Myers-Briggs Type Indicator/ENTP
|Myers-Briggs Type Indicator|
Introduction | Four polar dimensions: E/I, S/N, T/F, J/P | Four basic temperaments: SJ, SP, NT, NF | The sixteen types
QuickTyping | At work | Criticisms | Further reading
Recognizing an ENTP
ENTPs are typically friendly and often charming. They usually want to be seen as clever and may try to impress others with their quick wit and incisive humor. They are curious about the world around them, and want to know how things work. However, for the ENTP, the rules of the universe are made to be broken. They like to find the loopholes and figure out how they can work the system to their advantage. This is not to say the Visionary is malicious: they simply find rules limiting, and believe there is probably a better, faster, or more interesting way to do things that hasn’t been thought of before. The ENTP is characteristically entrepreneurial and may be quick to share a new business idea or invention. They are confident and creative, and typically excited to discuss their many ingenious ideas. The ENTP’s enthusiasm for innovation is infectious, and they are often good at getting other people on board with their schemes. However, they are fundamentally “big-picture” people, and may be at a loss when it comes to recalling or describing details. They are typically more excited about exploring a concept than they are about making it reality, and can seem unreliable if they don’t follow through with their many ideas.
ENTP following traits
- Enjoy generating ideas and theories
- Creative and ingenious
- Bright and capable
- Flexible and Diverse
- Excellent communication skills
- Enjoy debating issues with other people
- Excellent people skills
- Natural leaders, but do not like to control people
- Resist being controlled by people
- Lively and energetic; able to motivate others
- Highly value knowledge and competence
- Logical, rational thinkers
- Able to grasp difficult concepts and theories
- Enjoy solving difficult problems
- Dislike confining schedules and environments
- Dislike routine, detailed tasks
Research on ENTP
Interesting facts about the ENTP:
- On personality trait scales, scored as Enterprising, Friendly, Resourceful, Headstrong, Self-Centered, and Independent
- Least likely of all types to suffer heart disease and hypertension
- Least likely of all types to report stress associated with family and health
- Scored among highest of all types in available resources for coping with stress
- Overrepresented among those with Type A behavior
- Among highest of all types on measures of creativity
- One of two types most frequent among violators of college alcohol policy
- Among types most dissatisfied with their work, despite being among the types with highest income
- Commonly found in careers in science, management, technology, and the arts
ENTP Personality Type Development & Functional Stack
- Dominant Function: Extraverted Intuition (Ne): Extraverted Intuition (Ne) is a novelty-seeking function. At first glance, Se and Ne types may seem fairly similar (such conflation can be seen, for instance, in the Enneagram Seven), since both ESPs and ENPs can be outwardly active, energetic, and playful. Ne differs from Se, however, in that it is more concerned with ideas, connections, and possibilities than it is with novel sensations or material goods. Extraverted Intuition can function either perceptively or expressively. The verbal expression of Ne amounts to something like “brainstorming aloud.” Although typically not to the same extent as ENFPs, when orating aloud, ENTPs may not always seem to “have a point,” quickly bouncing from one idea to the next. In many cases, “the point” is for ENTPs to find their way to a judgment, but they must first explore the options by way of their Ne. While others may distrust the seemingly arbitrary or haphazard ways of Ne, ENTPs realize its value, recognizing that in time, truth or wisdom will reveal itself. ENTPs’ primary job then, is to employ and express their Ne, trusting that it will lead them in the right direction. With that said, some ENTPs are much more cogent and streamlined in their expressions than others. Many ENTPs learn to develop and express themselves via their tertiary function, Extraverted Feeling (Fe), which is not at all random, but more direct and coherent.
Ne also works receptively, gathering information from without. Unlike Se, it does not gather overt information, but goes beyond or looks behind sensory data. It is what allows ENTPs to discern otherwise hidden patterns, possibilities, and potentials. Ne is constantly scanning for new connections and patterns. They often employ this receptive side of their Ne in activities like reading, watching movies, and conversing with others. Because it is an extraverted function, Ne is more divergent, extensive, and open-ended than Introverted Intuition (Ni). Ni is more intensive and convergent, conferring a greater sense of conviction and closure. Once Ni has done its work, INJs are apt to feel there is a single correct solution. Ne, by contrast, is disposed to multiplying rather than reducing the number of possible options or solutions. Only through use of their auxiliary Ti can ENTPs move toward convergence. Ne also confers open-mindedness. It helps ENTPs see truth on both sides of an issue without forming unwarranted judgments or premature conclusions. It also contributes an openness to alternative or Bohemian lifestyles, allowing ENTPs to entertain options such as vegetarianism or joining a commune. Ne also resists excessive external structuring, which can feel like an imposition to ENTPs’ sense of personal freedom and autonomy. ENTPs scoff at what they see as unnecessary or overly rigid rules, regulations, or procedures. They also dislike unchanging or sterile surroundings. When the environment is too bland or sterile, they can quickly become bored and restless. Like other NPs, ENTPs can have a love-hate relationship with their Ne. They love the fact that it helps them remain open-minded, to see the bigger picture, and to appreciate different options and perspectives. They also enjoy its attendant sense of adventure, expectancy, and wonderment toward life’s mysteries. But Ne also has its challenges. It can make it difficult for ENTPs to feel calm and satisfied, to arrive at firm conclusions, or to feel confident in their decision-making.
