Open Social Scholarship Annotated Bibliography/Groups, Initiatives, and Organizations Discussing Open Social Scholarship

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Open Social Scholarship Annotated Bibliography
← Collaborative Scholarship Groups, Initiatives, and Organizations Discussing Open Social Scholarship Section III - Knowledge in Action →

Category Overview[edit]

This category presents a list of groups, initiatives, and organizations engaging with some aspect of open social scholarship. Advocacy for open access to information is the most dominant trend among the groups listed. In general, the organizations agree that publicly funded research should be accessible to the wider public and not siloed behind institutional paywalls. Core values of education, the human right to access information regardless of geographical or cultural factors, and collaboration are echoed among many of the initiatives presented in this list. Several of these groups work within a specific geographical region and tailor their outreach to the needs of that particular group (African Commons Project, Alliance of German Science Organisations, FinnOA). Other organizations operate on an international level by appealing to general principles of openness and fairness (IFLA Open Access Taskforce, Max Planck Society, Open Humanities Alliance). Many of the groups mention the Budapest Initiative and the Berlin Declaration as foundational to their mission (Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences, Open Access Working Group; Canadian Association of Research Libraries). This category brings together groups that advocate for open, collaborative modes of knowledge production and dissemination.

Annotations[edit]

“Access2Research.” 2015. Access2Research. Last modified February 5, 2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Access2Research.

Michael W. Carroll, Heather Joseph, Mike Rossner, and John Wilbanks lead Access2Research, an open access campaign that promotes reform in academic journal publishing. Access2Research is committed to making publicly funded research open access. Significantly, in 2012, the working group launched a petition demanding that the United States government require all journal articles arising from taxpayer-funded research be made openly available.

“African Copyright & Access to Knowledge Project.” 2016. African Copyright & Access to Knowledge Project. https://www.idrc.ca/en/project/african-copyright-and-access-knowledge-network-aca2k.org.

The African Copyright & Access to Knowledge Project, active from 2007 to 2011, was committed to investigating the relationship between African national copyright environments and access to learning materials. The African Copyright & Access to Knowledge Project probed this relationship within the context of A2K: a framework that protects user access to knowledge. The project conducted five environmental scans of copyright contexts across African nations and used the collected data to draft country reports, a comparative review, and executive policy briefs.

“Akada Network.” 2014. Akada Network. http://www.akadanetwork.org.

Founded in 2013 by Yemi Makinde, the Akada Network is a nonprofit organization based in Nigeria and the Netherlands. The mission of the Akada Network is to support, promote, and develop higher education and research in Africa with the hope that fostering learning will build community. To achieve this goal, the Akada Network hosts initiatives the facilitate learning, sharing, and collaboration.

“Alliance for Taxpayer Access.” 2016. Alliance for Taxpayer Access. http://www.taxpayeraccess.org.

The Alliance for Taxpayer Access is a collective of researchers, practitioners, educators, publishers, and institutions that support barrier-free access to taxpayer-funded research. The Alliance is committed to four principles of open access: taxpayers are entitled to barrier-free access of research they fund, widespread access to published information is foundational to a country’s investment in research, information should be shared in cost-effective ways in order to stimulate engagement, and facilitating access will result in information being used by individual taxpayers. The Alliance for Taxpayer Access is directed by the Scholarly Publishing & Academic Resources Coalition.

“Alliance of Science Organisations in Germany.” 2016. Alliance of German Science Organisations. Last modified April 26, 2016. http://www.dfg.de/en/dfg_profile/alliance/.

The Alliance of German Science Organisations is a coalition of Germany’s top research organizations. The Alliance is committed to developing and implementing new research policies, and addressing the challenges young researchers are facing. Members of the Alliance include the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation), the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, the German Academic Exchange Service, the German Council of Science and Humanities (Wissenschaftsrat), the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina, the German Rectors’ Conference, the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres, the Leibniz Association, and the Max Planck Society.

