
  • j~Nt$ lómë "night" → j~Nt%,R lómissë (stem-form j~Nt%\ lómi-)

Singular Exceptions[edit | edit source]

Words ending in \8 -s contract with the ending:

  • `C6zGj%8 arquilis "desert" → `C6zGj%,R arquilissë

Words ending in \1 -t only get iD - as ending to make \1R+ - \1R¡ - \1RÇ -tsë:

  • `VaR1 ecet "short sword" → `VaR1R+ ecetsë

Words ending in \j -l change j l + ,R ssë into = \m$ -ldë:

  • t$5$j menel "heaven" → t$5$m$ meneldë

Words ending in \5 -n change 5 n + ,R ssë into = \2$ -ndë:

  • aF5$5 cemen "earth, soil" → aFt$2$ cemendë

Words that in the nominative end on \iR -ssë don't have a locative case, when a locative would be needed they use the preposition t% mi:

  • y~B7R,R Víressë "April" → t% y~B7R,R mi Víressë

Stem-forms show quite a lot of exceptions in this case (see Stem-forms):

The locative of contracted stems doesn't use the stem-form but the nominative singular:
  • 9C7E5 haran "leader" → 9C7E2$ harandë (stem-form 9C65\ harn-)
Doubled S-stems simply add \`V -ë to the stem-form:
  • eDj#8 falas "beach" → eDj#,R falassë (stem-form eDj#8\ falas-)
T-stems that add -s also follow this rule:
  • 9R5$1 henet "window" → 9R5$1R+ henetsë (stem-form 9R5$1+\ henets-)
C-stems are changed as follows:
  • zR,R1 quesset "pillow" → zR,Ra|R quessexë (stem-form zR,Ra\ quessec-)
But nelet uses the rule of the T-stems in this case:
  • 5$j$1 nelet "tooth" → 5$j$1R+ neletsë (stem-form 5$ja\ nelc-)
M-stems use the nominative instead of the stem-form:
  • 1Ej#5 talan "floor" → 1Ej#2$ talandë (stem-form 1Ej#t\ talam-)

Plural[edit | edit source]

The ending is \,R5 -ssen after vowels and \`B,R5 -issen after consonants.

  • t#aGj macil "sword" → t#aGj%,R5 macilissen
  • `Vm# elda "elf" → `Vm#,R5 eldassen

Plural Exceptions[edit | edit source]

In the plural the different exceptions generally aren't used, only when a word would end on \iG,R5 -sissen (or \aG,R5 -cissen) is the ending shortened: Words ending in \8 -s:

  • `C6zGj%8 arquilis "desert" → `C6zGj%,R5 arquilissen

Doubled S-stems:

  • eDj#8 falas "beach" → eDj#,R5 falassen (stem-form eDj#8\ falas-)

T-stems that add \8 -s:

  • 9R5$1 henet "window" → 9R5$1iR5 henetsen (stem-form 9R5$1+\ henets-)


  • zR,R1 quesset "pillow" → zR,Ra|R5 quessexen (stem-form zR,Ra\ quessec-)
  • 5$j$1 nelet "tooth" → 5$j$1iR5 neletsen (stem-form 5$ja\ nelc-)

Dual[edit | edit source]

U-duals get \,R -ssë:
  • `Cm& aldu "a pair of trees" → `Cm&,R aldussë (nom.sing.: `Cm# alda)
T-duals get \iR -:
  • aG7ÎE1 ciryat "a pair of ships" → aG7ÎE1R+ ciryatsë (nom.sing.: aG7ÎEcirya)
  • `C7E5$1 aranet "a pair of kings" → `C7E5$1R+ aranetsë (nom.sing.: `C7E5 aran)

Partitive Plural[edit | edit source]

We add \,R5 -ssen or \,R -ssë to the nominative partitive plural:

  • aG7ÎEj% ciryali "some ships" → aG7ÎEj%,R5 - aG7ÎEj%,R ciryalissen/ciryalissë (nom.sing.: aG7ÎE cirya)

(but the ending \,R5 -ssen is preferred)

>> Neo-Quenya >> Nouns >> Locative