- Auxiliary Function: Introverted Thinking (Ti):As dominant Perceivers, ENTPs are disposed to taking a more passive approach to life, particularly with regard to the outside world. Like other EPs, they are content to remain in a mode of open Perceiving until they are prompted, whether inwardly or outwardly, to employ their auxiliary Judging function, Introverted Thinking (Ti). When ENTPs feel compelled to engage their Ti, they become more inwardly focused and intense, similar to the typical mode of operation for INTPs. But because Ti is introverted in its direction, onlookers may fail to notice this more rational side of the ENTP.
Ti involves the application of logic and reason for the sake of understanding a given situation, system, or problem. It also works to bring structure and order to the inner world. This inner structuring grants ENTPs a good sense of inner control. When engaging their Ti, ENTPs dig into the background of their thoughts to better understand their origins and to ensure their ideas are logical. Like INTPs, they can quickly find inconsistencies or logical shortcomings in a given theory or argument. They excel at identifying exceptions or imagining scenarios in which the proposed explanation might breakdown. They find it easier to identify logical shortcomings or inconsistencies —to assert what is not true—than to confidently assert what is true. The difference between Ti in ENTPs versus INTPs is its place in the functional stack. For INTPs, it comes first, which makes them quicker to inwardly judge. INTPs then use their auxiliary Ne to open up and further explore their initial judgments. In ENTPs, the order is reversed. Rather than starting with an initial judgment or presumption like INTPs, they approach things through the fresh eyes of Intuition. They then employ their Ti to analyze and enhance the logic and structuring of their Ne perceptions. In addition to the different ordering of their functional stacks, ENTPs, as dominant Perceivers, can more easily leave things open-ended or ambiguous than INTPs can. Their Ne dominance also makes them more open to “playing” than INTPs are. I once administered a values inventory and was surprised when a couple ENTPs marked “having fun” as one of their top priorities in life. To most INTPs, whose dominant Ti compels them to take life seriously, such a response smacks of hedonism and would likely be among their lowest ranked values. ENTPs’ dominant Ne may also confer a greater interest in the arts and culture than typically seen among INTPs The difference between Ti and Fi seems largely a matter of interests and emphases. Fi types (FPs) are more concerned and skilled with moral judgments (Fi) than logical ones (Ti). They judge in terms of good and bad, love and hate, like and dislike. TPs, in contrast, start out with a need for sound logic (Ti) and are generally less concerned with matters of taste or morality upfront. They think less in terms of love and hate than reasonable and unreasonable, logical and illogical. With that said, since T and F are adjacent in ENTPs’ functional stack, it can sometimes be a bit tricky, especially early in their development, to tease out their T-F preference.
- Tertiary Function: Extraverted Feeling (Fe): Fe is the most interpersonal of all the functions, striving for interpersonal peace, harmony, and understanding. This not only involves attending to what is said, but also how something is said. While ENTPs may be less disturbed by or sensitive to external disharmony than some other types, they still work, even if largely unwittingly, to cultivate good feelings in the environment.
We can also approach ENTPs’ Fe more theoretically. Namely, since Fe is their preferred extraverted Judging function and falls lower in their functional stack, ENTPs are less comfortable extroverting judgments (Fe) than keeping them to themselves (Ti). This can lead ENTPs, along with other Perceiving types, to habitually defer to others’ wishes rather than asserting their own. And because ENTPs have strong minds, they may grow inwardly resentful of those they see as trying to control them. Granted, they are generally more self-assertive than IPs are, but their discomfort in deploying Fe can still get kindle problems in ENTPs’ relationships.
