Object Oriented Programming/Interfaces

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Interfaces[edit]

An Interface allows a class to expose a different set of properties and methods depending on context. For example, say that you were writing a Visual Basic 2005 application that manages clients. A client could be an individual person, or an organization. Part of the program generates address labels for clients.

You might define a person like this:

Class Person
    Public LastName As String
    Public FirstName As String
    Public Address As String
End Class

You might also define an Organization like this:

Class Organization
    Public Name As String
    Public MailingAddress As String
    Public BuildingAddress As String
End Class

As you can see, the main differences between a Person and an Organization are:

  • a Person has both a first name and a last name, while an organization has only a single name
  • an Organization has a separate mailing address, while a Person only has one address

So that you can have the one routine to print address labels, you create an interface called "IAddressLabel" (by convention, the name of an interfaces should start with a capital I).

Interface IAddressLabel
    ReadOnly Property Name() As String
    ReadOnly Property Address() As String
End Interface

You now change the Person class to implement this interface. The main thing to notice is that the Person's first and last names are combined on the label.

Class Person
    Implements IAddressLabel
    Public LastName As String
    Public FirstName As String
    Public Address As String
    Public ReadOnly Property Address1() As String Implements IAddressLabel.Address
        Get
            Return Address
        End Get
    End Property
    Public ReadOnly Property Name() As String Implements IAddressLabel.Name
        Get
            Return FirstName & " " & LastName 'combine the first and last names for the address label
        End Get
    End Property
End Class

You now change the Organization class to implement the IAddressLabel interface. Notice that the address for the label is the mailing address, not the building address.

Class Organization
    Implements IAddressLabel
    Public Name As String
    Public MailingAddress As String
    Public BuildingAddress As String
    Public ReadOnly Property Address() As String Implements IAddressLabel.Address
        Get
            Return MailingAddress 'Use the mailing address for the address label
        End Get
    End Property
    Public ReadOnly Property Name1() As String Implements IAddressLabel.Name
        Get
            Return Name
        End Get
    End Property
End Class

Now you can group the disparate objects together as a collection of address labels!

Sub Main()
    'create a person object
    Dim Bill As New Person
    Bill.FirstName = "William"
    Bill.LastName = "Jones"
    Bill.Address = "123 Test Rd Testville 9123"
    'create another person object
    Dim Sally As New Person
    Sally.FirstName = "Sally"
    Sally.LastName = "Smith"
    Sally.Address = "999 Sample Ave Testburg 9222"
    'create an Organization object
    Dim WidgetsInc As New Organization
    WidgetsInc.Name = "Widgets Incorporated"
    WidgetsInc.BuildingAddress = "9123 Avenue Rd Sampletown 9876"
    WidgetsInc.MailingAddress = "P.O. Box 123 Sampletown 9876"
    'Because all three objects implement the IAddressLabel interface, we can put them in the same array
    Dim MailingList(2) As IAddressLabel
    MailingList(0) = Bill
    MailingList(1) = Sally
    MailingList(2) = WidgetsInc
    'loop through, displaying the address label for each object
    Dim i As Integer
    For i = 0 To 2
        MsgBox(MailingList(i).Name & vbCrLf & MailingList(i).Address)
    Next i
End Sub

Interfaces vs. Inheritance[edit]

Interfaces and Inheritance can both be used to solve the problem of treating dissimilar objects collectively. For example, if you have a Cat class and a Dog class, but have some routine that needs to process them together, you could either:

  • Create an Animal base class, which contains procedures common to both Cats and Dogs, and have Cat and Dog inherit from Animal, or
  • Create an IAnimal interface, and have both Cat and Dog implement the interface.

Which approach to use depends on several factors. In general:

  • If you are extending an existing class, then use inheritance. For example, if you already have an Animal class, and then discover a need to distinguish between Cats and Dogs
  • If you are simply wanting to treat different objects as the same, then use Interfaces. For example, you already have Cat and Dog classes, and then discover a need to manipulate them in a similar fashion

The introduction of Components[edit]

Delegation[edit]

Inheritance vs Delegation[edit]

Dynamic Inheritance[edit]