Subjects and Direct Objects[edit | edit source]
In Niw Englisc, nouns take different cases to indicate the functions they serve in a sentence. As the subject, they are in the nominative case. As the direct object, they are in the accusative case.
Nouns have three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter, which often have little to do with the natural gender, and more to do with the definite articles they take.
While acting as the subject:
|þe Mann||þie Kwene||þat Cild|
Respectively: the person, the woman, the child.
When acting as the object:
|þen Mann||þie Kwene||þat Cild|
Notice that only the masculine changes form in the accusative/direct object form, just like New High German.
Personal Pronouns[edit | edit source]
Pronouns take cases similarly to nouns, and are familiar to those who know Dutch or German.
The pronouns refer to someone much like in English or German, so that you don't have to repeat the noun numerous times in a sentence. For example:
- Þe Kyning findeþ an Hors. It is bruun. The king finds a horse. It is brown. Here, it refers to Hors, since that word is neutral.
- Þat Cild hafþ anen Hund. He is ȝung. The child has a dog. It (the dog) is young. Here, he refers to the dog, not the child, which is a neuter noun.
Present Tense verbs[edit | edit source]
Verbs in Niw English operate similarly to Middle English or Middle Saxon verbs, with simple inflection.
After ic, the verb ending is always -e. After þu, the verb ending is always -st; when a verb ends in a consonant cluster or an 's' sound that would make it hard to understand the ending, add e before it.