Open and Distance Education/Course Design/Conclusion

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Based on previous sections and some literature in relation to the course design for self-directed learning, there are three significant important points to note:

1. The course design in this wikibook is limited only to the ISD (ADDIE model) and with some limitations as stated by Chen (2016). At this point, there are other course design models that can be used beside the ADDIE model that should be explored further for improving and providing an effective course design. These course design models stated by Jung (2018) such as Kem, Morrison & Ross model (slide 10), Dick & Carey model (slide 11), Merrill's five principles of ID (slide 14), problem-based learning model (slide 15), Goal-based scenario design (slide 16), Competency-based learning design (slide 17), Keller's ARCS motivation model (slide 18) and Van Merrienboer --4c/ID (slide 19). These models have been used for effective course design.

2. The JMOOC course design was based on the ADDIE model and it seemed unique in the sense that the courses are developed in the Japanese version to suit only for the Japanese learners live in Japan and abroad. However, this JMOOC course design implies that there is a sense of conservatism and influence of culture.

3. The suggested new model course design specifically for the selection of media and technology is open for comments to improve it.


Chen, L-L. (2016). A model for effective online instructional design. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal, 6(2), 2303-2308.

Jung, I. (2018). Course Design and Development - Instructional Design Models [Powerpoint slides]. Retrieved from pdf