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Internet Resources[edit | edit source]
Handbooks and Encyclopedias[edit | edit source]
These are only accessible for subscribers (which is one reason this Wikibook on Nanotechnology was started):
- Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 10-Volume Set
- Handbook of Theoretical and Computational Nanotechnology, 10-Volume Set
- Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology
[edit | edit source]
- International Council on Nanotechnology (ICON) a multi-stakeholder group dedicated to the safe, responsible and beneficial development of nanotechnology. ICON serves as an aggregator for news and research related to nanotechnology environment, health and safety.
- ICON Virtual Journal of Nanotechnology Environment, Health and Safety compiles papers in peer-reviewed journals that address EHS issues in nanotechnology.
- Virtual journal of nanotechnology compiles nano-related papers in peer reviewed journals that do not specialize solely in nanotechnology.
- ACS Nanotation
- Foresight Nanotech Institute
- Center for Responsible Nanotechnology
- A-Z of nanotechnology
- Google Directory - Nanotechnology (sourced from the Open Directory Project)
- Scientific American Nanotechnology Page
- NanoEd Resource Portal managed by the National Center for Learning and Teaching in Nanoscale Science and Engineering (NCLT)
Search engines[edit | edit source]
There are many ways to find information in scientific literature and some that even specialize in nanotechnology. Apart from the free search engines and useful tools such as Google scholar and Google Desktop, there are several more dedicated commercial services:
- ICON Virtual Journal of Nanotechnology Environment, Health and Safety (VJ-NanoEHS) compiles papers in peer-reviewed journals that address EHS issues in nanotechnology.
- ISI - Web of Science Database contains peer reviewed journals, their references and citations. It also has very useful tools such as 'find related papers' that searches for papers sharing the same references as the entry you're looking at. This is the database behind the compilation of the journal citation factors.
- Knovel - Online Handbook Collection and Database is an extensive collection of handbooks and tables.
- PROLA - the Physical Review Online Archive searches Physical Review journals.
- Rubber Bible Online is a physical chemistry handbook which contains tables of physical and chemical data.
- Spin AIP Scitation searches related journals.
- Web of Science by ISI generates the impact factors (see journals below).
- Virtual Journal of Nanotechnology collects nanotech related papers from non-nano specialized journals.
- Derwent Patent database
Peer reviewed Journals[edit | edit source]
Overview of the nanotechnology related journals and their impact factors (2007 values):
|ACS Nano||||N/A||1936-0851||general nanotech journal|
|Advanced Functional Materials||||7.5||1616-301X||?|
|American Journal of Physics (AJP)||||0.9||0002-9505||?|
|Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing||||1.9||0947-8396||?|
|Applied Physics Letters (APL)||||3.6||?||?|
|AZojono - Journal of Nanotechnology Online||||N/A||?||Free access journal|
|Current Nanoscience||||2.8||1573-4137||Reviews and original research reports|
|Fullerenes, Nanotubes, and Carbon Nanostructures||||0.5||1536-383x||all areas of fullerene research|
|IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology||||2.1||1536-125X||physical basis and engineering applications of nanotechnology|
|International Journal of Nanomedicine||||N/A||1176-9114||?|
|International Journal of Nanoscience||||N/A||0219-581X||New nanotech journal (Feb 2002)|
|Japanese Journal of Applied Physics||||1.2||1347-4065||?|
|Journal of Applied Physics||||2.2||?||?|
|Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology||||N/A||?||JBN is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal providing broad coverage in all research areas focused on the applications of nanotechnology in medicine, drug delivery systems, infectious disease, biomedical sciences, biotechnology, and all other related fields of life sciences.|
|Journal of Experimental Nanoscience||||N/A||1745-8080||New nanotech journal(March 2006)|
|Journal Of Microlithography Microfabrication And Microsystems||||N/A||1537-1646|
|Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering||||1.9||0960-1317||?|
|Journal of Nano Research||||N/A||1661-9897|
|Journal of Nanomaterials||||N/A||?||science and applications of nanoscale and nanostructured materials|
|Journal of Nanoparticle Research||||2.3||1388-0764||?|
|Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology||||2.0||?||JNN is a multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal covering fundamental and applied research in all disciplines of science, engineering and medicine. JNN publishes all aspects of nanoscale science and technology dealing with materials synthesis, processing, nanofabrication, nanoprobes, spectroscopy, properties, biological systems, nanostructures, theory and computation, nanoelectronics, nano-optics, nano-mechanics, nanodevices, nanobiotechnology, nanomedicine, nanotoxicology.|
|Journal of Physical Chemistry A||||2.9||?||?|
|Journal of Physical Chemistry B||||4.1||?||?|
|Journal of Physical Chemistry C||||N/A||?||Nanomaterials and Interfaces, Nanoparticles and Nanostructures, Surfaces, Interfaces, Catalysis, Electron Transport, Optical and Electronic Devices, Energy Conversion and Storage|
|Journal of the American Chemical Society (JACS)||||7.9||?||Multidisciplinary chemistry journal|
|Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A (JVSTA)||||1.3||?||Vacuum, Surfaces, Films|
|Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B (JVSTB)||||1.4||?||Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures: Processing, Measurement, and Phenomena|
|Langmuir||||4.0||?||Research in the fields of colloids, surfaces, and interfaces|
|Micron||||1.7||?||Journal for Microscopy|
|Materials Chemistry and Physics||||1.9||0254-0584||materials science, including nanomaterials and opto electronics|
|Materials Science and Engineering: C||||1.3||0928-4931||Biomimetic and Supramolecular Systems|
|Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports||||17.7||0927-796X||Invited review papers covering the full spectrum of materials science and engineering|
|Materials Today||||N/A||1369-7021||materials science and technology|
|Microfluidics and Nanofluidics||||2.2||1613-4982||all aspects of microfluidics, nanofluidics, and lab-on-a-chip science and technology|
|Microscopy Research and Technique||||1.6||?||?|
|Nano||||N/A||1793-2920||New nanotech journal (July 2006)|
|Nano Letters||||9.6||?||General nanotechnology journal|
|Nanopages||||N/A||1787-4033||Since sept 2006.|
|Nano Research||||N/A||?||First issue july 2008|
|Nano Research Letters||||wait||1931-7573||articles with open access|
|Nanotechnology||||3.3||?||Journal specializing in nanotechnology|
|NanoToday||||N/A||?||Is this peer reviewed or more a news/reviews journal?|
|Nature||||31.434||?||One of the major journals in science|
|Nature Biotechnology||||22.8||?||advances in life sciences|
|Nature Materials||||19.8||?||covers a range of topics within materials science|
|Nature Methods||||15.5||?||tried-and-tested techniques in the life sciences and related area of chemistry|
|Nature Nanotechnology||||14.9||?||mix of news, reviews, and research papers|
|Nanotoxicology||||N/A||1743-5404||Research relating to the potential for human and environmental exposure, hazard and risk associated with the use and development of nano-structured materials|
|Open Nanoscience Journal||||N/A||1874-1401||Open access journal with research articles, reviews and letters.|
|Physical Review Letters (PRL)||||6.9||?||One of the top physics journals|
|PLoS Biology||||13.5||1544-9173||Peer reviewed open access bio journal|
|PLoS ONE||||N/A||?||Peer reviewed open access science journal|
|Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences(PNAS)||||10.2||?||multidisciplinary scientific serial: biological, physical, and social sciences.|
|Recent Patents on Nanotechnology||||N/A||1872-2105||?|
|Science||||26.4||?||One of the major journals in science|
|Small Journal||||6.4||1613-6810||New nanotech journal|
|Smart Materials and Structures||||1.5||0964-1726||since 1992|
|Thin Solid Films||||1.7||0040-6090||Thin-film synthesis, characterization, and applications.|
|Ultramicroscopy||||2.0||?||Microscopy related research.|
|Virtual Journal of Nanotechnlogy||||N/A||1553-9644||Collecting nanotech related papers from non-nano spcialized journals|
- Impact factors are only guides to how much a papers is referenced in the years just after publication.
- Please add comments about the journals and update impact factors!
- The Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme PACS2006 and Nanoscale Science and Technology - Collection of Applicable Terms from PACS 2006
Conferences[edit | edit source]
- NSTI Nanotech 2008
- TNT - Trends in Nanotechnology 2007;2006
- MNE - Micro and Nanoengineering 2007;2008
- Virtual Conference on Nanoscale Science and Technology
- Foresight Unconference Vision Weekend NanoBioInfoCognoSocioPhysical technologies
- International Microprocess and Nanotechnology Conference, Japan
- Nanosafe 2008: International Conference on Safe production and use of nanomaterials
Nanotech Products[edit | edit source]
Please add more products, comments and more info about the products if you have any!
