Polish/Hard and soft consonants

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< Noun cases < ^ Polish ^ > Feminine noun declension >

Before delving into the study of declension patterns in the Polish language, it's beneficial to familiarize yourself with the concept of hard and soft consonants.

Hard and Soft Consonants in Polish[edit | edit source]

In Polish, consonants can be categorized into two groups: hard and soft. Here's a chart that illustrates this:

Hard and Soft Consonants
Hard Soft
m mi
b bi
p pi
w wi
f fi
n ń/ni
d dź/dzi
t ć/ci
z ź/zi
s ś/si
ł l
r rz
g/gi dz
k/ki c
h/hi ż
ch/chi sz

Hard consonants in Polish can transform into their soft counterparts according to the above table.

Examples of Hard and Soft Consonants in Use[edit | edit source]

To illustrate this concept, here are some examples of words in their nominative and locative forms:

'sky' — Nominative: niebo, Locative: w niebie
'brother' — Nominative: brat, Locative: o bracie
'river' — Nominative: rzeka, Locative: o rzece
'leg' — Nominative: noga, Locative: na nodze
'bicycle' — Nominative: rower, Locative: na rowerze
'hell' — Nominative: piekło, Locative: w piekle
'Warsaw' — Nominative: Warszawa, Locative: w Warszawie

See also[edit | edit source]

International Phonetic Alphabet

< Noun cases < ^ Polish ^ > Feminine noun declension >