# Moving objects in retarded gravitational potentials of an expanding spherical shell/Preface

## Preface

[edit | edit source]### Summary

[edit | edit source]**Retarded gravitational potentials**of a very large spherical shell with mass.**Acceleration forces**on objects with mass within such a shell.- Concept of the
**Schwarzschild distance**from the outer invisible surface of such a shell ("**black shell**") to the visible universe. **Gravitational redshift**due to the mass of the black shell.**Evolution of the Schwarzschild distance**due to the continuously increasing mass of the black shell.

### Abstract

[edit | edit source]The principles of **retarded gravitational potentials** are presented and explained. The application of retarded gravitational potentials to an expanding spherical shell of matter with a large mass (a "black shell") leads to **acceleration forces** on moving objects within such a huge shell.

The concept of a **Schwarzschild distance** from the inner surface of a hollow spherical cap is introduced. It can be used to determine equivalent spherical masses which can provide information about the evolution of the universe.

The unexpected high values of the cosmological redshift that are observed at extremely far astronomical objects including the cosmic microwave background could be related to the strong asymmetrical effect of the gravitation of the outer black shell of the universe. Due to the integrative effect of the retarded gravitational potentials of a concave shaped spherical black shell the gravitational forces of masses within the Schwarzschild distance are so enormous that the light from any atoms can no longer reach us. Exactly at the boundary to our visible universe, the **gravitational redshift** is infinite, just like on the surface of a convex shaped spherical black hole.

The **evolvement of the Schwarzschild distance** due to the continuously increasing mass of the outer invisible shell of our universe has two inflection points around the very points in time and space, where the cosmic microwave background as well as the youngest galaxies can be observed today. The strongly increasing Schwarzschild distance between these two points in time goes hand in hand with the postulated massive transformation of dark matter to "dark energy". Therefore, the effect of retarded gravitational potentials could also contribute to the explanation of the accelerated expansion of the universe, which often is related to the effect of "dark energy".

It seems that the hypothesis of relevant dark matter that continuously moves beyond the event horizon of our visible universe could open the gates for further interesting investigations and findings.