Mirad/Print version

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What is Mirad?

Glojo mir ebdao ácana dadè. (accented version)
Glojo mir ebdao yacana dadey. (unaccented version)
Soon the world will converse through a common tongue.

Mirad ( aka Unilingua ) is an artificially-constructed auxiliary language (conlang) developed and published by Paris-based author Noubar Agopoff as a serious medium for easy and logical international communication. Mirad is categorized by constructed language afficionados as philosophical because its vocabulary is mapped letter-by-letter to a semantic ontology or thesaurus. Also, the wordstock of Mirad is considered a priori, that is, there is no deliberate association with words or roots in existing natural languages. The vocabulary is "from scratch", yet based on internal lexical and semantic rules that help the learner to construct and deconstruct derivations logically, mnemonically, and consistently.
For some odd reason, the author of this language called it the Latinesque name "Unilingua." In this revision of the language, the name will be the more internally consistent Mirad (pronounced mee-RAHD), which means world language (mira = world's + d = speech.) The proximity to the Russian word for 'world' (мир) is pure coincidence; the vocabulary of Mirad, as stated above, is not based on or related to any existing human language.

Orthography and Pronunciation

Orthography and Pronunciation


The Mirad alphabet has both lower-case and upper-case letters. The alphabet has the same base letters as Latin or English, except that the letters Qq, Xx, and Yy are considered non-native and are used only in foreign names and borrowings. Also, the letters Hh and Ww are additional to Agapoff's original Unilingua alphabet and are unique in that they have no inherent semantic values; they are used for various grammatical-only purposes. A unique feature of Mirad is that every native letter is a semantically- or functionally-significant atom in the language and can be thought of as a brick in word-building. See Word-building
The order of the native alphabet is as follows:
a á à â b c d e é è ê f g h i í ì î j k l m n o ó ò ô p r s t u ú ù û v w z
The above lower-case letters can also be represented as upper-case letters. In Unicode representations and indexing, the uppercase graphemes precede the lowercase values. Uppercase letters are used much as in American English, that is, for the first letter in sentences, proper nouns, etc. See #Orthography for more details. As mentioned above, the Mirad graphemes Ww and Hh are additional to the letters in the original Unilingua and are used to form the passive voice of verbs and the correlative deictics, respectively. Foreign names and borrowings sometimes also incorporate Hh, Qq, Xx, and Yy.


The following letters are classified as consonants:
b c d f g h j k l m n p r s t v w z
*Note: The author of Unilingua did not include the letters Hh or Ww as native graphemes. They have been added in Mirad in order to encompass word structures not included by Agapoff, in addition to interjections and foreign names. See more on this under #Vowels.


Vowels, or more accurately, vowel nuclei consist of plain vowels and iotated vowels, that is, vowels that have a y-glide sound (iota) before, after, or around them. A synonym of iotated is palatalized.
The plain vowels are (only miniscules listed here):
a e i o u
The iotated vowel nuclei are:
á é í ó ú   (pre-iotated)
à è ì ò ù   (post-iotated)
â ê î ô û   (circum-iotated)
Note: The author of Unilingua used non-Roman letters to represent some of the pre-iotated vowels (я = á, е = é, ø = ó, and ю = ú. The author employed a hacek (called ille in French) over the vowel to represent post-iotation (ă = à, ě = è, etc.). This revised Mirad textbook, however, uses the acute accent (as in French été) for the pre-iotated vowels, the grave accent (as in French père) for the post-iotated vowels, and the circumflex accent (as in French fête) for the circum-iotated vowels. It must be remembered, however, that á, ô, and other iotated vowels are considered single vowels or vowel nuclei in any analysis of the language, not dipthongs or tripthongs). In other words, the accents are merely graphemic devices to distinguish vowels qualitatively, and thereby semantically.



Despite Agapoff's idiosyncratic system of punctuation, the punctuation symbols and usage in Mirad are just like those of American English.


Capitalization in Mirad follows the same rules as in English. European learners need to be especially careful to capitalize the first letter of the names of languages, nationalities, and inhabitants, which in most European languages are left in lowercase.
Note the following examples. The words are all capitalized because the root word is the name of the country China:
Mirad English
Kin China
Kina Chinese (people or nation) [adj.]
Kinad Chinese (language) [n.]
Kinada Chinese (language) [adj.]
Kinadè in Chinese [adv.]
Kinut Chinese person
Kinadaer to speak Chinese (pronounced: kee-nah-dah-EHR)
Kinader to utter in Chinese
Kinadrer to write Chinese
Kinadrun Chinese writing
Kina vidrun Chinese calligraphy
Kinadéder to read Chinese
Kinéna Chinese-like [adj.]
Kinénà in the Chinese way [adv.]
Kin-Amerika véani Sino-American relations
Kinconi things Chinese (pronounced: keen-SOH-nee)
Kinaser to sinofy (pronounced: kee-nah-SHEHR)
Kintun Sinology (pronounced: keen-TOON)
Kintuna Sinological
Kintut Sinologist


Consonant sounds

This chart shows the closest phonetic approximations of the Mirad consonant graphemes in English and some other familiar languages, along with the exact value in IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet):
grapheme IPA English American Spanish French Comment
b b bee bien bon  
c s see hace garçon Watch out! Sounds like "s".
d d dog dos de  
f f foo fiesta fou  
g g goo goma gant Always hard.
h h how jota -- Closer to the English value.
j ʒ mirage -- jour As in "Dr. Zhivago.
k k skate casa comment  
l l law la les  
m m moo mi mon  
n n no no non  
p p spoon poco peu  
r r -- toro -- Dental flap or trill
s ʃ shed -- chaise A fricative "sh" sound!
t t steak tú ton  
v v vie -- va  
w w woo Juan oui  
z z zoo -- zone  
Note! Be very careful that the c and the s are not pronounced as their English or European equivalents. Think of the c as being the French c cedilla (ç).

