Past LSAT Explained/PrepTest 01
Form 2LSS11 June 1991
- 1 Section I Reading Comprehension
- 1.1 Passage 1 Art/Humanity
- 1.2 Passage 2 Natural Science
- 1.3 Passage 3 Law
- 1.4 Passage 4 Social Science
- 2 Section III Analytical Reasoning
- 2.1 Game 1
- 2.2 Game 2
- 3 Section III Logical Reasoning
- 3.1 Question 01
- 3.2 Question 02
- 3.3 Question 03
- 3.4 Question 04
- 3.5 Question 05
- 3.6 Question 06
- 3.7 Question 07
- 3.8 Question 08
- 3.9 Question 09
- 3.10 Question 10
- 3.11 Question 11
- 3.12 Question 12
- 3.13 Question 13
- 3.14 Question 14
- 3.15 Question 15
- 3.16 Question 16
- 3.17 Question 17
- 3.18 Question 18
- 3.19 Question 19
- 3.20 Question 20
- 3.21 Question 21
- 3.22 Question 22
- 3.23 Question 23
- 3.24 Question 24
- 3.25 Question 25
- 3.26 Question 26
- 4 Section IV Logical Reasoning
- 4.1 Question 01
- 4.2 Question 02
- 4.3 Question 03
- 4.4 Question 04
- 4.5 Question 05
- 4.6 Question 06
- 4.7 Question 07
- 4.8 Question 08
- 4.9 Question 09
- 4.10 Question 10
- 4.11 Question 11
- 4.12 Question 12
- 4.13 Question 13
- 4.14 Question 14
- 4.15 Question 15
- 4.16 Question 16
- 4.17 Question 17
- 4.18 Question 18
- 4.19 Question 19
- 4.20 Question 20
- 4.21 Question 21
- 4.22 Question 22
- 4.23 Question 23
- 4.24 Question 24
Section I Reading Comprehension
This section has 28 questions.
Passage 1 Art/Humanity
- Phillis Weatley
- African American literature
- English poetry
- Black English
- neoclassical poetry
- oral tradition
(A) Incorrect. This is certainly feasible since Philis Wheatley employed few principles of African oral tradition in her work. However, this is not what the passage is trying to say.
(B) Incorrect. This choice fails to mention Wheatley's lack of contribution to the distinct African American literary language.
(C) Correct. Excellent. This choice expresses Wheatley's accomplishment and shortcoming.
(D) Incorrect. This is not the main idea and not true based on the passage. Line 54 states that her poetry contributed little. She may have started the Black American poetry but she did not play a role in the development of the distinct voice. For the most part, her poetry was overwhelmingly conventional.
(E) Incorrect. Her poetry did not contribute to preserving the principles of African oral tradtion since her work reflected little of her experience and heritage.
When you are unsure of the passage's main idea, it may be helpful to answer other local questions first to gain a better understanding of the main point.
This is an analogy and Local question.
This question asks you to find a parallel situation. This question is not too difficult because it uses only one example- Italian immigrant in America, instead of using five different examples to confuse the testtakers and to make it hard to contrast among the choices. If you have a good grasp of Wheatley's approach that she conformed to the conventions without incorporating her nonconventional heritage and experiences.
(A) Incorrect. No translation of the African American traditions.
(B) Incorrect. She was strictly English.
(C) Incorrect. She contributed little as mentioned in Line 54.
(D) Incorrect. She did not do this. If this choice to become true, it should read, "defined artistic expression in terms of eighteenth-century American poetic conventions"
This is a very Local question.
To answer this question, look at Line 23 where it says "but also exerted demonstrable effects on the manner in which other Americans spoke English."
This is a Local question.
Some extra questions to Consider:
08.1 What is the purpose of the first paragraph?
Provide the context of Wheatley's accomplishment over the obstacles when she wrote her poetry
08.2 What is the purpose of the second paragraph?
Discuss the Opportunity for Wheatley to bridge the Oral(African) and Written(English) Literary Culture
08.3 What is the purpose of the third paragraph?
Explain that Wheatley's Poetry did take advantage of her African Experience but rather conformed to the English conventions
08.4 What is the purpose of the fourth paragraph?
Explain that Wheatley's poetry contributed little to African American literary language
08.5 Which of the following situation is the most analogous to the author mentioning Wheatley is "justly celebrated as the first Black American poet"(Line 59-60)?
Professor Michael praising Beowulf as the first epic poem written in England despite the fact that it was written in Anglo-Saxon and had little influence in the development of modern English.
