Pragmalinguistic Peculiarities of English Slogan in Fashion Domain/Chapter 2. Definition and Classification of advertising text

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Advertising is an inevitable part of our consumer society whose outstanding feature is its competitive fight. “...advertising is not some external curiosity which we examine, from which we are separate and superior, but something of which we are part, and which is part of us...” [1]. It is everywhere around us: in newspapers, in magazines, on billboards along the streets, on television, in radio, in means of public transport and any place the sponsor pays to distribute their message.

Definition of advertisement[edit | edit source]

There are many definition of the term “advertisement” in modern linguistic literature.

  1. The American Heritage Dictionary says that the advertising is:
    1. The activity of attracting public attention to a product or business, as by paid announcements in the print, broadcast, or electronic media.
    2. The business of designing and writing advertisements.[2]
  2. Pride and Ferrell defined advertising as a beneficial kind of non personal communication executed to promote and publicize an organization and its products.[3]
  3. Advertisement is a concrete manifestation of advertising.[4]
  4. According to the Investorwords glossary advertisement is a description or presentation of a product, idea, or organization, in order to induce individuals to buy, support, or approve of it. [5]
  5. E. Romat believes that advertising can be seen as a specific field of social communication between advertisers and the target audience of the advertising message to actively influence the audience and make them buy the promoted product.. [6]

All these definitions have in common the fact, that advertising is a means of promotion the product, idea, or organization on the market with the aim to give information and to persuade people of the advantage of the product and induce them to take and action (e.g. buy it).

History of advertisement[edit | edit source]

Advertising traces its history back to ancient times. The first forms of advertising messages were transferred by word of mouth, however, in the ruins of Pompeii commercial messages and election campaign displays have been found. V. Uchenova states that "shouts" of those who announced the main events have become the Latin verb «reclamare», which means "shouting" and derives from the verb and the name of the phenomenon of advertising. [7]
J. Lapsanska adds that Egyptians used Papyrus to create sales messages and wall posters, while in Greece and Rome lost-and-found advertising on papyrus was common. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient media advertising form, which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, Africa and South America. [8]
With the form of advertising, we could meet in the marketplaces, where the sellers used to shout and extol their products. In the course of time, people more and more tried to differentiate their products and began to find out new ways of presenting. They started to accentuate the visual aspect of the advertisement. With the expansion of colour printing and colourful posters the streets began to revel in colours. These posters were ancestors to our modern billboards.
As the economy and the trade were expanding during the 19th century, the need for advertising grew. Gradually, advertising transformed into a modern, more scientific and sophisticated conception. New visual techniques have been launched. Not only the content of the message is important, but also the form. The creativity of copywriters, who are finding new ways, leads to the richness of various forms of advertising.

Functions of advertisement[edit | edit source]

The goal of advertisement defines its functions. The main functions of the social communication are informational, pragmatic, economic, esthetic and communicative. 1) informative function is the process of promoting the product

Types of advertisement[edit | edit source]

The purpose of advertising determines its function. The main functions of social communication is informative, expressive, pragmatic, economic, aesthetic and communicative: 1) informative function is to inform consumers about the goods or services in the direct process of information; 2) expressive function is expressed in the ability to express not only semantic but also evaluative information; 3) pragmatic function is implemented in the transmission of communication guidelines, which involves a certain impact on the recipient; 4) economic function proves effective advertising that promotes the sale of goods and increase profits; 5) aesthetic function is found in the relationship of art and advertising as one using all the most current techniques other, sometimes referred to as advertising art form; 6) communicative function follows from the peculiar process of communication between consumers and producers, so is communication, and hence the formation of a consumer's position povidomlyuvanoho [9, p. 85]. Advertise reach the goal only if at the conclusion of the advertising text captured features of the human psyche. The most famous advertising model is AIDA (attention - interest - desire - action, ie attention - interest - bazhannya- action). This scheme was proposed by an American publicity Elmer Lewis in 1896. This model reflects the stages of the psychological impact of advertising: to attract attention, arouse interest, interest, desire to call, submit the case for goods or services, to encourage a decision to purchase or use the service. Thus, the difference between the advertising is their anthropocentrism, because such texts aimed at the needs of man and society, and are characterized by pragmatic content of the text. Person's world - a relatively stable system, based on the hierarchy of values. Values, respectively, based on the foundation of the needs of various subjects. According to the theory VV Uchenovoyi, value orientations and different groups of individuals in terms of their internal content include archetypes, stereotypes and ideals [33, c. 104]. The former include the value preferences, preserved from previous generations, the second - modern idea, and others - values that are to use the in the foreseeable future. This complex axiological used advertising to achieve its goals. And that advertising discourse is a means of influencing the various social groups, offering a particular mindset and lifestyle or behavior that is valued in modern society and is a reflection of culture. In value orientations are used as promotional strategies: rational (when reasoning advertising messages based on logical arguments about the quality of the product needs of the buyer) and emotional (when the advertising message creates a compelling consumer image, mood, feeling) [19, p. 50]. Under the rational strategy to understand in advertising against many facts, arguments, links, quotes submitted using images or not. Man in the perception of such advertising conducted a thorough processing of information creates a meaningful relationship to the notice. Advertise emotional type using images and associations form a symbolic characteristics of objects. In general, the division of advertising on the rational use of or emotional strategy is conditional, since virtually all ads combine features of rational and emotional advertising.

  1. COOK, Guy. 1996 [1992]. The Discourse of Advertising. London: Routledge
  3. Marketing 2014 William Pride, Ferrell --Cengage Learning, 2013 832 p
  6. Ромат Е.В. Реклама / Е. В. Ромат. – СПб.: Питер, 2004. –176 с
  7. Ученова В.В. Философия рекламы / В.В. Ученова. – М.: Гелла-принт, 2003. –208 с.