Simple vowel sounds

a as in Spanish la (IPA:/a/)
e as in French thé (IPA:/e/)
i as in Spanish sí! (IPA:/i/)
o as in Spanish no (IPA:/o/)
u as in Spanish tú (IPA:/u/)

Pre-iotated vowel sounds

These vowels are pronounced the same as the simple vowel above, but with a y-glide at the beginning.
á is like ya as in English yacht
é is like ye as in German jeder or English yes
í is like yi as in French yippie or English ye (without the final y-glide)
ó is like yo as in German Joga or English yo-yo (without the final w-glide)
ú is like yu as in German Juli or English unit

Post-iotated vowel sounds

These vowels are pronounced like the simple vowels, but with a y-glide at the end.
à is like ay as in English Thai
è is like ey as in English fey
ì is like iy as in English see
ò is like oy as in English boy
ù is like uy as in English fooey

Circum-iotated vowel sounds

These vowels are pronounced with a y-glide at both the beginning and end.
â is like yay as in English yikes!
ê is like yey as in English yea!
î is like yiy
ô is like yoy
û is like yuy
Note the difference in pronunciation between , which is pronounced like A-ya as in Spanish "playa", and àa, which sounds like AY-a as in English diagram.)

Syllabification and Stress

A closed syllable is one that ends in a consonant or a y-glide (i.e., a post- or circum-yodified vowel). A syllable consists of [C]V[C], where V, the vowel nucleus, can begin or end with a y-glide, but contain only one of the set of vowels [aeiou], and where C consists of one or two homorganic consonants, i.e. [bcdfgjknpstvz]+[lrwy].
The rule for stress is: If a word ends in a closed syllable, then the last syllable receives the stress, otherwise, the penultimate (next-to-last) syllable receives the stress.
spelling pronunciation meaning
gafif ga-FIF preference
ifla I-fla agreeable
ánsea yan-SHE-a collective
manà ma-NAY with light
Kinadae ki-na-DA-e speaks Chinese
Kinad ki-NAD Chinese (language)
Hàfa HAY-fa (Israeli town of) Haifa
gracer gra-SER to be extreme

Every vowel in Mirad is given its full syllabic pronunciation, even when juxtaposed in what English or European speakers might consider dipthongs:
spelling pronunciation meaning syllable count
daea da-E-a speaking 3
oif o-If displeasure 2
daò da-OY without saying 2


Taxonomic codification of letters

The consonants of root words are taken from a conceptual ontology matrix. For example, all root words beginning with the consonant t have something to do with human beings. Root words containing the consonant j relate somehow to time.
For example, the following words all contain the consonant p, which indicates motion:
zíp travel
jap precedence
tóáp step
zòp regression
pán jump
teap visit
mamp flight
Similarly, the following words all end in the consonant l, which indicates liquid:
mil water
vafil wine
mal gasoline
meil mud
vozil paint
teabil tear
Again, the following words all end in the consonant m, which indicates place, space, location, or position.:
tom residence
cem table
dénam library
tilam bar
epem parking lot
mem country

Semantic codification of vowels

The vowels in root words have various qualitative and quantitative values based on the following scales:

Scale o a e i u
Cardinal 0 1 2 3 4
Ordinal/hierarchical zeroth first second third fourth
Qualitative negative 1 positive 1 neutral positive 2 negative 2
Vectorial down up middle left right
Natural underground sky land water space

The opposite of a word can often be produced by simply changing a vowel to the "opposing" vowel.

  • The vowels "a" and "o" are opposites in the "series 1".
  • The vowels "i" and "u" are opposites in the "series 2."

positive negative
ab on ob off
man light mon shade
aga big oga little
án together ón apart
iga fast uga slow
íga hard úga soft

Throughout the Mirad word construction scheme, the vowel e always has a neutral or medial value:

éb between
éz inside
eza moderate
ge equal
zem middle
ev if
je during
eb at
ve maybe
In hierarchical codification, the vowel o indicates the zeroth or toplevel element of an organization. In a qualitative codification, it has a negative slant. As a prefix, this vowel can also "nullify" a concept as in the following examples:

absolute nullified
tel food otel hunger
gela same ogela different
tadca married otadca unmarried
es function oes malfunction

Hierarchical codification with ordinal vowels

Root words related hierarchically or organizationally differ only in their ordinal vowels. By ordinal vowels is meant that the vowels have inherent numerical values (o 0, a 1, e 2, etc.). The zeroth element of any hierarchy always contains the ordinal vowel o. For example, the words for royalty differ only by an enumerative vowel which determines the rank:

ordinal value royal rank
1 adeb emperor
2 edeb king
3 ideb prince
4 udeb marquis
5 ádeb count
6 édeb duke
7 ódeb lord

For further illustration, we can look at how the concept human being is hierarchically codified using ordinal vowels, where the larger the numeric value of the ordinal vowel, the lower the element is in the semantic hierarchy:

human being
tob human
tab body
teb head
tib trunk
tub arm
tób leg

Scalability With Contrasting Vowels

Words can be semantically constructed along the qualitative scale of "postive", '"neutral", and "negative" through the use of vowels imbued with these values. In Mirad, there are two qualitative vowel series:

number positive neutral negative
1 a e o
2 i e u

As implied in the above table, root words with a contrast as semantically opposite with those with o and roots words with i contrast with those with u. Words with e are in the middle between the two extremes. The second series does sometimes lack a middle value. For example:

series positive neutral negative
1 va yes ve maybe vo no
1 vay certainly vey possibly voy not
1 aza strong eza moderate oza weak
2 zi right ze middle zu left
2 fia good fea neither good nor bad fua bad
2 iga fast ega moderate uga slow

Vectorial codification

On the vectorial (or: directional, geo-spatial) scale, the vowels have the following general values (see later for a more detailed explanation):

positive neutral negative
a   o
up/north/ahead   down/south/back
i   u
right/east/straight   left/west/crooked

Some examples:

positive neutral negative
áb up éb between ób down
ab on eb at ob off
zi right ze in the middle zu left
áber to raise éber to contain óber to lower

In the following examples, the vowels i/u and e take on directional values with respect to the doer of the action:

bier to take nier to consume dier to ask pier to leave iper to go away iber to receive
beer to keep neer to conserve der to say peer to stay eper to stop eber to stop
buer to give nuer to supply duer to suggest puer to arrive uper to come uber to send