“American Academic & Scholarly Research Center.” 2014. American Academic & Scholarly Research Center. http://aasrc.org.

Founded in 2007, the American Academic & Scholarly Research Center promotes academic research activities and sustained development of global resources, especially in developing nations. They are committed to knowledge innovation, dissemination, and collaboration. To support its mandate of encouraging practical, interdisciplinary research, the American Academic & Scholarly Research Center launched its first journal in 2009 and recently started a second, multilingual journal. The American Academic & Scholarly Research Centre hosts annual, international conferences in order to unite likeminded individuals around the aims of the organization.

“Association for Computers and the Humanities.” n.d. Association for Computers and the Humanities. http://ach.org.

The Association for Computers and the Humanities (ACH) is a digital humanities society. The organization is committed to cultivating professional communities and disseminating digital humanities research. The Association is based in the United States but hosts conferences around the world and boasts international membership. ACH, along with the Alliance of Digital Humanities Organizations, publishes three peer-reviewed journals, one of which is open access.

“Australasian Open Access Strategy Group.” n.d. Australasian Open Access Strategy Group. http://aoasg.org.au.

The Australasian Open Access Strategy Group is committed to four main principles: advocating, collaborating, raising awareness, and building capacity. The organization supports open access outcomes for publicly funded research in Australia and New Zealand. By collaborating with researchers and other organizations, the Australasian Open Access Strategy Group raises awareness of, and support for, open access initiatives.

“Authors Alliance.” 2014. Authors Alliance. May 20. http://www.authorsalliance.org.

The Authors Alliance supports authors who want to engage with their community through reading. The Alliance helps authors harness the power of digital networks for distributing knowledge. The Authors Alliance assists authors in navigating the complexities of print, copyright, and digitization in hopes of maximizing public access and supporting fair use. The organization bridges that gap between the author and the public in order to disseminate knowledge broadly.

Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University. “Harvard Open Access Project.” 2015. Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University. https://cyber.law.harvard.edu/research/hoap.

The Harvard Open Access Project (HOAP) is committed to opening access to research both within the university and beyond it. By using a combination of consultation, collaboration, and community building, HOAP aims to make knowledge accessible and reusable—maximizing the return on society’s investment in innovative research. They developed the Open Access Tracking Project that uses folksonomy tagging to provide real-time updates on open access and related news. HOAP was launched in 2011 and is supported by the Berkman Center for Internet & Society.

“Bioline International.” 2016. Bioline International. Last modified May 22, 2018. http://www.bioline.org.br.

Bioline International is a not-for-profit publishing group committed to facilitating open access for residents of developing countries. With a goal of reducing the South to North knowledge gap, Bioline International provides a distribution platform for peer reviewed journals to disseminate information on topics such as biodiversity, conservation, health, and international development. Bioline makes it possible for research coming out of developing nations to have a place on the global stage. Some of the journals in Bioline cooperative include Zoological Research, African Population Studies, Rwanda Medical Journal, and the Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition.

“Canadian Association of Research Libraries.” n.d. Canadian Association of Research Libraries. http://www.carl-abrc.ca.

The Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL) is a federation of 29 of the country’s university libraries and two of Canada’s national institutions. Members of the CARL community work together to improve access to knowledge; to support for students, faculty, and researchers; to promote sustainable and effective communication; and to share best practices. It is CARL’s mission to support knowledge creation, dissemination, preservation, and public policy in order to enable broad access to scholarly information.

“Center for Open Science.” 2014. Center for Open Science. https://cos.io.

Founded in 2013, the Center for Open Science is a nonprofit technology company that provides free and open services in order to increase information, inclusivity, and transparency while also working to align more closely with the values of scientific research. The Center for Open Science operates on three mission components that guide its development of sound scientific research: openness, integrity, and reproducibility. The Center works with scientists, developers, research institutions, and publishers to build a community and infrastructure that fosters this type of open science.

