# Practical Electronics/Low Pass Filter

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## Low Pass Filter

### LR Network

${\frac {V_{o}}{V_{i}}}={\frac {Z_{R}}{Z_{R}+Z_{L}}}={\frac {R}{R+j\omega L}}={\frac {1}{1+j\omega T}}$ $T={\frac {L}{R}}$ $\omega _{o}={\frac {1}{T}}={\frac {R}{L}}$ $\omega =0V_{o}=V_{i}$ $\omega _{o}={\sqrt {\frac {1}{LC}}}V_{o}={\frac {V_{i}}{2}}$ $\omega =00V_{o}=0$ Plot three points above we have a graph $Vo-\omega$ . From graph, we see voltage does not change with frequency on Low Frequency therefore LR network can be used as Low Pass Filter

### RC Network

${\frac {V_{o}}{V_{i}}}={\frac {Z_{C}}{Z_{R}+Z_{C}}}={\frac {\frac {1}{j\omega C}}{R+{\frac {1}{j\omega C}}}}={\frac {1}{1+j\omega T}}$ $T=RC$ $\omega _{o}={\frac {1}{T}}={\frac {1}{RC}}$ $\omega =0V_{o}=V_{i}$ $\omega _{o}={\sqrt {\frac {1}{LC}}}V_{o}={\frac {V_{i}}{2}}$ $\omega =00V_{o}=0$ Plot three points above we have a graph $Vo-\omega$ . From graph, we see voltage does not change with frequency on Low Frequency therefore LR network can be used as Low Pass Filter

## Summary

In general

1. Low Pass Filter can be constructed from the two networks LR or RC .
2. Low Pass Filter has stable voltage does not change with frequency on Low Frequency
3. Low pass filter can be expressed in a mathematical form of
${\frac {V_{o}}{V_{i}}}={\frac {1}{1+j\omega T}}$ T = RC for RC network
$T={\frac {L}{R}}$ for RL network