Natural (geological) codification

On the natural scale, the vowels have the following values:

vowel value examples
a sky/air mampar aircraft, map wind (current)
e land/soil mempar car, mep road
i sea/water mimpar ship, mip river
o underground mompar subway, mop tunnel
u outer space mumpar spaceship, mup galaxy

Semantic nuancing

Semantic nuances and gradations of quality of words are reflected through the "lengthening", that is, addition of a harmonic subordinal vowel to the ordinal vowel, yodification (adding y) of the ordinal vowel, or the addition of one in a series of intensifying (l, r) or distinguishing (c, s, v, f, etc.) consonants, or any of the above techniques in combination. In this scheme, pre-yodification signals a semantic intensification, while post-yodification indicates a weakening or mitigation of sense. A doubling of the vowel usually indicates another kind of lessened strength of the corresponding single-vowel word. Here are some examples:

Post-yodification deintensifies the semantic value of the base word in much the same way as the suffix -ish sometimes mitigates the value of an English adjective.

normal deintensified
ama hot àma warm
oma cold òma cool
ima wet ìma humid
at vage I want at vàge I'd like
at ége I must at yège I should
moza black mòza blackish
e two è half
gla very glà somewhat
mar sun màr star
ifer to love ìfer to like
bók pain bôk ache
tom residence tòm home
dom city dòm town
din story dìn tale
pener to seize pèner to catch
pon rest pòn pause

Pre-yodification is sometimes used to intensify the semantic value of the base word:

normal intensified
om cold óm ice
am heat ám fire
ga more most
pener to seize péner to strike
pot animal pót wild animal
vaa affirmative váa true
ab on yab above
ze in the middle of through
ib away íb far
bok illness bók pain
paner to move páner to jump

The consonant extenders "l" and "r" are sometimes used to intensify the semantic value of the base word.

normal strong stronger
bók pain blók agony brók torture
vag desire vlag yearning vrag craving
éga necessary égla urgent égra critical
péner to hit pénler to beat pénrer to smash
fúder to offend flúder to insult frúder to outrage
dier to request diler to beg direr to demand

The ordinal vowel can be extended with a homorganic subordinal vowel in order to add an element of "lengthening" or some other nuance to the meaning of the base word:

normal lengthened
bok illness book fatigue
vager to want vaager to desire
dob state doob nation
dab government daab administration
tob body toob gender
din story diin recitation
béler to retain béeler to conserve
mil water miil dew

Here are some examples where all these techniques are employed:

derived word method of derivation
bok illness normal
bòk ailment post-yodification (mitigation)
book fatigue lengthening
boòk lassitude post-yodification (mitigation)
bók pain pre-yodification (intensification)
bôk ache post-yodification (mitigation)
bóok suffering lengthening
blók agony L-intensification (1st order)
brók torture R-intensification (2nd order)

derived word method of derivation
vager to want normal
vlager to yearn for L-intensification (1st order)
vrager to crave R-intensification (2nd order)
vaager to desire lengthening
vàger to wish for post-yodification (mitigation)
vaàger to aspire to lengthening

The consonants l, r, and c are used to differentiate nuances of words, usually in a positive degree of strength. Other consonants can also be used for derivation.

derived word
va yes
vaa positive
vala sure
vàla certain
vaala safe
vara evident
vàra manifest
valda certified
vàca secure
váa true
váya genuine
váca correct
vâca right
vába regular
vâba statutory
váva exact
válva perfect
váfa precise
váta fair
váma real
váama virtual
vâma actual
váda frank
vála authentic

Mnemonic and analogic association

Mnemonics is used to the fullest to associate root words and concepts. For example, the words "neigh", "hehaw", "bark", and "meow" in Unilingua all contain a hint of the animal name with which these are associated. For example:

animal sound verb
épet dog épeder to bark
apet horse apeder to neigh
ápet pig ápeder to squeal
ípet cat ípeder to meow
apat cock apader to crow
pat bird pader to tweet
epèt cow epèder to moo

Two or more words are often joined into a single compound, producing a new concept, where the separate elements are suggestive of the meaning of the resulting compound. In some cases, words overlap much like portmanteau words in English (breakfast + lunch = brunch). (Note, for euphony, if the final consonant of the first root word is the same as the initial consonant of the second root word, one of the consonants is dropped.)

first concept second concept compound
il liquid pan motion ilpan wave
teac- to see per to go teaper to visit
dom city mep way domep street (not dommep)
kum side mep way kumep sidewalk
across mep way zèmep bridge
through mep way zémep thoroughfare
elám iron mep way elámep railroad
mag fire meb mountain magmeb volcano
tóáb foot per to go tóáper to walk
mic window nof cloth micof curtain
mac floor nof cloth macof carpet
bik care nof cloth bikof bandage
teb head nof cloth tef hat
új- to close nof cloth újof fold
tom home nof cloth tomof tent
nun merchandise par vehicle nunpar truck
pat bird ij beginning patij egg
án together iv joy ániv festival
oj future nac money ojnac credit
ej present nac money ejnac cash
relative naz value vénaz coefficient
ke- to seek bier to take kebier to choose
job time bier to take jobier to borrow
dop military bier to take dopbier to conquer
nuc payment bier to take nucbier to purchase
ko- to hide bier to take kobier to steal
tel food tam house telam restaurant
mag fire il liquid magil oil
mam sky mil water mamil rain
mir planet nod point mirnod pole
mam sky nid line mamnid horizon
mar light nid line marnid ray
nof cloth yazser to flatten nofyazser to iron
taob flesh tel food taol meat
taob flesh fab tree faob wood
faob wood cyeb container faocyeb barrel
ápet pig tel meat ápel pork

The following example of compounding with the root word mep (way, route, road) shows the efficiency of Unilingua compounding:

first concept combined concept
kum side kumep sidewalk
tóáb walk tóámep walkway
dom city domep boulevard
dom city domèp avenue
dom city domeap street
éb between ébdomeap alley
across zèmep bridge
through zémep thoroughfare
óg- short ógmep shortcut
oiz indirect oizmep byway
yoz out yozmep exit
éz in ézmep entrance
íz beyond ízmep detour
úz around úzmep beltway
ig- fast igmep expressway
ouj- no-end oujmep cul-de-sac
nùc fee nùcmep toll road, turnpike
agal- main agalmep main road
anog- primary anogmep highway
ogal- minor ogalmep back road
vó- wrong vómep blind alley
áb high ábmep raised highway
mom underground momep subway
elám iron elámep railroad
tóáp- to walk tóámep walkway
par vehicle parmep driveway
-et little mepet path, lane
iz- direct izmep straightaway
-án collective mepán network

Root words

Root words are divided into two groups:

  • 1st group: nouns.
  • 2nd group: prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, and verbs, that is, all other words.

