NiwEnglisc/Lærung 2

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Subjects and Direct Objects[edit | edit source]

In Niw Englisc, nouns take different cases to indicate the functions they serve in a sentence. As the subject, they are in the nominative case. As the direct object, they are in the accusative case.

Nouns have three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter, which often have little to do with the natural gender, and more to do with the definite articles they take.

While acting as the subject:

masculine neuter feminine
þe Mann þie Kwene þat Cild

Respectively: the person, the woman, the child.

When acting as the object:

masculine neuter feminine
þen Mann þie Kwene þat Cild

Notice that only the masculine changes form in the accusative/direct object form, just like New High German.

Personal Pronouns[edit | edit source]

Pronouns take cases similarly to nouns, and are familiar to those who know Dutch or German.

- singular
subject ic wiȝ
direct object mic usic
- singular
subject þu ȝiȝ
object þic ȝuic
- masculine
subject he schie it hje
object hin schie/hon it hje

The pronouns refer to someone much like in English or German, so that you don't have to repeat the noun numerous times in a sentence. For example:

  • Þe Kyning findeþ an Hors. It is bruun. The king finds a horse. It is brown. Here, it refers to Hors, since that word is neutral.
  • Þat Cild hafþ anen Hund. He is ȝung. The child has a dog. It (the dog) is young. Here, he refers to the dog, not the child, which is a neuter noun.

Present Tense verbs[edit | edit source]

Verbs in Niw English operate similarly to Middle English or Middle Saxon verbs, with simple inflection.

- singular - plural
ic make wiȝ mak
þu makst ȝiȝ mak
he makþ hje mak

After ic, the verb ending is always -e. After þu, the verb ending is always -st; when a verb ends in a consonant cluster or an 's' sound that would make it hard to understand the ending, add e before it.