Open and Distance Education/Course Design/Media and Technology Course Design

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Media and Technology for the course design of self-directed learners[edit]

Media (Technology) is one of the elements in a course design for online self-directed learning. Course designers should be careful with the right choice of media (technology) that should be matched with the learning outcomes and learning activities of the course, and specifically suitable for different learning styles of learners. In the case of self-directed learners, the type of media and technology must be selected correctly for such learners. Dr. Mark of the Commonwealth Online Learning (presentation viewed on video file) commented that "Using instructional design also help to develop appropriate media and technology choices. But, if the technology is not chosen carefully, it can distract, confuse, and frustrate learners. By aligning your technology selection to your learning activities and learning objectives will help to avoid that". Therefore, here Dr. Mark stressed the importance of media and technology as an element of instructional design.

Dimensions to select the right type of media and technology[edit]

The ISD or ADDIE model used in this course design does not specifically state how to select the right media and technology. So, some recent studies are explored in order to generate a model as a guide to identify the media and technology suitable for self-directed learning.

Bates (2011) provided a structured model of selecting and using technology. His model clearly classified a type of media or technology into four groups (1). Synchronous, (2). Asynchronous, (3). Broadcast and (4). Communicative. Another study by Takabayashi (2015) examined the relationship between self-directed learning and learning media in the context of the Japanese university. He used innovativeness and self-regulation of the learners as measures of their self-directed learning in relation to the learning media. His results show a significant positive relationship between self-directed learning and the media. This result implied that self-directed learners are innovative and self-regulative. Kobayashi (2017) studied the preference of online learners in the mid-size US university with reference to the type of media, and its relationship to the learners' characteristics and online self-efficacy technology. The result of the study showed that learners preferred the recorded on slide presentation with audio than internet-based lived video lectures in two-way video and audio interactions. Also, there was a correlation known between the online self-efficacy of learners with the type of media requiring a relatively higher level of technology.

So, these studies (Bates; 2011, Takabayashi; 2015, Kobayashi; 2017) provide directions of how to select the right choice of media for self-directed learners. For example, the model of Bates provide the classification for the choice of media, Takabayashi and Kobayashi both identify clearly the characteristics of self-directed learners, but Kobayashi specified the type of media for self-directed learners based on their preferences. To merge these studies, selection of media for self-directed learners should be based on three dimensions: (1) classification (2) Characteristics of self-directed learners (3). Preference of self-directed learners. Therefore, course designers must use these three dimensions as a lens to select the right type of media and technology for self-directed learners.

JMOOC and Media[edit]

Obviously, the JMOOC (xMOOC) mode of learning is self-directed learning and the form of media and technology used are basically using a video slide presentation with audio that is one-way interaction, and the learners are self-directed and self-regulative. These characteristics of the JMOOC in some way relate to the studies mentioned above.


Bates, A. W. (2011). Models for selecting and using technology: 4. Synchronous or asynchronous? e-learning and distance education resources, Vancouver: Tony Bates Associates Ltd. Kobayashi., M. (2017). Students' Media Preferences in Online Learning. Turkish Online Journal for Distance Education, 18(3), 1302-6488. Mark. (No Date). What is Instructional Design? [Video File]. Retrieved from Takabayashi., T. (2015). Media Use as an Element of Self-directed Learning: The Learning Strategies and Media-Related Behaviors of Japanese University Students. International Journal of Educational Media and Technology, 9(1), 80-82.