Root words of the 1st group (nouns)

All noun root words are composed of three letters:

  • The first, a consonant, called the classifier
  • The second, a vowel, called the ordinal
  • The third, a consonant, called the generic


classifier ordinal generic meaning
t o b man
t a b body
d o t society
d o m city
t a m house

Table of consonant semantic values

consonant classifier (1st group) generic (1st group) classifier (2nd group)
b organ, illness, body organism gesture, manner
p animal, vehicle travel movement
c thing, furniture form making, c hundred
s action action doing, action, thing
d society person saying, writing
t human being person knowing
f vegetation textiles, materials quality
v plant, color cloth, linen quality, truth
g     quantity, size, speed
k     weight, volume
j time time time
z   jewels, precious, art, color direction
l   element, liquid, food l ten
m cosmos, nature place, building, metal ml million
n merchandise, containers abstraction counting
r   machine, instrument mr billion

The letter w does not have semantic value, only grammatical value as the sign of the passive voice. The letter h also has no semantic value; it merely forms the correlative deictics or determinants.

Table of vowel numeric values

vowel numeric value
o 0
a 1
e 2
i 3
u 4
ó 5
á 6
é 7
í 8
ú 9

Table of vowel geo-positional values

vowel value
a above, superior, north
e center, middle, equator
o below, inferior, south
u left, west
i right, east

Table of vowel vectorial values

vowel free movement contact movement position examples
a on onto up/north ab (on), aper (mount), aber (apply)
á up onto   áb (up), áper (climb), páer (rise)
o under, off underneath down/south ob (under), ober (remove), boer (support)
ó down down to   óper (descend), póer (fall)
u near to left/west uper (come), puer (arrive)
ú toward until   úb (near), úper (approach), púer (reach)
i away from right/east iper (go away), pier (leave)
í far off off   íb (away), íber (take away), píer (originate)
e between at center/middle eb (at), eper (stop), peer (remain)
é in into   éz (in), éber (contain), béer (detain)

Table of vowel geo-specific values

vowel value -p -m -l
a sky map wind mam sky mal air
e land mep road mem earth mel soil
i water mip river mim sea mil water
o underground mop tunnel mom mine mol mineral
u nature mup galaxy mum space mul matter

Table of vowel temporal values (for verbs)

vowel value example
a past pa went, paa had gone, pao will have gone, pae has gone
e present pe goes, pee is going, pea has been going, peo will be going
o future po will go, poa would go, poe is about to go
u untensed pu go!, that (one) go

Root words of the 2nd group (non-nouns)

All words of the 2nd group, which are word roots other than noun roots, are composed of two letters, either a consonant-vowel combination like za or a vowel-consonant combination like az, not counting grammatical endings like the adjectival suffix -a or the verbal infinitive suffix -er.

Vowel oppositions in 2nd group root words

Root words with iu opposition :

positive negative
fia good fua bad
via beautiful vua ugly
fía brave fúa afraid
vía clean vúa dirty
ifa lovable ufa hateful
iva happy uva sad
ífa modest úfa proud
íva free úva dependent
iga fast uga slow
íga hard úga soft
gia sharp gua dull
gía difficult gúa easy
ika full uka empty
kia oblique kua lateral
kíaheavy kúa light
íka solid úka fragile
íba far úba near
since up to
iza straight uza crooked
zia right zua left
íz beyond úz around
all over zúa round

Root words with ternary vowel opposition aeo and ieu:

positive neutral negative
aza strong eza medium oza weak
áza flat éza concave óza convex
áz along éz in óz out
za front ze middle zo behind
ahead across back
záa wide through zóa narrow
aga big eg- repeat oga small
ága long ég- must óga short
va yes ve maybe vo no
and, both or, either nor, neither
vager to want veger may, can voger to renounce
av for ev if ov against
váa true véa relative vóa false
áva innocent év- to judge óva guilty
ga more ge equal go less
also as but, except
gáa fat géa moderate góa thin
gla very gle rather glo slightly
gra too gre just gro insufficiently
most average least
kaer find keer seek koer hide
kyaer change kéer fluctuate kóer stay fixed
aker win eker play oker lose
áker to expect éker to try óker to be surprised
ja before je during jo after
aj past ej present oj future
early on time late
-a past tense -e present tense -o future tense
ab on eb at ob off
áb above éb between ób below
ijer to begin ejer to last ujer to end
tijer to be born tejer to live tujer to die

2nd Group Root Word Matrix

Two-way i/u opposition

In 2nd group root words, the vowel i signals a positive value, while the contrasting vowel u indicates the negative or opposite value:

positive negative positive negative
fia good fua bad via beautiful vua ugly
ifa dear ufa hateful iva happy uva sad
fía brave fúa afraid vía clean vúa dirty
ífa modest úfa proud íva free úva bound
gia sharp gua dull kia oblique kua lateral
gía difficult gúa easy kía heavy kúa light
iga fast uga slow ika full uka empty
zia right zua left iza straight uza curved
zí- all around zú- round íz- beyond úz- around
ij- begin uj- end íj- open új- close
ib from ub to íb far úb near
ib- receive ub- send íb- take away úb- bring
bi- take bu- give away toward
bin- pull bun- push bín- ... bún- touch
ip- go (away) up- come íp- escape úp- approach
pi- depart pu- arrive pí- originate pú- reach
pin- grab pun- throw pín- seize pún- assault