- Inferior Function: Introverted Sensing (Si): As is true of other types, ENTPs can be easily blinded to the degree to which their inferior function impacts their decisions and behavior. ENTPs seeking self-knowledge and personal growth must work to understand the ways their inferior function, Introverted Sensing (Si), manifests in their personality. Introverted Sensing is best understood when juxtaposed with its functional opposite, Ne. Despite their oppositional nature, when considered together, Ne and Si constitute a meaningful whole. As we have seen, Ne explores new ideas and possibilities. Si, by contrast, is concerned with preserving the past. Ne knows no limits, seeing infinite options and possibilities, while Si sees clearly defined limits as determined by past precedent. Ne is liberal and unfettered, Si conservative and careful. What is fascinating is that all of these opposing forces can exist within the same personality type. ENTPs tend to consciously identify with the needs and values of their Ne, while their subconscious pushes for the interests of Si.
When using Ne, ENTPs can be rather oblivious to details. They may fail to effectively attend to the concrete details of daily life, such as forgetting to the bills, being careless with their diet, or not taking enough exercise. When engrossed in a creative project, however, ENTPs can look like INTJs, becoming perfectionistic and obsessive over details. As N-dominants, it can be difficult for them to accept anything less than perfection when it comes to the physical embodiment (S) of their vision or ideas (N). A most overlooked feature of Si is its perception and awareness of internal bodily sensations—the body as felt and experienced from within. But since Si is ENTPs’ inferior function, they may feel out of touch with their inner body. To compensate, they may grant too much attention to certain physical sensations, making them more susceptible to hypochondriasis or psychosomatic illnesses, in which an increased focus on bodily sensations cultivates or heightens symptoms. N and S also have a temporal element. Si concerns itself with the past, while Ne is focused on future possibilities and potentials. ENTPs’ Si can confer an interest in the details of history. They also enjoy using their Ne to explore historical meanings, interpretations, and implications. This is why many ENTPs take up politics or journalism, careers that allow them to use their knowledge of history to analyze current events and speculate about the future. ENTPs also experience tension between the traditional (Si) and the novel or unconventional (Ne). This is especially common for ENTPs in Phases I and II of their type development. To some degree, they remain attached and drawn to their childhood traditions (Si). At the same time, however, their Ne and Ti may encourage them to deconstruct and even rebel against those traditions. This can engender identity confusion in ENTPs, unsure of the degree to which they should break from their childhood traditions versus reconceiving themselves. Such struggles can leave ENTPs with questions like: Should I opt for family life or an unconventional lifestyle? Should I pursue the security of a conventional career (Si) or something more creative and potentially risky (Ne)? In considering such questions, ENTPs, need to ensure they are leading with their dominant function rather than their inferior. As N-dominants, ENTPs’ best strengths involve creatively exploring ideas, theories, and connections. To best utilize these strengths, they need to ensure they are not allowing their inferior Si to impose undue limits or boundaries on their explorations. They are generally better off using their Ne, as well as the reasoning capacities of their Ti, to hash out truth, rather than deferring to Si traditions.
ENTP in the population
ENTP is one of the rarer types in the population. ENTPs make up:
- 3% of the general population
- 4% of men
- 2% of women
Popular hobbies for ENTP
Popular hobbies for them include continuing education, writing, art appreciation, playing sports, computers and video games, travel, and cultural events.
What the experts say
- "ENTps tend to be independent, analytical, and impersonal in their relations with people, and they are more apt to consider how others may affect their projects than how their projects may affect others."
- Isabel Briggs Myers, Gifts Differing
- "ENTps are the most reluctant of all the types to do things in a particular manner just because that is the way things have always been done."
- David Keirsey, Please Understand Me II
- "Don't tell an ENTp that we can't fly a rocket to Mars, build a 200-story skyscraper, or communicate over two-way wrist radios. That will be an invitation for the ENTP to prove you wrong."
- Otto Kroeger, Type Talk at Work
ENTps at work
ENTps have straightforward expectations in the workplace, but ones that aren't always easy to meet. Strong believers in meritocracy, people with the ENTp personality type expect their ideas to be heard by those above them, expect robust debate among their peers, and demand that those they manage offer up new solutions and ideas regardless of their positions. While this isn't always how things play out in reality, ENTPs know what to look for, and can avoid those strictly hierarchical institutions that they would otherwise struggle with.
This dynamic is clearest with ENTp subordinates, as they are comfortable challenging their managers' ideas and have a strong (and well-expressed) dislike for restrictive rules and guidelines. ENTPs back this unorthodox behavior with their keen minds and curiosity, and are as capable of adopting new methods as they are of suggesting others do so. If something can be done better, it's as simple as that, and ENTP personalities gladly take criticism, so long as it's logical and performance-oriented.