“Center for the Study of the Public Domain.” n.d. Center for the Study of the Public Domain. https://law.duke.edu/cspd/.

The Center for the Study of the Public Domain is located at Duke University Law School. While much of the society’s contemporary attention, resources, and care has gone into protecting exclusive intellectual property rights, the Center for the Study of the Public Domain is devoted to balancing economic, cultural, and technological dependencies by focusing on materials in the public domain. Founded in 2002, the centre is part of the university's wider intellectual property program. The centre’s mission is to promote research and scholarship that contribute to open access repositories.

“Coalition for Open Access Policy Institutions.” 2016. Coalition for Open Access Policy Institutions. https://sparcopen.org/people/coapi/.

The Coalition for Open Access Policy Institutions (COAPI) unites higher education institutions across North America under the aim of proliferating open access to scholarly research. COAPI brings together faculty members and institutions already committed to open access principles with universities in the process of developing open access policies. This cooperative was formed with the aim of supporting faculty-led movements to disseminate research widely and openly. COAPI is a hub and resource for the open access movement.

Compute Canada. 2014. "Sustainable Planning for Advanced Research Computing (SPARC)". Compute Canada. Ottawa. https://www.computecanada.ca/news/compute-canada-announces-sustainable-planning-for-advanced-research-computing-sparc/.

The Canada Foundation for Innovation is renewing Compute Canada’s national platform and positioning it as a funding body for domain-specific data projects with its budget for cyberstructure initiation that is meant to significantly benefit Canada’s research community. In preparation for this, Compute Canada will bring together researchers and institutions to develop Sustainable Planning for Advanced Research Computing (SPARC), which is a discussion forum meant to address the type of investments that will position Canada’s leadership in science and innovation, especially those sectors that highly rely on digital infrastructure. In this article, the various roles of SPARC are addressed, which focus on providing the necessary support for the growth of digital infrastructure and the infrastructure necessary for Compute Canada’s upcoming service offering. Compute Canada also outlines the steps it will take to assemble the appropriate input for SPARC over the summer of 2014.

“Confederation of Open Access Repositories.” n.d. Confederation of Open Access Repositories. https://www.coar-repositories.org.

The Confederation of Open Access Repositories (COAR) is a not-for-profit organization based in Gottingen, Germany. Founded in 2010, COAR is a global confederation of over 100 libraries, universities, research institutions, government funders, and various other partners. COAR joins together major research networks and the broader repository community in order to build capacity, policy, and practices to support global open access. Their mission is to create an international knowledge commons that enhances accessibility to and visibility of information.

“Enabling Open Scholarship.” n.d. Enabling Open Scholarship. http://www.eua.be/activities-services/news/newsitem/09-10-15/Enabling_Open_Scholarship_EOS.aspx.

Enabling Open Scholarship is a collective of universities and research institutions worldwide. The organization acts as both a service and a forum: it provides information on open access and facilitates discussions around the issues modern institutions face when it comes to creating, disseminating, and preserving research. Enabling Open Scholarship aims to further the work of the open access, open education, open science, and open innovation movements. Enabling Open Scholarship acknowledges that the transition toward open scholarship is changing how research and learning are happening; they provide resources to assist others in understanding this evolution and its implications.

“European University Association.” n.d. European University Association. http://www.eua.be.

The European University Association (EUA) is one of the largest and most comprehensive university collectives. The EUA has more than 850 members across 47 countries representing over 17 million students. It is the vision of the EUA to advance the continued development of culture, society, technology, and economy in Europe. The EUA has a working group devoted to the study of open access policy.

“Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences.” 2018a. “Issues.” Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences / Fédération des sciences humaines. http://www.ideas-idees.ca/issues/open-access-aspp.

The Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences is committed to supporting open access. In 2011, the Federation signed the Berlin Declaration and, in 2013, they embarked on a multi-year project to develop open access policy. Initial research, including an international scan of policy and informal discussions with groups across the country, sparked the 2015 writing and adopting of open access principles for the Federation. In 2015, the Federation’s Executive Director at the time, Jean-Marc Mangin, participated in an Implementing New Knowledge Environments (INKE) conference around open scholarship where he shared the Federation’s efforts towards developing an open access policy.

Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences. 2018b. “Our Members.” Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences / Fédération des sciences humaines. www.ideas-idees.ca/about/members.

The Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences is dedicated to the promotion of research and teaching in order to advance towards a more inclusive and democratic society; this is done by supporting research and discussions that deal with critical issues within public and academic contexts. The Federation has a vast networked membership, with over 160 universities, colleges, and scholarly associations, altogether representing over 91,000 voices of various humanities and social sciences specialists. The three membership types at the Federation are scholarly association members (graduate students and researchers selected for excellent research and leadership qualities); institutional members (universities and colleges); and affiliate members (organizations that have similar agendas to the Federation and are dedicated to enhancing post-secondary education and research).

“FinnOA.” "Finnish Open Access Working Group." n.d. FinnOA. http://www.finnoa.fi.

Founded in 2003, FinnOA is a collective group that supports and promotes open access to scientific research. From its inception, FinnOA has been committed to a variety of open publication and dissemination platforms that value transparency in scientific publishing. Now, partnered with individuals in academic, libraries, and data management, FinnOA is focused on resolving issues related to open access and publicly-funded research data.

“Force11.” 2016. Force11. https://www.force11.org.

Force11 is a cooperative of scholars, librarians, archivists, publishers, and research funding bodies that have joined together to help facilitate a better means of creating and sharing knowledge. Force11 has grown from a small community of like-minded individuals into a bold and diverse working group in support of open access. The collective leverages information technologies and multimedia in order to reach and educate the greater community. Force11 welcomes new members who value and support their manifesto in favour of openness.

“Foundation for Open Access Statistics.” 2013. Foundation for Open Access Statistics. http://www.foastat.org.

The mission of Foundation for Open Access Statistics (FOAS) is to support free software, open access publishing platforms, and reproducible research in statistics. For FOAS, “open access” means that anyone with an internet connection can access the research—exchange of funds negates their open access policy. FOAS advocates for open source code, and the materials and information necessary to reproduce mathematical results.

“Free Knowledge Institute.” 2015. Free Knowledge Institute. http://freeknowledge.eu/about.

The Free Knowledge Institute (FKI) is a collective of networks and communities that support, facilitate, and enable the study, sharing, and collaborative development of free knowledge and free technologies. FKI supports a just, free knowledge society through sustainable collaboration and empowerment. FKI’s mission is to educate people about open access and open source ideologies so that they can become effective participants and advocates in their own domain. The tenets of their collective include flexibility, collaboration, shared purpose, shared values, and communication.

Government of Canada. 2015. "Digital Canada 150." Digital Canada 150. http://www.digitaleconomy.gc.ca/eic/site/028.nsf/eng/home.

The Minister of Industry presents Digital Canada 150 2.0, a plan that aims to equip all Canadian citizens with the necessary digital skills and tools to succeed in today’s world, help individuals and communities by providing opportunities in the global digital economy, and connect and protect Canadians online. The five pillars of Digital Canada 150 are: connecting Canadians, protecting Canadians, economic opportunities, digital government, and Canadian content. Their website addresses each of these pillars individually, defines what they mean, and provides updates of recent accomplishments in each of these categories by posting updates, policies, success stories, and other information.

International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. “IFLA Open Access Taskforce Established.” 2011. IFLA. October 11, 2011. https://www.ifla.org/DE/news/ifla-open-access-taskforce-established.

The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) is committed to facilitating open access and believes that universal, equitable access to information is a critical component of ensuring well-being of people, communities, and organizations across the globe. IFLA acknowledges that the current model of scholarly production and publication is exclusive and not sustainable. They want to change the role of libraries to support a sustainable, open access movement. In 2011, IFLA also established a task force dedicated to advocating for the adoption of their open access policies.