Three-way a/e/o opposition

Some 2nd group root words exhibit a three-way contrast where a is the base or positive value, e the middle or in-between value, and o the negative or opposite value:

positive intermediate negative
va yes ve maybe vo no
váa true véa relative vóa false
av for ev if ov against
áva innocent év- judge óva guilty
ga more ge equal go less
gla many gle several glo few
gra too many gre just enough gro too few
most enough least
gáa fat géa moderate góa thin
aga big eg again oga small
ága long ég- must óga short
ka- find ke- search ko- hide
ká- change ké- waver kó- stay
ak- win ek- play ok- lose
ák- expect ék- try ók- be surprised
za front ze middle zo back
záa wide yzé through zóa narrow
aza strong eza average oza weak
áza flat éza concave óza convex
áz along éz in óz out
ja before je during jo after
early on time late
aj past ej present oj future
ab on eb at ob off
ab- apply eb- keep ob remove
áb above éb between ób lower
áb- lift éb- contain ób- lower
ba- lean on be- carry bo- hold up
bar- press bel- keep bol- support
bá- erect bé- lay bó- hang
ban- shake ben- hold bon- calm
ap- get on ep- stay op- get off
áp- ascend ép- intervene óp- descend
pan- move pen- seize pon- rest
pá- jump pé- stand pó- fall
pán- surge pén- attack pón- dive

The following table shows how some of the 2nd group root words can be expanded on through various word-building techniques:

positive negative positive negative
fia good
fi well
fian goodness
fila delicious
fira excellent
fìla exquisite
fieca happy
firsa perfect
fiser to improve
fider to congratulate
fiader to praise
flider to eulogize
frider to brag
fiàsener to favor
fibéna polite
gafia better
gafi better (adv.)
gafif moreso
gafira famous
gafifer to prefer
ísfira useful
fiíser to utilize
fua bad
fura cruel
fula malignant
fùra ferocious
fueca unhappy
flua wicked
fluica sinister
frueca furious
fuvára jeolous
fu ill
gafua worse
gafu worse (adv.)
fuser to spoil
fuscer to bother
fuder to curse
furser to pollute
fùser to debase
fuáser to deteriorate
fulser to damage
fuecer to get angry
fluecer to get irritated
fruicer to grow furious
fun fault
fùn vice
fuùn sin
dofùna immoral
via beautiful
viá pretty
vila magnificent
vira marvelous
vria luxurious
viaga somptuous
vifa elegant
vìfa chic
vifia charming
videréna eloquent
vikaeá admirable
viser to adorn
viber to garnish
viaber to decorate
viaser to embellish
viraser to dazzle
vua ugly
vuá vile
ifa lovable, beloved, dear
ifbier to enjoy
ifbuer to please
ifiber to derive pleasure from
ifca pleasant
ifcla charming
ìfa dear
ìfciona gracious
ifcra delightful
ifra adorable
ifla tender
ìfala cute
ifta nice
ifla nice
ifrana passionate
ìfsrea seductive
ifer to love
ìfer to like
ifcer to be pleased
ifcler to be charmed
ifcrer to be delighted
ifser to please
ifsler to charm
ifsrer to delight
iifper to stroll
ifi thanks
ifider to thank
ifcaler to enjoy
ufa hateful
ufla disagreeable
ufcea unpleasant
ufta mean
ufer to hate
ùfer to dislike
ufuer to despise
ufcer to be displeased
ovufer to avenge
iva gay
ìva joyous
ivla glad
ìvla content
ivra excited
ivalsa amused
ivca funny
ivcla comical
ivaser to rejoice
ivraser to excite
ìvler to satisfy
ivalser to amuse
ivàlser to entertain
ivader to joke
ivlaser to content
uva sad
ùva melancholy
uvla lugubrious
uvca dramatic
uvcra tragic
uvder to complain
uvdlier to lament
uvceuzer to sigh
uvteucer to whine
vónùvuser to regret
ébuvader to pity
uvbaner to move
ébuvlacer to have compassion
uvalser to bore
uvuser to chagrin
ùvuser to punish
uvluser to afflict

Ordinal vowel codification of hierarchical nouns

Nouns that are related to one another in a hierarchy or organization can be codified using the ordinal feature of vowels. The o vowel (zero value) is used for the topmost element.

job time
jab year
jeb season
jib month
jub day
jób hour
jáb minute
jéb second
tob human
tab body
teb head
tib trunk
tub arm
tób leg
mor universe
mar sun
mer planet
mir earth
mur moon

Individual elements can be further subdivided into a secondary classification by the addition of an ordinal vowel to the right of the first vowel:

tub arm
tuab shoulder
tueb upper arm
tuib elbow
tuub forearm
tuób wrist
tuáb hand
tuéb fist
tuíb palm
tuúb finger
tuób finger nail
tób leg
tóab hip
tóeb thigh
tóib knee
tóub tibia
tóób ankle
tóáb foot
tóéb talon
tóíb heel
tóúb toe
tóób toe nail

A further, tertiary subdivision can be achieved by prefixing an ordinal vowel to the base:

tuúb finger
atuúb thumb
etuúb index
ituúb middle finger
utuúb ring finger
ótuúb little finger

A convenient classification is possible by prefixing an ordinal vowel to the base without any primary or secondary enumeration:

dob state
adob empire
edob kingdom
idob principality
udob marquisate
ódob earldom
ádob barony
édob duchy
ídob dominion
údob tribe

Forming concepts by compounding ("portmanteau")

New concepts can be formed by compounding simple words. If the generic (final) consonant of the first word matches the classifier (initial) consonant of the following word or his consonantally homorganic with it, the latter is suppressed for convenience and ease of pronunciation:

concept 1 concept 2 compound
dom city mep road domep boulevard
pat bird tub arm patub wing
teb head bók pain tebók headache
tep mind book fatigue tebook boredom

In cases where two ordinated nouns with the same classifier and generic consonants are combined, the vowels are combined:

concept 1 concept 2 compound
mil water mal gas mial vapor
mel soil mil water meil mud

When you wish to form a word composed of words of the same consonantal classification, and the ordinal vowel is o, the o is replaced with the ordinal vowel of the determinant:

concept 1 concept 2 compound
edob kingdom deb leader edeb king
udob principality deb leader udeb prince

Two singleton words often join by replacing the generic (final) consonant of the first word with the generic consonant of the second word, producing a melded concept somewhat like portmanteau words in English ("breakfast" + "lunch" "brunch").