The biggest challenge for ENTp subordinates is that it is often the fate of the "lower" positions to implement the details, do the dirty work and follow through on plans set out by their managers. This couldn't be further from what ENTPs prefer to spend their time on – they can't stand simple, routine work, and monotonous tasks are the stuff of nightmares. Things go over much better if managers are able to properly utilize ENTPs' preference for tackling complex challenges and diverse projects.
It is as colleagues that ENTps prove most polarizing, as their passions for brainstorming, debate and over-analysis drive more practical, task-oriented colleagues crazy, but serve as stimulating inspiration for those who appreciate the innovation ENTps bring. Nothing bothers people with the ENTp personality type more than getting out of a meeting where everyone agreed with the first plan presented, only to hear everyone complain about how stupid the plan was ten minutes later – but they "didn't want to make waves". ENTps strive for honest, direct and objective assessments of these ideas, so much so that they often earn reputations for their insensitivity and condescension.
Luckily ENTps know how to relax too, and their witty wordplay, healthy sense of humor and outgoing nature win new friends quickly and easily. Always willing to draw on their repository of knowledge, conversations with ENTp personalities are informative and entertaining, which makes it easy for them to be the go-to person for tough problems that stump more rote approaches. Peer-to-peer relationships with ENTPs aren't always easy, but it's tough to argue that they don't work.
While not always their goal, management is often where ENTPs are most at home, allowing them the freedom to fiddle with different approaches and come up with innovative ways to tackle new challenges without having to handle the tedious step-by-step implementation of these plans. ENTps are open-minded and flexible managers, not just granting but also expecting the same freedom of thought that they themselves enjoy. This can lead to disorder, conflicting ideas and approaches being put forward, but ENTps are also great at accurately and objectively assessing which plan is likely to be most effective.
This doesn't always make friends, but being liked is less ENTps' goal than being respected and seen as intelligent and capable. And liked or no, people with this personality type hold firm ground in rational debates, making them fearsome advocates for their teams. The challenge for ENTps is focus, as they may find themselves jumping from project to project in a quest for challenge and excitement before their teams are able to wrap up the details of their existing goals and obligations.
ENTps in relationships
ENTp's love to be in relationships, and are very loyal and great at managing life, but will not just be in a relationship just to be in a relationship. ENTp's like to think they are the caretakers, and will do so for the most part, but for a true relationship with them, one needs to get past the strong exterior and nourish their underlying needs, which they may never tell you. Massage is a great way to get an ENTp comfortable. They are shy at first and never feel 100% accepted in social settings, although they tend to be the belle of the ball. They are interesting to talk to, and find the best friendship in those who have good conversation. ENTp friend are active, like going for walks, playing sports, going on adventures and trips. Love and relationships can be the best or the worst for an ENTp, as love can inspire and drive them, but can also drive them insane. Not feeling accepted can make an ENTp shy away and hide. Happy mediums can and should be found in relationships. ENTp's get very invested in their work, ideas or passions. If something is bothering them, it never leaves their mind. If you've found an ENTp who gets inspired by you, hold on for a wild ride, your ENTp will be wildly successful and needs a sexy partner to come home to and escape with.
Loyalty, support, emotional feedback – these are not what ENTps look for in their friendships. The last thing people with the ENTp personality type want to hear is "you're right", not unless they have absolutely earned the distinction in a heated round of intellectual debate. If they're wrong, ENTps want to be told so, and they want every detail of the faults in their logic to be laid bare, partly in their quest for oftentimes arbitrary truth, and partly just so they have to work to defend that logic with counterpoint and parry.
It's often easy for ENTps to test compatibility with a potential friend – they just need to test combatability. ENTp personalities are quick-witted, and their primary means of expressing this is in the form of arguments and discussions, where they will easily spend an entire evening debating an idea they may not even believe in.
These debates are never taken personally, no matter how heated they become or how striking the disagreement. Much as an athlete competes for the physical exertion and the spirit of competition itself, ENTps debate for the sake of intellectual stimulation and for the debate itself, and even in overwhelming victory or crushing defeat, it's never about dominance, only inspiration to try harder next time.
- Knowledgeable – ENTps rarely pass up a good opportunity to learn something new, especially abstract concepts. This information isn't usually absorbed for any planned purpose as with dedicated studying, people with the ENTP personality type just find it fascinating.
