Nuclear Energy/nuclear energy
Nuclear energy is the use of thermogenic nuclear processes to generate useful heat and electricity. This term includes nuclear fission, radiation and nuclear fusion. Today, the nuclear fission of actinide elements in the periodic table produces most of the nuclear energy needed by humans using radiation processes, which primarily satisfies human needs in the form of geothermal energy and isotopic heat-electric generators. Nuclear power plants, apart from their share in providing nuclear fission reactors for the Navy, provided about 5.7% of the world's energy and 13% of the world's electricity in 2012. In 2013, the International Atomic Energy Agency reported that there were 437 operating nuclear reactors in 31 countries, although not all reactors produce electricity. In addition, there are more or less 140 naval ships that provide their nuclear propulsion using about 180 reactors. After 2013, achieving a net increase in energy by means of stable nuclear fusion, excluding fusion energy sources such as the Sun, has created an ongoing space for physics and engineering research. Nuclear energy is a type of energy produced by nuclear decay, nuclear fission, or nuclear fusion, and its basis can be described by the equation ΔE = Δm.c².
In each atom, there are particles of hidden energy that are connected by the different parts of the atom, so the nucleus of the atom is considered a source of energy that is released when the atom splits. The energy contained in the nucleus of the atoms of some elements (such as uranium) can be released to do the same thing as burning a lot of oil and gas, which, of course, creates environmental problems and produces a lot of greenhouse gas.
Nuclear power negotiations are ongoing. Proponents such as the World Nuclear Organization, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and nuclear energy environmentalists claim that nuclear energy is a safe and sustainable energy source that reduces carbon emissions. Opponents such as the World Green Peace Organization and Nuclear Information and Resources Services believe that nuclear energy is a great danger to humans and the environment.
Nuclear and radiation incidents and events include Chernobyl accident (1986), Fukushima 1 nuclear accident (2011) and Three Mile Island accident (1979). Several underwater incidents have happened so far. Examining the loss of life per unit of energy produced, they show that nuclear energy causes fewer deaths than other major energy sources. Energy from coal, oil, natural gas and hydropower cause more deaths per unit of energy produced due to air pollution and energy accidents. The human cost of evacuating populations affected by lost livelihoods is enormous.
Along with other sustainable energy sources, nuclear energy is a low-carbon energy production method for creating electricity, which is similar to other renewable sources in terms of greenhouse gas emissions per unit of energy produced. In this way, since the beginning of the commercialization of nuclear power plants in the 1970s, the production of 64 gigatons of carbon dioxide equivalent has been avoided.
After 2012, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency, 68 nuclear reactors were under construction in 15 countries, with approximately 28 of the newest nuclear reactors belonging to the People's Republic of China. They were connected to Turin Electric after May 2013. This incident happened on February 17, 2013 at the Hengian nuclear power plant in China. In the United States, two new generation three reactors are under construction at Vogtel. Top US nuclear industry officials expect five new reactors to be installed in all existing plants by 2020. In 2013, the four-year-old, non-competitive reactors were permanently decommissioned.
Japan's Fukushima 1 nuclear accident in 2011, which occurred at a reactor designed in the 1960s, prompted a re-examination of nuclear safety and security and nuclear energy policy in many countries. Germany has decided to decommission all its reactors by 2022 and Italy has banned nuclear power. After the Fukushima incident in 2011, the International Atomic Energy Agency has decided to cut nuclear power generation capacity in half by 2035.