Project Management/PMBOK/Integration Management
Integration management is a collection of processes required to ensure that the various elements of the projects are properly coordinated. It involves making trade-offs among competing objectives and alternatives to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations.
- Project plan development
- Integrating and coordinating all project plans to create a consistent, coherent document
- Project plan execution
- Carrying out the project plan, according to the strategy, plan and activities as per the plan
- Integrated change control
- Coordinating changes across the project
Project plan development
Inputs Tools and techniques Outputs Other planning inputs Project planning methodology Project plan Historical information Stakeholder skills and knowledge Supporting details Organizational policies Project management information system
Constraints Earned value management
What is a plan?
A scheme, program, or method worked out beforehand for the accomplishment of an objective: a plan of attack. A proposed or tentative project or course of action: had no plans for the evening. A systematic arrangement of elements or important parts; a configuration or outline: a seating plan; the plan of a story. A drawing or diagram made to scale showing the structure or arrangement of something. In perspective rendering, one of several imaginary planes perpendicular to the line of vision between the viewer and the object being depicted. A program or policy stipulating a service or benefit: a pension plan.
Planned, Planning, Plans
To formulate a scheme or program for the accomplishment, enactment, or attainment of: plan a campaign. To have as a specific aim or purpose; intend: They plan to buy a house. To draw or make a graphic representation of.
What are the main purposes of a project plan? Guide the execution Document assumptions Planning decisions – alternatives Facilitate communication Identify key management reviews Baseline for progress measurement and control
Top 10 Reasons Projects Fail
Inadequately trained and /or inexperienced project managers Failure to set and manage expectations Poor leadership at any and all levels Failure to adequately identify , document and track requirements Poor plans and planning processes Poor effort estimation Cultural and ethical misalignment Misalignment between the project team and the business or other organizations it serves Inadequate or misused methods Inadequate communication , including progress tracking and reporting
source - gantthead.com
In any project, the good things for the project do not happen just like that, where as bad things can. For a project to progress and get over on time, within budget and with required quality, the project steps need to be planned well in advance, and who will do, what, when should be decided well in advance. For any team to be successful, the following 14 points are very important;
Application of Q12 practices in project planning
If the clan can assure the meeting of the following objectives, then it can be termed as a good plan Bring clarity into the work of each team member (Do I know what is expected me?) Ensure material, equipment, skills, knowledge availability to the team, to do their work properly (Do I have the material and equipment I need to do my work right?) Ensure that, as far as possible, the work allocated is matching to the team members liking and skill set (Do I have the opportunity to do what I do best every day?) Ensure better communication within the team, so that good work gets the recognition it deserves (In the last 7 days, have I received recognition or praise for good work?) Does my supervisor, or someone at work, seem to care about me as a person? Ensure , while doing the project work, the team member develops as a professional (Is there someone at work who encourages my development?) Ensure, a culture of open communication and every body gets their turn to share (At work do my opinions seem to count?) Ensure that the road-map is clear to all (Does the charter of my project make me feel, my job is important?) Facilitate individual excellence along with team excellence (Are my co-workers, committed to doing quality work?) Create an environment of trust (Do I have a best friend at work?) Ensure that, everyone gets proper feedback on their performance and the teams performance (In the last six months, has someone talked with me about my progress?) Ensure that every one advances in their career (This last year, have I had opportunities at work to learn and grow?)
Contents of a project plan
Project charter Project management approach Scope statement WBS (to the level of control) Responsibility chart / assignments Network diagram / major milestones Budget Schedule Resources Change control plan / resources Performance measurement baselines Management plans (scope, schedule, cost, quality, staffing, communications, risk response, procurement Subsidiary management plans •Scope management plan •Schedule management plan •Cost management plan •Quality management plan •Staffing management plan •Communications management plan •Risk response plan •Procurement management plan Inputs to project plan development Other planning inputs Statement of work Scope statement Contract copy etc Historical information Cost / effort / quality related information of similar past projects Risk databases of similar past projects Legal aspects of similar past projects Organizational capability baselines Industry databases etc.... Organizational policies Policies for project management HR policy Quality policy etc.... Constraints
Factors that limit the project team's options
Most of the projects are operated under the triple constraints of scope / schedule / cost. when the scope increases the schedule increases along with cost. Hence there is always a tradeoff between these constraints. Other examples of constraints can be; legal policies of the land in which the project is executed geographical conditions cultural issues etc..