- Quick Thinkers – ENTps have tremendously flexible minds, and are able to shift from idea to idea without effort, drawing on their accumulated knowledge to prove their points, or their opponents', as they see fit.
- Original – Having little attachment to tradition, ENTp personalities are able to discard existing systems and methods and pull together disparate ideas from their extensive knowledge base, with a little raw creativity to hold them together, to formulate bold new ideas. If presented with chronic, systemic problems and given rein to solve them, ENTps respond with unabashed glee.
- Excellent Brainstormers – Nothing is quite as enjoyable to ENTps as analyzing problems from every angle to find the best solutions. Combining their knowledge and originality to splay out every aspect of the subject at hand, rejecting without remorse options that don't work and presenting ever more possibilities, ENTPs are irreplaceable in brainstorming sessions.
- Charismatic – People with the ENTp personality type have a way with words and wit that others find intriguing. Their confidence, quick thought and ability to connect disparate ideas in novel ways create a style of communication that is charming, even entertaining, and informative at the same time.
- Energetic – When given a chance to combine these traits to examine an interesting problem, ENTps can be truly impressive in their enthusiasm and energy, having no qualms with putting in long days and nights to find a solution.
- Very Argumentative – If there's anything ENTps enjoy, it's the mental exercise of debating an idea, and nothing is sacred. More consensus-oriented personality types rarely appreciate the vigor with which ENTp personalities tear down their beliefs and methods, leading to a great deal of tension.
- Insensitive – Being so rational, ENTps often misjudge others feelings and push their debates well past others' tolerance levels. People with this personality type don't really consider emotional points to be valid in such debates either, which magnifies the issue tremendously.
- Intolerant – Unless people are able to back up their ideas in a round of mental sparring, ENTps are likely to dismiss not just the ideas but the people themselves. Either a suggestion can stand up to rational scrutiny or it's not worth bothering with.
- Can Find It Difficult to Focus – The same flexibility that allows ENTps to come up with such original plans and ideas makes them readapt perfectly good ones far too often, or to even drop them entirely as the initial excitement wanes and newer thoughts come along. Boredom comes too easily for ENTps, and fresh thoughts are the solution, though not always a helpful one.
- Dislike Practical Matters – ENTps are interested in what could be – malleable concepts like ideas and plans that can be adapted and debated. When it comes to hard details and day-to-day execution where creative flair isn't just unnecessary but actually counter-productive, ENTp personalities lose interest, often with the consequence of their plans never seeing the light of day.
- George Carlin, comedian, author
- Julia Child, TV personality, author, chef
- Bruce Dickinson, musician (Iron Maiden)
- Tom Hanks, actor (Forrest Gump)
- Valerie Harper, actress (Rhoda)
- Neil Patrick Harris, actor (How I Met Your Mother)
- Bill Hicks, comedian
- Jason Denny comedian"
- Bill Nye, TV host, comedian, science educator, engineer
- Mike Patton, musician (Faith No More, Mr. Bungle, Fantômas)
- Suzanne Pleshette, actress (The Bob Newhart Show)
- James Rolfe, internet personality (Angry Video Game Nerd), filmmaker
- Adam Savage, TV personality (MythBusters), special effects coordinator
- Sarah Silverman, comedian, actress, musician
- Jon Stewart, TV host (The Daily Show)
- Steve Vai, musician
- Robert Downey Jr., actor
- Flula Borg, (YouTube Personality)
- Oscar Isaac, actor
- Craig Ferguson, comedian, TV host (The Late Late Show)
- Robert Carlyle, actor
- Federico Fellini (8½)
- Peter Greenaway (The Draughtsman's Contract)
- Billy Wilder (Sunset Boulevard)
Politicians and Leaders
- John Adams, US President
- Alexander the Great, conqueror
- Benjamin Franklin, founding father, polymath