concept 1 concept 2 compound
tob man nof cloth tof clothes
tóáb foot nov tissue tóáv sock
teb head nof cloth tef hat
tib trunk nof cloth) tif vest
tób leg nof cloth tóf pants
tuób hand nof cloth tuóf glove
teib nose nov tissue teiv handkerchief

Making nouns and pronouns "feminine"

The "feminine" counterpart of a noun or pronoun is obtained by post-yodifying the ordinal vowel (i.e. adding a y glide):

masculine feminine
taf suit tàf dress/outfit
tóáv sock tóâv stocking
tef pants tèf skirt
néf carrying case nêf purse
it he ìt she
tob man tòb woman
apet horse apèt mare
tad husband tèd wife

Codifying nuances of words

There are several ways of deriving related words with slightly different nuances from the original word:

The l extender is used for a comparatively stronger sense, while the r extender is used for an even stronger (strongest) sense:

absolute comparative excessive
ga more gla very much gra too much
úzbaer squeeze úzbaler pinch úzbarer crush
buer give buler grant burer bestow
ika full ikla packed ikra overflowing
aker win akler vanquish akrer triumph
dier ask diler beseech direr demand

The post-yodifying y extender is used for what usually amounts to a diminutive connotation:

normal mitigated
vager want vàger wish
fuf pipe fùf tube
nas price nàs cost
tep mind tèp spirit
din story dìn tale
cin image cìn mark
ciun sign ciùn signal
sen action sèn act

Pre-yodification of a root vowel often imparts an intensified sense to the word. In any even, the normal and pre-yodified forms are usually related semantically. Compare:

normal intensified
bok malady bók pain
pan motion pán jump
beer to remain béer to detain
aper to get on áper to get up
pet animal pét reptile
otata unholy ótata diabolical
vua ugly vúa dirty
go less least
ga more most
ze in the middle though
ijer to begin íjer to open

Noun-forming derivational suffixes


Here is a list of suffixes that are added to word bases to form derived nouns:

suffix meaning base derived noun
et subdordinative ted father tedet son
an deadjectival nominalizer (-itude, -ity, -hood, -ness) iva happy ivan happiness
en deverbal nominalizer (-ing, -tion, -ance) azvader to confirm azvaden confirmation
on general abstract nominalizer c- to be con thing
un nominalizer of result nú- to produce núun product
at person (-er) óga young ógat youngster
ut agent (-ist) ces- to build cesut builder
tut expert (-ologist) mem earth memtut geologist
tun science (-ology) mil water miltun hydrology
in doctrine (-ism) tot god totin theism
ar instrument p- to go par vehicle
ir machine vís- to clean vísir vacuum cleaner
ur aparatus magc- to burn magcur stove
am building tel- to eat telam restaurant
em space vab grass vabem prairie
im room magél- to cook magélim kitchen
án collection nac money nacán fund
a genetive/ablative case (of/from) at I ata my
u dative/locative case (in/at/on/to) tam house tamu at home
i pluralizer dén book déni books
ag augmentative tam house tamag palace
àg augmentative affective tam house tamàg nice big house
ág augmentative pejorative tam house tamág big ugly house
og diminutive tam house tamog hut
òg diminutive affective tam house tamòg cottage
óg diminutive pejorative tam house tamóg shack
ob infantile tob human being tobob child


Following is a detailed description of the nominalizing derivations suffixes:

The -et suffix

The -et suffix is used to form nouns of the same nature, lineage, or composition of a lesser importance:

ted father tedet son
fab tree fabet bush
nac money nacet change
fub branch fubet shoot
táb grandfather tábet grandson

The -an suffix

The -an suffix is used to form a noun of quality or state from an adjective or noun:

ama hot aman heat
iva beautiful ivan beauty
fia good fian goodness
ted father tedan fatherhood
dat friend datan friendship
odat enemy odatan enmity

The -at suffix

The -at suffix is used to form the word for a person described by the adjective base.

iktila drunk iktilat a drunkard
iva happy ivat a happy person
ofísa hypocritical ofísat hypocrite
tuja dead tujat dead person

The -ut suffix

The -ut suffix is used to form the agent for the action described by the verb base "one who does x" or the fabricator of something described by the noun base "one who makes x":

kobier to steal kobiut thief
tóáfser to make shoes tóáfsut shoemaker
teaper to visit teaput visitor
deuzer sing deuzut singer

The -tut suffix

The -tut suffix is used to form the specialist -ologist or student of something:

tun science tut scientist
memtun geology memtut geography
dad language dadtut linguist

The -ob suffix

The -ob suffix is used to form the child or younger version of something:
tob man tobob child
apet horse apetob pony
rapat lion rapatob lion cub
tot god totob son of god

The -ar suffix

The -ar, ir, or -ur suffix on a verb base is used for an instrument/tool, machine, or apparatus, respectively.

álber to lift álbur elevator
álber to lift álbar lever
álbir to lift álbir fork lift
víarer to sweep víarar sweeper
ilújer to plug ilújar faucet
kácanerto transform kácanur transformer
drecer to write drecar pencil

The -en suffix

The -en suffix is used on a verb base for the verbal noun -ing, -ence, -ment, -tion:

ecer to exist ecen existence
iber to receive iben reception
béer to detain béen detention
otamser to demolish otamsen demolition

The -un suffix

The suffix -un is used on a verb base for the concrete result of an action:
vyarer to sweep vyarun sweepings
gorfer to tear gorfun a tear, a rip
teacer to see teacun view
zéfser to make glass jewelry zéfsun glass jewelry

The -án suffix

The suffix -án is used on a noun base for collections or groupings:
fab tree fabán forest
cir machine cirán machinery
meb mountain mebán mountain range
tolar food dish tolarán dishes
mep road mepán network
aco hundred acoán century
dún word dúnán glossary
tam house tamán block (of houses)
màr star màrán constellation

The -ag suffix

The -ag suffix is used on a noun base for augmentatives "big ...":
tom residence tomag palace
mapil storm mapilag tempest
mep road mepag highway

The -àg suffix

The suffix -àg is used on a noun base for affectionate augmentatives "big old...":
tam house tamàg big old house
cim chair cimàg big old chair