“Open Access.” n.d. Open Access: Open Access to Scientific Information. https://www.open-access.net/startseite/.

Open-access.net is an information platform that archives the core concepts and main forms of open access research. Their goal is to bundle and disseminate information about open access that is tailored to target groups, specific country policies, and individual scenarios. Some examples of the types of information included in open access packages are a history of the open access movement, example open access business models, and a summary of legal issues relating to open access.

“International Community for Open Research and Education.” 2016. ICORE: International Community for Open Research and Education. http://www.icore-online.org.

The International Community for Open Research and Education (ICORE) aims to support, promote, and enhance open access to research and education worldwide. The overall mission of the community is to re-establish openness, as was default in scholarship starting with the inception of journal publishing and up until as recently as several decades ago. ICORE’s five main objectives are to promote open access as a fundamental social objective; to support the implementation of strategies and services for facilitating open access; to foster cooperation between policy makers, researchers, educators, and students; to facilitate the transfer of current research into the deployment of future research; and to encourage innovative research that benefits the other objectives of the association. ICORE currently supports two active working groups and hosts a workshop series entitled “Openness for All.”

“Knowledge Exchange.” n.d. KE: Knowledge Exchange. http://www.knowledge-exchange.info.

Knowledge Exchange understands that digital technologies open opportunities for advanced research and higher education. It is the vision of the organization that open scholarship is acknowledged and taken up as one of these opportunities. Knowledge Exchange argues that opening up access to scientific research and encouraging collaboration will improve transparency, engender trust, increase effective use of data, and support wider participation in research. The group’s mission is to support their five partner organizations on the road to achieving a shared vision of open scholarship.

Leadership Council for Digital Infrastructure. 2014. “‘Think Piece’ on a DI Roadmap.” http://digitalleadership.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/DI-Roadmap-Think-Piece-Jan-2014.pdf.

The "'Think Piece' on a DI Roadmap" investigates important steps towards “a robust and sustainable digital infrastructure for research in Canada” (1). The authors address challenges such as governance/coordination, policy and planning framework, and data management within the DI roadmap framework. The authors propose methods to expand on the roles and responsibilities of organizational structures. The first phase of action consists of developing a collaborative national coalition for going forward, implementing priority working groups, pursuing refinements to the DI funding system, giving priority to the data management pillar of the DI ecosystem, and articulating a value proposition. The second phase proposes an engagement of government and private sector, expertise and capacity development, middleware and software development, and a need for communications and engagement. The authors conclude that there is an ongoing need for an “engagement with individuals within and external to this network [as it is] critical to communicating and realizing the vision for the sector” (17).

“Lithuanian Research Library Consortium.” 2016. Lithuanian Research Library Consortium. Last modified June 15, 2018. http://www.lmba.lt/en.

The Lithuanian Research Library Consortium was founded in 2011 and is currently comprises 56 members. The cooperative is a member of the Network of Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL) and supports that organization’s open access policies. The open access program objectives are to build a global network of open access journals and repositories; to provide training and education on open access policies; and to motivate scholars, educators, and students to bring these policies into practice. The Lithuanian Research Library Consortium also participates in global open access education events.

Max Planck Society. “Berlin Declaration.” 2016. Open Access at the Max Planck Society. http://openaccess.mpg.de/Berlin-Declaration.

The Berlin Declaration is considered to be a significant milestone in the Open Access movement. Published in October 2003, the Berlin Declaration addresses the fundamental changes of knowledge distribution since the proliferation of the internet. The declaration promotes the use of the internet as a functional instrument of knowledge collection and human reflection. The document specifies measures for policy makers, research institutions, funding agencies, and heritage archives to consider. The mission of the Berlin Declaration is to make information widely and readily available through an internet-supported, open access paradigm.

“Max Planck Society.” 2016. Max Planck Society. https://openaccess.mpg.de.