See also the List of nanotechnology applications in wikipedia
Woodrow Wilsom Center for International Scholars is starting a Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies (website should be under construction at www.nanoproject.org) that among other things will try to map the available 'nano'products and work to ensure possible risks are minimized and benefits are realized.
Emerging products[edit | edit source]
- 2008 MultiProbe’s AFM Nanoprober is now qualified for 32nm technology nodes. 
- Intel will make products with 45 nm linewidth transistors available from 2008 
- Batteries are increasingly incorporating nanostructures.
- Flexible, cheaper, or more luminous Flat screen displays
- Pressure-sensitive mobile devices 
Available in 2006[edit | edit source]
Available in 2005[edit | edit source]
- Molybdenum disulfide catalytic nanoparticles in Brimm catalysts made by Haldor Topsøe
- Forbes top ten nanoproducts in 2005
- Apples IPod with sub 100nm elements in its memory chips
- Choleterol reducing nanoencapsulated oil,Shemen Industries Canola Active.
- Nanocrystals improve the consistency of chocolate
- Zelen Fullerene C-60 Day Cream 
- Easton Stealth CNT baseball bat
- Nanotex textiles once again
- ArcticShield polyester socks from ARC Outdoors with 19nm silver particles that kill fungs to reduce odor.
- NanoGuard developed by Behr Process for improved paint hardness.
- Pilkingtons self-cleaning 'Activ Glass'.
- NanoBreeze Air Purifier from NanoTwin Technologies, where the UV light from a fluorescent tube cleans the air by photochemical reactions in nanoparticles.
Available in 2004[edit | edit source]
- Cold cathode carbon nanotube emitters for X-ray analysis by Oxford instruments
- Forbes has an overview in 2004 of what they consider the top ten nanotech products:
- Footwarmers with nanporous aerogel for 3-20 times lighter than comparable insultating materials used in shoes (produced by Aspen Aerogels).
- Matress covers with nanotex fibres that can be washed (Simmonos bedding company).
- Better golf drivers with carbon nanotube enforced metal composites (produced by Maruman & Co) and nanocomposite containing golf balls (produced by NanoDynamics)
- The company 'Bionova' apprently adds some nanoproducts to their 'personalized product line'.
- EnviroSystems make a nanoemulsive disinfectant cleaner, called EcoTru, that is EPA Tox category 4 registered (meaning very safe to use)
- EnviroSystems also make a spray-on version of this product.
- BASF makes a nanoparticle coating for building materials called Mincor, that reduces their wettabililty.
- A nanostructured coating produced by Valley View, called Clarity Defender, improves visibility through windscreens in rain. Another company, Nano-Film, makes a similar coating on sunglasses.
- w:Flex-Power makes a gel containing nanoscale liposomes for soothing aching muscles
- 3M espe Dental adhesive with silica nanoparticle filler.
Available in 2003[edit | edit source]
- NanoGuard Zink Oxide nanoparticles for sunscreens FDA approved
- Forbes 2003 top ten nanoproduct  includes:
- High performance ski wax, Cerax Nanowax .
- Nanotex textiles in ski jackets from Ziener
- Nanotex textiles
- Plenitude Revitalift antiwrinkle cream by L'Oréal contains nanocapsules with vitamin A 
- organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in Sony camera flat screen display
- Nanofilm coatings for ani-reflection and scratch resistance 
- Zink oxide nanoparticles in Sunscreen by BASF 
- carbon nanotube enforced tennis rackets  and nanopolymer enforced tennis balls 
Available in 2000[edit | edit source]
Nanotex makes textiles where the clothing fibres have been coating in nanoscale fibres to change the textile wettability. This makes the textile much more stain resistant.
Companies making nanotech research equipment[edit | edit source]
- MultiProbe Manufacturer of a 1-to-6 head Atomic Force nanoprobing tool used in failure analysis, that combines multi-scan fault isolation imaging with nanoprobing electrical capabilities. For process technology node measurements of 32nm, 45nm, 65nm, 90nm or larger.