The -ág suffix

The suffix -ág is used on a noun base for pejorative augmentatives "big ugly...":

apet horse apetág nag
pem car pemág jalopy
teb head tebág blockhead
tob man tobág brute
pot animal potág beast
tòb woman tòbág hag

The -og suffix

The suffix -og is used on a noun base for diminutives "little...":
tam house tamog cottage
dén book dénog booklet

The -òg suffix

The suffix -òg is used on a noun base for affectionate diminutives "sweet little...":
épet dog épetòg doggie, pooch
tòb lady tòbòg little old lady
tèbos kiss tèbosòg peck

The -óg suffix

The suffix -óg on a noun base for pejorative diminutives "dirty little..."
tebzan face tebzanóg mug
tob man tobóg wretched fellow

The -in suffix

The suffix -in is used on a word base for a philosophy or doctrine -ism:
òtota godless òtotin atheism
adoba republican adobin republicanism
fob vegetable fobin vegetarianism
ísfrana utilitarian ísfranin utilitarianism

Adjective-forming derivational suffixes


suffix meaning base derivative
-a relating to moj night moja nocturnal
-aa past participle tuj- to die tujaa dead (also: tuja)
-ea present participle abdab- to dominate abdabea dominant
-èna like tobob child tobobèna childish
-èa tending to da- to talk daèa talkative
-oa future participle tuj- to die tujoa moribund
-wua -able, -ible tel- to eat telwua edible
-àa -ous, -y, -ful, having maf cloud mafàa cloudy
-òa -less maf cloud mafòa cloudless
-ika -ful, full of nac money nacika rich
-uka -less, devoid of nac money nacuka poor

Note: -àa/-òa is synonymous with -ika/-uka. The latter is a new addition to Unilingua author Agapoff's original grammar.


The -a suffix

The ending -a is used to mean having to do with, in the state of. This is the most common way to form an adjective from a noun:

noun adjective
tej life teja vital
tuj death tuja mortal, dead
moj night moja nocturnal
tob man toba human
yab up yaba upper

In Agapoff's original work on Unlingua, the termination a was also used to form the past passive participle of verbs (ota = unknown). In this work, the proposed termination for past passive participle is waa or more simply, wa (ex: otwa = unknown). See #Verbs for more on this.

active infinitive passive past participle example
ter to know twa known Ca twa ad meir ce yaza. It was known that the earth is flat.
fiser to improve fiswa improved Fiswa nyun improved product
ifer to love ifwa loved, beloved, dear Ifwa ted... Dear Father...

The -éna suffix

The ending -éna on nouns is used to give the idea of like, having the nature of:

tobob child tobobéna childish, infantile
ted father tedéna paternal, fatherly
bilíg cheese bilígéna cheesy

The -éa suffix

The ending -éa is used on verb bases to mean tending to:

tuser persuade tuséa persuasive
oceser destroy oceséa destructive
abdaber dominate abdabéa dominating
daer talk daéa talkative

The -ea suffix

The ending -ea is used on verb bases to form the present participle '-ing, -ant':

tejer live tejea living, alive
tujer die tujea dying
abdaber dominate abdabea dominant

The -wua suffix

The ending -wua is used on verb bases to mean able to be ...ed '-able':

teler eat telwua edible
teacer see teacwua visible
tiler drink tilwua potable

The -àa suffix

The ending -àa is used on noun bases to mean full of, having, carrying... '-ous, -y'. This comes from , meaning with. It is synonymous with -ika 'full', presented further on.

meg rock megàa rocky
miek sand miekàa sandy
meb mountain mebàa mountainous

The -òa suffix

The ending -òa is used on noun bases to mean devoid of, without, un-...ed. This comes from , meaning without. It is synonymous with -uka 'empty', presented further on.

taéb hair taébòa hairless, bald
tec meaning tecòa meaningless
toc feeling tocòa numb

The -ika suffix

The ending -ika full is used on noun bases to mean full of '-ful, -ous, -y'. This suffix is synonymous with -àa.

ilpaan wave ilpaanika wavy
nas money nasika rich
mil water milika watery, aqueous
voz color vozika colorful

The -uka suffix

The ending -uka empty is used on noun bases to mean the devoid of '-less'. This suffix is synonymous with -òa and the opposite of -ika and -àa.

nas money nasuka poor
voz color vozuka colorless, bland
teuc taste teucuka tasteless, insipid
nánut population nánutuka unpopulated, deserted

Adverb-forming derivational suffixes

The -à suffix

Change the adjectival ending -a to to form an adverb:

yufa proud yufà proudly
teacèa visible teacèà visibly
uva sad uvà sadly

    • Use on noun bases to form an adverbial postpositional phrase mean with...:

ìfcion grace ìfcionà with grace
at me atà with me
úf pride úfà with pride

The -ò suffix

Use on a noun to mean without...:

nas cost nasò cost-free
seuc noise seucò noiselessly
et you etò without you

The -è suffix

Use on a noun to mean by, by way of, through, via...:

pam plane pamè by plane
ìt her ìtè by her
ésag hard work ésagè through hard work
Paris Paris Parisè via Paris

Verb-forming derivational suffixes


ending meaning
er infinitive
cer intransitive stative verb infinitive ("to be/become")
ser transitive dynamic verb infinitive ("to do/make")
per intransitive verb of motion infinitive ("to go")
ber transitive verb of gesture infinitive ("to put")


The -er suffix

The suffix er is used on noun bases to form a verb infinitive.

noun verb
tej life tejer to live
tuj death tujer to die
túj sleep tújer to sleep
ij beginning ijer to begin
íj opening íjer to open
tíj wakening tíjer to waken
új closing újer to close
tém residence témer to reside
drén print dréner to print

The -cer and -ser suffixes

The ending -cer be/become is used to create intransitive verbs from nouns and adjectives where the intransitive form contrasts significantly with the transitive form. If the adjective is a base, the -a ending is dropped unless 1) the resulting consonant combination would be difficult; or 2) the meaning is literal as opposed to metaphorical, in which case the dropped -a version is taken as metaphorical. For example, aga big becomes either agacer, meaning literally to become big, or agcer, meaning metaphorically to grow, as in Vab agce ga igà adjobu mamile. The grass grows faster when it rains.