Assumptions Some of the examples of assumptions are; It is assumed that the test team is available to test the product, when the development is completed It is assumed that, training will be provided to those who are new to the technology, within two weeks of the start of the project It is assumed that the schools are closed during winter, hence the buildings can be utilized by the project team
Baseline Original project plan with the approved changes. A baseline is required to track the progress of the project from the approved plan. Can there be multiple baselines? the answer is 'yes'. Project baselines may be changed by formally approved changes, but the evolution of the baseline should be documented.
Project plan execution Inputs Tools and techniques Outputs project plan general management skills work results supporting details product skills and knowledge change requests organizational policies work authorization system
preventive action status review meetings
corrective action project review meetings
project management information system
What are the supporting details?
estimation worksheets skills database contract statement of work (SOW) review reports project communication
Examples of organizational policies? quality policy change management policy recruitment policy
What is the difference between preventive action and corrective action? Prevention - proactive action to prevent something from happening Correction - rectifying something, after the problem has happened Preventive action - actions focused at preventing something from happening. Example : training, peer reviews, quality planning (proactive in nature) Corrective action - actions focused at correcting something, which has already happened (reactive in nature)
What are the general management skills required for project plan execution? Management - planning, organizing, executing, controlling People management Time management Emotional intelligence Initiative Leadership Communication skills - written, oral Essential technology awareness to efficiently communicate Confidence Organizational political awareness Product management skills and project execution It is not possible to manage a project without the basic technical knowledge about the project's product This do not mean, extensive technical knowledge about the product as required by the design personnel Means, minimum technical knowledge required to participate in the project discussions and decisions in a meaningful way What is a work authorization system? Decide what to do when and by whom An official go-ahead or no-go for the work Definition of necessary approvals and empowerment levels
Integrated change control Inputs Tools and techniques Outputs project plan change control system project plan updates performance reports configuration management corrective action change requests performance measurement lessons learned
project management information system
Integrating the changes that results from all the control processes Taking corrective action Working with the change control board Configuration management Performing as per the defined change control procedures / system Managing changes Ensuring that everything is going as per the change management plans Controlling within the baselines Refining control limits, wherever required Collection of data Project control meetings Negotiating Communicating Resolving conflict Working within policies Conducting post mortems and capturing lessons learned Ensuring implementation of lessons learned in the subsequent phases of the project Issuing updates to the project plan What are the most commonly used performance reports? earned value analysis reports milestone charts risk reports etc
What is a change request? A formal document containing; description of the change required initiated by approved by date etc
PROJECT CHANGE REQUEST FORM
PROPOSED CHANGE Short Name:
Description: (Attachments as necessary)
Change is: External to Scope [ ]
Internal to Scope [ ] Requestor Signature:
APPROVED FOR EVALUATION Date:
Project Manager: [ ] Yes [ ] No Signature:
Sponsor: [ ] Yes [ ] No Signature:
EVALUATION OF PROPOSED CHANGE Work Packages Impacted:
Estimated Project Impact: Effort Days:
RECOMMENDED ACTION: Implement [ ] Defer [ ] Reject [ ] Recommended Date of Implementation:
APPROVED Work Package Leader:
ACTION COMPLETED: Date:
CHANGE LOG FORM
Request Number Date Summary Description Action I / D / R Target Date Resolve Date
What is a change control system? A typical change control system will have the following components; change request form change approval process capture of change implementation information change control boards change communication system What is configuration management? In projects different work products gets generated during the course of the project and these evolve as the project progresses. One of the critical challenges in projects (especially product development) is to keep track of the versions of the work products going into any release. This is accomplished by a configuration management system. Typical components of a configuration management system are; Version numbering system Repository for storing / pointing to the work products and their interdependencies Check in forms / system Check out forms / systems What are the triggers for project plan updation? It can be anything under the sun! Some of the major causes are listed below; Project work deviates drastically from planned work due to; Improper requirements / changing requirements Improper design Insufficient skill sets Insufficient scheduling knowledge Insufficient tracking etc Project scope changes Non availability of critical resources on time Organizational priority changes Project plan updates require approval from sponsor and is normally done immediately after a project review (It is not something a project manager can do as and when he/she feels so. In that case it will affect project tracking due to moving dates and the team also can take the planned completion dates casually, eventually making the project a bleeding project. What do you mean by lessons learned in project management? The meaning of lessons learned is 'lessons learned' in project management also. Since projects are temporary endeavors, it brings with it additional challenges like; The same individual contributor repeating the same mistake in the next project also The issues got addressed in one project, continue to happen in another project due to lack of communication The lessons learned forgotten by the time the team moves on to the next phase of the project