08.6 Which one of the following most accurately characterizes the author's attitude toward Wheatley's contribution to the development of a distinctive American American literary language?
unfortunate that she made little contribution because of the limits of the eighteenth century English literary code
08.7 The passage as a whole can best be described as
Assessment of Wheatley's Accomplishment in the context of her time
08.8 By "reigning conventions"(Line 45) the author means
(A) The aesthetic princeiples of the African oral traditions
(B) Wheatley's African heritage
(C) The formal literary code of eighteenth century
(D) English spoken by the Black People to which Wheatley was familar
(E) African aesthetic canons
Passage 2 Natural Science
- electron microscopy
- molecular genetics
- molecular biology
- cellular biology
- Joseph Fruton
16.1 To introduce a general pattern which is exemplified by the relationship in life science
By citing the example that "In the case of late nineteenth century cell research, progress was fueled by competition among the avrious attitudes and issues" (Line 54-55), the author
Illustrates his idea that the interaction between the two disciplines can have important results
16.2 By quoting Joseph Fruton, the author
emphasizes that the importance of competition in making progress both in the past and the future
16.3 What is the purpose of the first paragraph?
Introduce a pattern seen in the early stage of development of a scientific discipline which is used in the next to describe the historical development of a new field
16.4 What is the purpose of the second paragraph?
16.5 What is the purpose of the third paragraph?
16.6 What is the purpose of the fourth paragraph?
Passage 3 Law
- criminal procedure
- public prosecutor
- adversarial system
- inquisitorial system
- Pretrial investigation
- legal anthropology
21.1 What is the purpose of paragraph 1?
Passage 4 Social Science
Section III Analytical Reasoning
Section III Logical Reasoning
This is a Discrepancy question.
Sugar's medicinal use in treating inflection.
Let's find a choice that links sugar with antibiotic property. Structure is THESIS + ANTITHESIS
(A) Correct. Sugar basically dehydrates bacteria and bacteria need water.
(B) Incorrect. Just throwing some side facts to confuse you. Who cares if sugar is not available. We are concerned with sugar's property not its feasiblity as a medical treatment
(C) Incorrect. This strongly weakens the passage. Sugar promotes baterial growth! This does not explain the passage at all. This choice might have been correct if this choice was a Weaken question.
(D) Incorrect. This choice introduces some complex relationship into the passage. But remember the passage does not mention using the antibiotic and sugar together. Moreover, it does not say that the physicians used some food that contain sugar. This fact is certainly a concern if the antibiotic is used with the sugar treatment and requires more research. But this does not explain the phenomenon at all.
(E) Incorrect. The fact that sugar can be used as a crude antibiotic is mentioned in 2007 film Shooter. Supposedly this practice was common during the Napoleonic Wars. So what? It only shows the knowledge of sugar's medicinal effect is ancient. It does not explain why.
This was your first question of the section. Gain confidence and warm up your logic engine. Get ready for some serious logical reasoning.
This is a Parallel Reasoning question.
Some color blindness discussion. This could well be a Flaw question because there is a flaw in the reason. This question can be tricky since the answer should contain the same logical error. By not phrasing this question as "which of the following the similar error in reasoning", the question does not give you a clue that there is an error.
The flaw is that the red/green color blind people are not the only ones who cannot distinguish between green and brown. There may be some people who are not red/green color-blind and Gerald could be a member of that group. The logic does not preclude that loophole.
The structure of the argument is: Major Premise, Minor Premise, Conclusion
(A) Incorrect. This is a sound logic. The structure is same- Major Premise, Minor Premise, Conclusion. This does not have the flaw discussed earlier.
(B) Correct. This choice commits the same kind of flaw. People with sinusitis may not be the only one who lose their sense of smell. Pretend that people who ace the LSAT lose the sense of smell but do not suffer from sinusitus. Mary may well be a member of this group. This is a common type of flaw tested in the LSAT over and over. If X→Y. Z→Y. So Z→X. (invalid)
(C) Incorrect. This is a good logic without the flaw. If X→ NOT Y.(Contrapositive: Y→NOT X) Z→Y. So Z→NOT X.
(D) Incorrect. If X→NOT Y. Z→X. So Z→NOT Y.
(E) Incorrect. This choice is a bit strange. This choice has a hidden assumption that there is some special diet consists of small amount of sugar. The conclusion that Freda is on a special diet is not a proper one- a better one would be "Freda cannot have a large amounts of sugar."
This question is difficult for Number 2 requiring a good knowledge of formal logic and contrapositive. Writing each choice into algebraic logic notation is helpful but not necessary.
This is a Conclusion question.
This one is like a mini reading comprehension question.
Section IV Logical Reasoning
- management consultant
From "Modern Soviet Criminal Procedure: A Critical Analysis" by Christopher Osakwe. Tulane Law Review, Volume 57, Number 3, February 1983. Copyright 1983 Tulane Law Review Association.
From "Professing Medically: The Place of Ethics in Defining Medicine" by Leon R. Kass. The Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 249, pages 1305-1310. Copyright 1983 by The American Medical Association.