- Veeco AFM and related equipment
- Zyvex nanomanipulation equipment
- Nanofactory in-situ TEM manipulation equipment
- SmarAct nanomanipulators
- Capres micro four point conductance measurement probes
- ImageMetrology SPIP software for SPM analysis
- QuantumWise software for simulating nanosystems
-  AFM and related equipment
Products that have been nanostructured for decades[edit | edit source]
Non-nanotech products and a warning[edit | edit source]
Not everything that says nano is nano - and given the hype surrounding nanotechnology you will see an increasing number of 'nano' products that have nothing to do with it. It is worrying when sometimes problems arise with non-nano products and this adds to the 'scare' that is present in the public, fuelled by the newspapers where they are just waiting for a nice scandal... an example was the product Magic Nano from a German company that made a number of users sick when inhaling the aerosol cleaning product - which in the end turned out to have nothing 'nano' in it. There is good reason to be very alert to such issues. Not all countries have legislation in place to secure the consumers against the possible dangers present in nanoparticles and some products could end being marketed before having been tested well enough. Though this example turned out to be 'non-nano', we will probably meet new cases shortly that are truly 'nano'. On this background environmental and health aspects will be an important part of this book.
Suppliers[edit | edit source]
- NIL Technology sells stamps for nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and provides imprint services.
A nano-timeline[edit | edit source]
Overview of some important events in nanotechnology
|Medieval||Observation of metal whisker growth and nanoparticles used for staining glass|
|1900||Max Planck proposes energy quantization.|
|1905-30||Development of quantum mechanics|
|1927||Heisenberg formulated his uncertainty principle|
|1933||The first First electron microscope was built by Ernst Ruska|
|1952||First carbon nanotubes observation by Radushkevich and Lukyanovich|
|1953||DNA structure discovered by James D. Watson and Francis Crick|
|1959||Feynmanns talk There is plenty of room at the bottom|
|1965||Proposal of Moores Law|
|1981||Invention of STM by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer|
|1985||Invention of AFM by Binnig, Quate and Gerber|
|1985||Buckyball discovery by Harry Kroto, Robert Curl, and Richard Smalley|
|1986||K. Eric Drexler publishes his book Engines of Creation, in which he discusses both the potential huge benefits and the potential dangers of nanotechnology. He talks about a future of nanotechnology defined by molecular manufacturing, where self-replicating nanobots/assemblers are engineered to carry out practical applications.|
|1989||Don Eigler pushed around xenon atoms to spell IBM||–||1991||Rediscovery of carbon nanotubes by Sumio Iijima|
A nano-scale overview[edit | edit source]
Just to get a sense of proportion
|1 m||1 m is 1.000.000.000 nanometers ( 10^9 nm )|
|200 µm||About the size of the smallest letters you can write with a very very sharp pencil and a very very steady hand.|
|100 µm||Typical thick hair|
|10-1000 µm||Cells in living organisms can have many sizes, and neurons can be much longer. In frog embryos (Tadpoles) the initial embryo cells can be up to 1000µm.|
|8 µm||Red blood cell|
|5-100 nm||The range for nanotechnology systems built from atomic/molecular components (quantum dots, nanoparticles, diameter of nanotubes and nanowires, lipid membranes, nanopores...).|
|10 nm||Size of typical Antibody molecules in living organisms immune defence|
|6-10 nm||Thickness of a cell membrane, and typical pore size in membrane.|
|2.5 nm||The width of DNA (but it depends on the conditions)|
|1 nm||The size of a C60 buckyball molecule or glucose molecule.|
|0.3 nm||The size of a water molecule.|
|1 Å = 0.1 nm||Roughly the size of hydrogen atom.|
|0.7 Å = 70 pm||The best resolution in AFM achieved so far where they managed to image individual orbitals in an atom.|
- Distances between objects can be measured with sub Å precision with STM, laser interferometry and its even done continuously in a standard airbag acceleration sensor chip that costs a few dollars and senses the vibrations of a micro-inertial mass element with femtometer precision (10^-15 m).
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- G. Ali Mansoori, Principles of Nanotechnology, Molecular-Based Study of Condensed Matter in Small Systems, (New Jersey: World Scientific, 2006).
- Monthioux, Marc; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L. (2006). "Who should be given the credit for the discovery of carbon nanotubes?". Carbon 44. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2006.03.019. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
References[edit | edit source]
See also notes on editing this book Nanotechnology/About#How_to_contribute.
the nanotechnology pioneers by Steven A. Edwards Engines of Creation 2.0: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology by K. Eric Drexler