The Max Planck Society is a co-founder of the international open access movement. They were original supporters of the Berlin Declaration, which celebrated its tenth anniversary in 2013. The Max Planck Society believes that research should be accessible and free to the public. This stipulates that full text documents are available downloadable, searchable, and distributable. The organization’s mission is to increase interoperability of open access repositories, to support innovative open access publishing models, and to cooperate with other members of the Berlin Declaration to ensure a smooth and stable transition into a new model of open, scholarly publishing.

“Mediterranean Open Access Network.” n.d. Mediterranean Open Access Network. http://www.medoanet.eu.

The Mediterranean Open Access Network (MedOANet) addresses the need for coordinated open access strategies across scientific information organizations in Europe. MedOANet unites six Mediterranean countries (Greece, Turkey, Italy, France, Spain, and Portugal) by enhancing, promoting, and creating open access policies and structures across the collaborative. The consortium is committed to strengthening current open access policies; identifying existing effective open access strategies; engaging policymakers in open access awareness; and producing guidelines for effective implementation of open access policies.

“Open Access India.” n.d. http://openaccessindia.org.

Open Access India is a community of open access advocates who create awareness of open access policies among graduate students, early career researchers, professors, and policymakers. Open Access India is committed to the practices of open access, open data, and open education in India. The collective aims to advocate and educate the public on open access policies, and to develop the infrastructure and framework necessary to support those policies. Open Access India believes that making information free and unrestricted will increase community engagement in publicly funded research.

“Open Access Network.” 2018. Open Access Network. http://openaccessnetwork.org.

The Open Access Network (OAN) is a collaboratory of individuals, organizations, societies, libraries, and institutions that are committed to working together to make knowledge public. OAN acknowledges the burden of an open access business model and aims to address the problem head-on—beginning with the humanities and social sciences disciplines. OAN recommends broad, transformative solutions that support sustainable, open access practices.

“Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association.” 2018. Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association. http://oaspa.org.

The Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association is a trade organization established in 2008 with the objective of representing the interests of open access journal publishers across disciplines and around the globe. Their mission is carried out through opening information exchange, advancing open access models, improving education, and promoting innovation. The Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association aims to develop business models, tools, and standards to support open access publishing and build a sustainable future.

“Open Access Working Group.” n.d. Open Access Working Group. http://access.okfn.org.

The Open Access Working Group is part of the Open Knowledge Foundation, which works to promote open knowledge in the digital era. The collective comprises individuals who are unhappy with the current status of the fragmented open access movement and with the common misuse of the term “open access” among groups that do not adhere to its clear definition. The goal of the Open Access Working Group is to re-establish the open access movement according to the terms of the Budapest Open Access Initiative.

“Open Book Alliance.” 2009. Open Book Alliance. http://openbookalliance.org.

The mission of the Open Book Alliance is to advance the mass book digitization movement and the value these efforts bring to the public, libraries, and scholars. They aim to keep the digitization movement open and competitive. The Open Book Alliance works to counter large corporations, such as Google, the Association of American Publishers, and the Author’s Guild, who tend to monopolize access to large digital book databases. Instead, the Open Book Alliance works to promote fair and flexible solutions.

“Open Humanities Alliance.” n.d. Open Humanities Alliance. http://openhumanitiesalliance.org.

The Open Humanities Alliance aims to open humanities scholarship to the larger, global community. The Open Humanities Alliance is a collective of people committed to furthering scholarship and learning in the humanities, and overcoming the technical barriers to humanities research. They foster open access and collaboration by bringing together students, faculty, libraries, and other invested parties to work on open access and scholarly communications initiatives.

“Open Knowledge International.” n.d. Open Knowledge International. https://okfn.org.

Open Knowledge International is a global, nonprofit network that champions openness using advocacy, technology, and training. Their mission is for everyone to have access to key information, and possess the ability to understand and use it to shape their lives. They aim for open knowledge to be a foundational concept and for knowledge to create power for the many, not the few. Open Knowledge International works to achieve their aims by developing an international network of individuals, opening up information, and providing stewardship and consulting services.

