Polish/Masculine noun declension

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< Feminine noun declension < ^ Polish ^ > Neuter noun declension >

Masculine noun declension[edit]

There are three masculine genders in Polish - person-masculine, animate-masculine and inanimate-masculine. The differences between them are regular:

  • In the case of person-masculine, the accusative has the same form as the genitive
  • In the case of animate-masculine, the accusative has the same form as the genitive in the singular, but as the nominative in the plural
  • In the case of inanimate-masculine, the accusative has the same form as the nominative
  • Vocative singular is always the same as locative singular and vocative plural is the same as nominative plural.

But there are also some other differences in declension. Before they get explained, let's take a look at some examples.

Boy (person-masculine)
Singular Plural
Nominative Chłopak Chłopaki
Genitive Chłopaka Chłopaków
Dative Chłopakowi Chłopakom
Accusative Chłopaka Chłopaków
Instrumental Chłopakiem Chłopakami
Locative Chłopaku Chłopakach
Vocative Chłopaku Chłopaki
Farmer (person-masculine)
Singular Plural
Nominative Rolnik Rolnicy
Genitive Rolnika Rolników
Dative Rolnikowi Rolnikom
Accusative Rolnika Rolników
Instrumental Rolnikiem Rolnikami
Locative Rolniku Rolnikach
Vocative Rolniku Rolnicy
Chris (person-masculine)
Singular Plural
Nominative Krzyś Krzysie
Genitive Krzysia Krzysiów
Dative Krzysiowi Krzysiom
Accusative Krzysia Krzysiów
Instrumental Krzysiem Krzysiami
Locative Krzysiu Krzysiach
Vocative Krzysiu Krzysie
Guy (person-masculine)
Singular Plural
Nominative Facet Faceci
Genitive Faceta Facetów
Dative Facetowi Facetom
Accusative Faceta Facetów
Instrumental Facetem Facetami
Locative Facecie Facetach
Vocative Facecie Faceci
Engineer (person-masculine)
Singular Plural
Nominative Inżynier Inżynierowie or


Genitive Inżyniera Inżynierów
Dative Inżynierowi Inżynierom
Accusative Inżyniera Inżynierów
Instrumental Inżynierem Inżynierami
Locative Inżynierze Inżynierach
Vocative Inżynierze Inżynierowie
Cat (animate-masculine)
Singular Plural
Nominative Kot Koty
Genitive Kota Kotów
Dative Kotu Kotom
Accusative Kota Koty
Instrumental Kotem Kotami
Locative Kocie Kotach
Vocative Kocie Koty
Dog (animate-masculine)
Singular Plural
Nominative About this sound Pies Psy
Genitive Psa Psów
Dative Psu Psom
Accusative Psa Psy
Instrumental Psem Psami
Locative Psie Psach
Vocative Psie Psy
Computer (inanimate-masculine)
Singular Plural
Nominative Komputer Komputery
Genitive Komputera Komputerów
Dative Komputerowi Komputerom
Accusative Komputer Komputery
Instrumental Komputerem Komputerami
Locative Komputerze Komputerach
Vocative Komputerze Komputery
Table (inanimate-masculine)
Singular Plural
Nominative Stół Stoły
Genitive Stołu Stołów
Dative Stołowi Stołom
Accusative Stół Stoły
Instrumental Stołem Stołami
Locative Stole Stołach
Vocative Stole Stoły

Phonetic changes and irregularities are:

  • All "e" (or "ie") and "o"/"ó" changes in the singular nominative, and also the accusative if it has the same form as the nominative.
  • The plural nominative isn't very regular. In the case of some nouns softening of the final consonant may be required. Some nouns even have two correct plural nominative forms - one with "owie" and another in a soft "e".
  • Some nouns have a singular locative in "u", other have in "e", and in the case of the latter the final consonant group must be softened.
  • Very few masculine nouns have a singular dative in "u" instead in "owi". However, they are really common words - Pan (literally lord, nobleman, master - a very important word because it is used exactly as the English pronoun "You" to express politeness e.g "Podać Panu kawę? Could you take some coffee, sir?) brat (brother), kot (cat), pies (dog) and Bóg (God). As you see, apart from unusual dative ending in all of them declension is connected with unpleasant stem alternations, resulting from various historical processes e.g. consonant cluster softening, compensatory lengthening, development of Slavonic semi-vowels (jery)
  • Some inanimate-masculine nouns have a singular genitive in "u", most others in "a".

Now some sentences:

  • Adam jest rolnikiem - Adam is a farmer. (farmer in instrumental)
  • Facet daje kotu mleko - The guy gives milk to the cat. (cat in dative)
  • Chłopak nie ma psa - The boy doesn't have a dog. (dog in accusative)
  • Pies jest pod stołem - The dog is under the table. (table in instrumental)

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