Python Programming/Dictionaries

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A dictionary in Python is a collection of unordered values accessed by key rather than by index. The keys have to be hashable: integers, floating point numbers, strings, tuples, and frozensets are hashable, while lists, dictionaries, and sets other than frozensets are not. Dictionaries were available as early as in Python 1.4.

Overview[edit]

Dictionaries in Python at a glance:

dict1 = {}                     # Create an empty dictionary
dict2 = dict()                 # Create an empty dictionary 2
dict2 = {"r": 34, "i": 56}     # Initialize to non-empty value
dict3 = dict([("r", 34), ("i", 56)])      # Init from a list of tuples
dict4 = dict(r=34, i=56)       # Initialize to non-empty value 3
dict1["temperature"] = 32      # Assign value to a key
if "temperature" in dict1:     # Membership test of a key AKA key exists
  del dict1["temperature"]     # Delete AKA remove
equalbyvalue = dict2 == dict3
itemcount2 = len(dict2)        # Length AKA size AKA item count
isempty2 = len(dict2) == 0     # Emptiness test
for key in dict2:              # Iterate via keys
  print key, dict2[key]        # Print key and the associated value
  dict2[key] += 10             # Modify-access to the key-value pair
for key in sorted(dict2):      # Iterate via keys in sorted order of the keys
  print key, dict2[key]        # Print key and the associated value
for value in dict2.values():   # Iterate via values
  print value
dict5 = {} # {x: dict2[x] + 1 for x in dict2 } # Dictionary comprehension in Python 2.7 or later
dict6 = dict2.copy()             # A shallow copy
dict6.update({"i": 60, "j": 30}) # Add or overwrite; a bit like list's extend
dict7 = dict2.copy()
dict7.clear()                  # Clear AKA empty AKA erase
sixty = dict6.pop("i")         # Remove key i, returning its value
print dict1, dict2, dict3, dict4, dict5, dict6, dict7, equalbyvalue, itemcount2, sixty

Dictionary notation[edit]

Dictionaries may be created directly or converted from sequences. Dictionaries are enclosed in curly braces, {}

>>> d = {'city':'Paris', 'age':38, (102,1650,1601):'A matrix coordinate'}
>>> seq = [('city','Paris'), ('age', 38), ((102,1650,1601),'A matrix coordinate')]
>>> d
{'city': 'Paris', 'age': 38, (102, 1650, 1601): 'A matrix coordinate'}
>>> dict(seq)
{'city': 'Paris', 'age': 38, (102, 1650, 1601): 'A matrix coordinate'}
>>> d == dict(seq)
True

Also, dictionaries can be easily created by zipping two sequences.

>>> seq1 = ('a','b','c','d')
>>> seq2 = [1,2,3,4]
>>> d = dict(zip(seq1,seq2))
>>> d
{'a': 1, 'c': 3, 'b': 2, 'd': 4}

Operations on Dictionaries[edit]

The operations on dictionaries are somewhat unique. Slicing is not supported, since the items have no intrinsic order.

>>> d = {'a':1,'b':2, 'cat':'Fluffers'}
>>> d.keys()
['a', 'b', 'cat']
>>> d.values()
[1, 2, 'Fluffers']
>>> d['a']
1
>>> d['cat'] = 'Mr. Whiskers'
>>> d['cat']
'Mr. Whiskers'
>>> 'cat' in d
True
>>> 'dog' in d
False

Combining two Dictionaries[edit]

You can combine two dictionaries by using the update method of the primary dictionary. Note that the update method will merge existing elements if they conflict.

>>> d = {'apples': 1, 'oranges': 3, 'pears': 2}
>>> ud = {'pears': 4, 'grapes': 5, 'lemons': 6}
>>> d.update(ud)
>>> d
{'grapes': 5, 'pears': 4, 'lemons': 6, 'apples': 1, 'oranges': 3}
>>>

Deleting from dictionary[edit]

del dictionaryName[membername]

Exercises[edit]

Write a program that:

  1. Asks the user for a string, then creates the following dictionary. The values are the letters in the string, with the corresponding key being the place in the string. https://docs.python.org/2/tutorial/datastructures.html#looping-techniques
  2. Replaces the entry whose key is the integer 3, with the value "Pie".
  3. Asks the user for a string of digits, then prints out the values corresponding to those digits.

External links[edit]