- James A. Garfield, US President
- Hatshepsut I, pharaoh of Egypt
- Rutherford B. Hayes, US President
- Mao Zedong, first Chairman of the Communist Party of China
- Oda Nobunaga, Sengoku-period daimyo
- Barack Obama, US President
- Luc Longley, first Australian to play in the NBA
- Douglas Adams, author (The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy)
- Lord Byron, poet
- Lewis Caroll, author (Alice in Wonderland)
- Samuel Taylor Coleridge, poet
- Roald Dahl, author
- Frank Herbert, author (Dune)
- D.H. Lawrence, author, poet, playwright
- George Bernard Shaw, dramatist
- Jonathan Swift, satirist
- Hunter S. Thompson, author (Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas')
- Jules Verne, author
- Tyler Durden (Fight Club)
- Captain James T. Kirk (Star Trek)
- Dr. Emmett 'Doc' Brown (Back to the Future)
- Bugs Bunny (Looney Tunes)
- Wile E. Coyote (Looney Tunes)
- The Crypt Keeper (Tales from the Crypt)
- Jack Skellington (Nightmare before Christmas)
- Jadzia Dax (Star Trek: Deep Space Nine)
- Ed (Cowboy Bebop)
- Bojack Horseman
- Professor Hubert Farnsworth (Futurama)
- Shirley Feeney (Laverne & Shirley)
- Professor Frink (The Simpsons)
- Garfield the Cat
- Saul Goodman (Breaking Bad)
- Xander Harris (Buffy the Vampire Slayer)
- Pennywise the Clown (IT)
- The Joker (Batman)
- Cosmo Kramer (Seinfeld)
- Col, Hans Landa (Inglorius bastards)
- Tyrion Lannister (Game Of Thrones)
- Lucca (Chrono Trigger)
- Mercutio (Romeo and Juliet)
- Morte (Planescape: Torment)
- Kefka Palazzo (Final Fantasy VI)
- Q (James Bond)
- Polly Prince (Along Came Polly)
- Dr. Ivo Robotnik (Sonic the Hedgehog)
- Midna (Zelda: Twilight Princess)
- Dr. Schultz (Django Unchained)
- Dr. Strangelove
- Captain Jack Sparrow (Pirates of the Caribbean)
- Tony Stark (Iron Man)
- Dr. Peter Venkman (Ghostbusters)
- Dr. Vink (Are You Afraid of the Dark?)
- Fred and George Weasley (Harry Potter)
- Vanellope Von Schweetz (Wreck-It Ralph)
- Nejire Hadou (My Hero Academia)
- Yosuke Hanamura (Persona 4)
- Sirius Black (Harry Potter)
- Barney Stinson (How I Met Your Mother)
- Dr. Ian Malcolm (Jurassic Park)
- Holden Caulfield
- Robin Hood (Robin Hood [Disney])
- Jim Moriarty (Sherlock)
- Sherlock Holmes (Sherlock Holmes the Movie)
- Felicity Megan Smoak (DC "Arrowverse", primarily "Arrow", Also "The Flash", "Legends of Tomorrow", and "Vixen")
- Chandler Muriel Bing (Friends)
- Mieczyslaw 'Stiles' Stilinski (Teen Wolf)
- Bill Cipher (Gravity Falls)
- Rick Sanchez (Rick and Morty)
- Jim Halpert (The Office)
- R2-D2 (Star Wars)
- Lord Henry "Harry" Wotton (The Picture of Dorian Gray)
- Q ("Star Trek: The Next Generation")
- Wernher von Braun, rocket scientist
- Satyajit Das, derivatives expert, financial commentator
- Leonardo Da Vinci, inventor
- Daniel Dennett, philosopher, cognitive scientist
- David Deutsch, physicist
- Walt Disney, animator, voice actor, entrepreneur
- Patrick Dixon, business consultant, author, futurist
- Thomas Edison, inventor
- Niall Ferguson, economic historian
- Richard Feynman, physicist
- Michel Foucault, philosopher
- Melissa Franklin, physicist
- Buckminster Fuller, inventor
- Werner Heisenberg, physicist
- Grace Hopper, computer scientist
- David Hume, philosopher
- Hypatia, mathematician, philosopher
- Ray Kurzweil, inventor, futurist
- Niccolo Machiavelli, political theorist
- Moses Maimonides, Torah scholar, physician, philosopher
- Maria Montessori, educator, philosopher
- John von Neumann, mathematician
- Robert Nozick, political philosopher
- Robert Oppenheimer, physicist
- Camille Paglia, social critic
- Sean Parker, entrepreneur
- Steven Pinker, psychologist, cognitive scientist
- Sir Walter Raleigh, explorer, writer
- Sumner Redstone, entrepreneur
- Sally Ride, physicist, astronaut, first American woman in space
- Murray Rothbard, economist, anarcho-capitalist
- Bertrand Russell, philosopher, mathematician, logician
- Socrates, philosopher
- Antoaneta Stefanova, chess grandmaster
- Alexis de Tocqueville, political theorist, historian
- Xenophanes, epistemologist
- Slavoj Žižek, philosopher, critical theorist
- Joshua Abraham Norton, Business man, Emperor of the United States