“Open Scholarship Initiative.” 2017. Open Scholarship Initiative. http://osinitiative.org.

The Open Scholarship Initiative is a global cooperative established with the goal of creating a space for dialogue about, and unification under, open access practices. It unites a group of high-level, international, scholarly publishing decision makers in a series of annual meetings where ideas can be shared and common, actionable solutions can be established. Their aim is to improve the scholarly publishing system over the course of their 10-year effort (2016-2025).

“OpenAIRE.” n.d. OpenAIRE. https://www.openaire.eu.

OpenAIRE envisions itself as a bridge between research stakeholders and the world of scholarly publication. It was created to support the implementation of open access policies through an aggregated repository of open resources. Currently, OpenAIRE is working with 50 partners, from the European Union and beyond, on the OpenAIRE 2020 project. This 3.5-year research and innovation project aims to promote open scholarship and to improve the accessibility, discoverability, and reusability of research publications. The initiative brings together research professionals, organizations, libraries, and data experts in a truly collaborative partnership.

**Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2015. “Making Open Science a Reality.” OECD Science, Technology and Industry Policy Papers 25.

The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development states that open science is an effort towards making accessible publicly funded research in digital format, and provides a rationale for open science, which allows a boost in the innovation systems. The authors discuss key actors in open science, including researchers, government ministries, research funding agencies, universities and public research institutes, libraries, repositories, data centres, private nonprofit organizations and foundations, private scientific publishers, and businesses. They also examine policy trends in open science, which could be mandatory rules, incentives, or funding. Their main findings include statements that approach open science as a means and not an end. The authors also explore open access to scientific publications and define open access in an exploratory manner by looking at it from various perspectives, with an interest in its legal implications.

“Public Knowledge Project.” 2014. Public Knowledge Project. https://pkp.sfu.ca.

The Public Knowledge Project was established in 1998 by John Willinsky at the University of British Columbia. Since its inception, the project has expanded and evolved to now include multiple universities in North America, but it is located primarily at Simon Fraser University. The Public Knowledge Project creates open source software, such as Open Journal Systems, Open Monograph Press, and Open Conference Systems. Additionally, it conducts research in order to improve scholarly publishing. The core team is made up of approximately twenty developers, researchers, students, librarians, and staff.

Ridley, Michael, Clare Appavoo, and Sabina Pagotto. 2014. Seeing the Forest and the Trees: The Integrated Digital Scholarship Ecosystem (IDSE) Project of the Canadian Research Knowledge Network (CRKN). http://www.ala.org/acrl/sites/ala.org.acrl/files/content/conferences/confsandpreconfs/2015/Ridley_Appavoo_Pagotto.pdf.

Ridley, Appavoo, and Pagotto present the Integrated Digital Scholarship Ecosystem (IDSE) project of the Canadian Research Knowledge Network (CRKN). CRKN is a partnership of 75 Canadian universities working toward increasing digital content for research in Canada, which has a significant impact on Canadian research and academic libraries. This article relates the findings of a study on digital scholarship within these institutions, focusing specifically on the first phase of the IDSE, an initiative dedicated to advancing research in Canada by exploring the state of the digital landscape. Some important issues that are addressed in phase one are the role of the library, preservation, development of a research agenda, promotion and tenure, and ways to address and sustain the voice of a community. IDSE, according to the authors, is an ecosystem that helps point out the areas of digital scholarship that need to be addressed.

“Right to Research Coalition.” 2010. Right to Research Coalition. http://www.righttoresearch.org.

The Right to Research Coalition was founded in 2009 in order to promote open scholarly publishing. The group agrees that no student should be denied access to information that they need for study on the basis that their institution cannot afford to pay the high subscription fees. They argue that open information improves education, democratizes access, improves the impact of scholarship, and advances research. The Right to Research Coalition now represents almost seven million students across the world. They work to educate and advocate for the universal adoption of open access policies.

Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council. 2016. “Dialogue.” Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council. http://www.sshrc-crsh.gc.ca/about-au_sujet/publications/dialogue-eng.aspx.

The Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) is a council that represents the interests of both public and private sectors of academia and is a large facilitator of research through grants and fellowships granted to Canadian researchers. SSHRC has a wide network of faculty, postdoctoral, doctoral and masters students, as well as other researchers and research partnerships. “Dialogues” is the SSHRC eNewsletter that publishes news related to academia and funding, as well as news on various opportunities and deadlines. “Dialogues” also publishes about original research administered domestically in Canada and globally.

SPARC. “The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition.” 2016. The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition. http://sparcopen.org.

The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) aims to democratize access to knowledge by opening up the dissemination of research outputs and educational materials. SPARC works with interested parties to create opportunities to promote change, both in infrastructure and culture, and make “open” the default for research and education. SPARC has over 200 members across North America and is closely affiliated with other international open access organizations. The group values collective action and collaboration. Some of their current initiatives include organizing International Open Access Week, creating campus open access policies, and recognizing work in the field with the SPARC Innovator Award.

University of Cambridge. Cambridge Open Research. https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/research-at-cambridge/open-access.

The University of Cambridge hosts an open access repository of scholarly research outputs, ranging from datasets, media collections, articles, and conference presentations. It is the aim of the university that this archive will help make scholarship widely accessible. The repository is supported by an Open Access team and an Open Data team, both of which assist in making research widely and freely available.

The Wikimedia Foundation. "About." 2018. Wikipedia. Last modified June 19, 2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:About.

Wikipedia is a multilingual, online, open access encyclopaedia. The foundational principle of Wikipedia is that the encyclopaedia is developed from a neutral point-of-view that anyone can use, edit, and distribute. Wikipedia is written collaboratively and mostly by anonymous volunteers. Since its conception in 2001, Wikipedia has grown into one of the most largely referenced websites with more than 38 million articles and 374 million unique visitors each month.

References[edit]

  • “American Academic & Scholarly Research Center.” 2014. American Academic & Scholarly Research Center. http://aasrc.org.
  • “Association for Computers and the Humanities.” n.d. Association for Computers and the Humanities. http://ach.org.
  • “Australasian Open Access Strategy Group.” n.d. Australasian Open Access Strategy Group. http://aoasg.org.au.
  • Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University. “Harvard Open Access Project.” 2015. Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University. https://cyber.law.harvard.edu/research/hoap.
  • “Canadian Association of Research Libraries.” n.d. Canadian Association of Research Libraries. http://www.carl-abrc.ca.
  • “Center for Open Science.” 2014. Center for Open Science. https://cos.io.
  • “European University Association.” n.d. European University Association. http://www.eua.be.
  • “Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences.” 2018a. “Issues.” Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences / Fédération des sciences humaines. http://www.ideas-
  • idees.ca/issues/open-access-aspp.
  • Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences. n.d. “Our Members.” 2018b. “Our Members.” Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences / Fédération des sciences humaines. www.ideas-
  • idees.ca/about/members.
  • “Foundation for Open Access Statistics.” 2013. Foundation for Open Access Statistics. http://www.foastat.org.
  • “International Community for Open Research and Education.” 2016. ICORE: International Community for Open Research and Education. http://www.icore-online.org.
  • “Lithuanian Research Library Consortium.” 2016. Lithuanian Research Library Consortium. Last modified June 15, 2018. http://www.lmba.lt/en.
  • “Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association.” 2018. Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association. http://oaspa.org.
  • “Open Knowledge International.” n.d. Open Knowledge International. https://okfn.org.
  • Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2015. “Making Open Science a Reality.” OECD Science, Technology and Industry Policy Papers 25.
  • SPARC. “The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition.” 2016. The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition. http://sparcopen.org.
Open Social Scholarship Annotated Bibliography
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