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Coriolis acceleration \( \boldsymbol{a}_{\text c} \) acts on a body (e.g. an airplane) if it moves with velocity \( \boldsymbol{v} \) and is in a rotating reference frame, like the earth. The angular velocity of the earth is \(\boldsymbol{\omega}\). It indicates how fast the earth is rotating.

Coriolis acceleration \( \boldsymbol{a}_{\text c} \) is always orthogonal to body's velocity \( \boldsymbol{v} \) and the angular velocity \( \boldsymbol{\omega} \). The velocity vector \( \boldsymbol{v} \) and the angular velocity vector \( \boldsymbol{\omega} \) include the angle \(\varphi\).