Open and Distance Education/Course Design/Instructional Systems Design Model
About Instructional Systems Design
This Wikibook focuses on the Instructional Systems Design Model.
Those who design MOOC courses (as well as other online/face-to-face instructions) need to think about course content, material, media, teaching strategies, learners interaction, evaluation systems, and other various points in their designing process. For developing effective courses, course designers are suggested to apply Instructional Systems Design (Franklin, 2017; Linder-Vanberschot, Borden, & Pagels, 2009).
Instructional Systems Design is "the practice of creating instructional experiences which make the acquisition of knowledge and skill more efficient, effective, and appealing" (Merrill, Drage, Lacy, & Pratt, 1996).
Background of ISD
Sortrakul & Denphaisarn (2009) explains the origin and evolution of the Instructional Systems Design Model as follows. During World War 2, many military training program and materials were developed based on the principles of instruction, which was the beginning of instructional design procedures. During that time, psychologists and educators developed instructional materials, instructional resources such as drill and practice. After the war, many researchers in the psychology and education fields continued their studies and began to think of instructional design as a systematic process, which was the beginning of instructional systems design. Since then, a variety of instructional systems design models have been developed.
The Instructional Systems Design process consists basically five stages; the Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation stages (Moore & Kearsley, 2011).
The five stages work as follows (Moore & Kearsley, 2011): In the Analysis stage, the designers analyze the subject, learning goals, learners' characteristics, learning environment, learners' needs, required performance of learners as a result of the course, etc. In the Design stage, designers design what and how learners will learn in every module of a course to achieve learning objectives. In Development stage, designers develop instructional materials. In Implementation stage, designers/instructors implement instructional materials and teaching plans designed in the previous stage. The Evaluation stage occurs at the Implementation stage. Designers/instructors conduct ongoing evaluation of their Implementation. The results of the Evaluation would cause re-analysis, re-design, re-development, and interventions for the Implementation.
The ADDIE Model as one of ISD
One of the famous instructional design based on the ideas of Instructional Systems Design is the ADDIE Model. The ADDIE Model provides a framework which helps course designers develop their creation of courses. The ADDIE model also consists of the five step-by-step process; Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation (Gerald, 2011).
Pros and Cons of ISD
ISD has both of pros and cons.
Vejvodoa (2009) explained the pros of ISD as follows. First, the model is very systematic so that course designers can prevent unnecessary mistakes by carefully following the process. Second, the model is the interactive process, which makes it possible for designers to go back to previous stages to re-analyze, re-design, and re-develop their design. Third, the model saves money and time of designers in the long run because the training/instructional tool is applicable in the corresponding situations. Lastly, the model can be a useful heuristic framework for online learning courses.
On the other hand, Chen (2016) pointed out the cons of ISD. First, the analysis step of the model is not being broad enough in the design process. Second, the model is too linear. Designers following the model are supposed to drive their designing process based on predetermined instructional objectives, which is the negative point of the linear model. Third, designers have to follow each stage, which is not flexible. Lastly, since the five stages of the instructional designing processes are already provided, designers cannot be encouraged their inspirations.
Chen, L-L. (2016). A model for effective online instructional design. Liretacy Information and Computer Education Journal, 6(2), 2303-2308. Franklin, J. L. (2017). MVP and instructional systems design in online courses. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 152, 39-52. doi: 10.1002/tl./20267 Gerald, Q. (2011). The ADDIE Model instructional design process. YouTube. Linder-Vanberschot, J. A., Borden, A. M., & Pagels, A. L. (2009). Marketing online learning for a global campus: An international research exploration. In U. Demiray & N. S. Sever (Eds.), The challenges for marketing distance education in online environment. Turkey: Anadolu University. Merrill, M. D., Drake, L., Lacy, M., & Pratt, J. (1996). Reclaiming instructional design. Educational Technology, 36(5), 5-7. Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (2011). Course design and development. In Distance education: A systems view on online learning.Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. Sortrakul, T., & Denphaisarn, N. (2009). The evolution of instructional systems design model. Special Issue of the International Journal of the Computer, the Internet and Management, 17(3), 40.1-40.10. Vejvodova, J. (2009). The ADDIE model: Dead or Alive?