The ending -ser do/make/act/cause is employed to form transitive verbs. In a few cases like teacer/teaser, the opposition of -cer vs. -ser is semantic in nature. In these cases, -ser imparts a more dynamic meaning. In a few other cases, -ser is used to form the causative form of a verb, meaning to make/have/cause/let someone do something.

adjective intransitive verb transitive verb
aga big agacer to get big agaser to magnify
aga big agcer to grow agser to grow
ígza sour ígzacer to grow sour ígzaser to make sour
íva free ívcer to go free ívser to liberate
teab eye teacer to see teaser to look
man light mancer to shine manser to illuminate
ábta vertical, upright ábtacer to stand up ábtaser to erect
ázta incumbant, reclined áztacer to lie down áztaser to lay down
óbta sitting, settled óbtacer to sit down, settle óbtaser to set down

The -per and -per suffixes

  • The ending -per is used for intransitive verbs of motion (going).
  • The ending -ber is used for transitive verbs of gesture (putting):

base intransitive verb transitive verb
áb up áper to rise áber to raise
ón apart ónper to go apart ónber to separate
ob off oper to get off ober to take off
eb at eper to stop eber to stop
ika full ikper to fill up ikber to fill up

Forming numbers

Cardinal numeric adjectives

The cardinal numeric adjectives 0-9 are formed from the ordinal vowels. The tens are formed with the extension consonant l, the hundreds with the consonant c, the thousands with r, the millions with ml, and the billions with mr.

Numbers composed with aro (1,000), amlo (1,000,0000), and amro (1,000,000,000) retain the o and are spelled separately from the rest of the numbers with a space.

number numeral adjective
0 o zero
1 a one
2 e two
3 i three
4 u four
5 ó five
6 á six
7 é seven
8 í eight
9 ú nine
10 alo ten
11 ala eleven
12 ale twelve
13 ali thirteen
14 alu fourteen
15 aló fifteen
20 elo twenty
21 ela twenty-one
22 ele twenty-two
30 ilo thirty
31 ila thirty-one
100 aco one hundred
101 aca one hundred one
123 aceli one hundred twenty-three
200 eco two hundred
1000 aro one thousand
1089 aro ílú
2348 ero iculí
10000 aloro ten thousand
12487 aleru ílé
1000000 amlo one million
6000000 ámlo
6058720 ámlo ólíro écelo

Ordinal numeric adjectives

The ordinal numeric adjectives are formed by adding -a to the cardinal number:

cardinal ordinal
a 1 aa first
e 2 ea second
i 3 ia third
alo 10 aloa tenth
aci 103 acia one hundred third (pron: a-CI-a)

Ordinal numeric substantives

When ordinal numbers are used substantively, the letter t is appended for persons and the letter c for things:

English Mirad
The first shall be last. Aati co ujnati.
The second in the series. Eec anána.

Collective numeric substantives

Collective (or: multiplicative) substantives of the cardinal numbers are formed by adding on.

cardinal collective
a one aon single/whole/unit/solo
e two eon double/couple/pair/duo/twosome
i three ion triple/trio/threesome
u four uon quadruple/foursome/quartet
ó five óon quintuple
é seven éon sevenfold
é seven jubéon week
alo ten alon tenfold
alo ten jabalon decade
ale twelve aleon dozen
aco hundred acon hundredfold
aco hundred aconè percent
aco hundred jabacon century
aro thousand aron thousandfold
aro thousand aroni thousands

Collective numeric prefixes

Prefixes having a collective (or: multiplicative) numeric meaning are expressed as:

cardinal collective example
a one an- single, mono-, uni anzúc unicycle
e two en- double, bi-, di-, duo- enzúc bicycle
i three in- triple, tri- inzúc tricycle
u four un- quadruple, quad-, tetra- unkum tetrahedron
ó five ón- quintuple, penta- óngun pentagon
alo ten alon- tenfold, deca- alonjab decade
aco hundred acon- hundredfold, hecato-, cent- aconjab century
aro thousand aron- thousandfold, kilo- aronkín kiloliter

Fractional numeric substantives

Fractional numeric substantives are formed by adding on to the corresponding fractional numeral. The on is dropped in prefixed forms of the fractions:

cardinal fraction prefix example
a one àon unit, whole à- holo- àcin hologram
e two èon half è- semi-, demi- ètot demigod
i three ìon third ì- terci- ìgana terciform
u four ùon quarter ù- quatri- ùser to quarter
alo ten alòon tenth alò- deci- alòser to decimate
aco hundred acòon hundredth acò- centi- acònog centrigrade
aro thousand aròon thousandth arò- milli- aròkík milligram

Frequentative numeric adverbs

Adverbs of frequency are formed with the root jig, meaning frequency, rate:

cardinal frequency
o zero ojigu never
a one ajigu once
e two ejigu twice
i three ijigu thrice, three times
co hundred acojigu a hundred times
od what odjigu? how often, at what rate?
ge same gejigu at the same rate, as often
ga more gajigu more often
go less gojigu less often
ud this udjigu this often
id that idjigu that often
gla much glajigu very often
glo little glojigu infrequently
glà rather glàjigu rather often

Numeric adjectives of order or rank

nap order, rank

cardinal order
o zero onapa zeroth
a one anapa primary, first, original
e two enapa secondary, second-ranking
i three inapa tertiary, third-ranking
u four unapa quaternary, fourth-ranking'
za front zanapa front-ranking, ahead
zo back zonapa behind, trailing
ja before janapa former, foregoing
jo after jonapa next, following
ij beginning ijnapa first, original
uj end ujnapa last, final
lo un- lonapa random, unordered

Numeric adjectives of degree

nog degree, grade, stage

cardinal degree
a one anoga primary
e two enoga secondary
i three inoga tertiary
u four unoga quaternary

Numeric adjectives of base or bit

Add -na:

cardinal base grouping
o zero ona zero-based onet zero, null
a one ana unary, only anet unit
e two ena binary enet bit
i three ina ternary  
u four una quaternary  
ú eight úna octal únet octet, byte
alo ten alona decimal  
alé sixteen aléna hexadecimal alénet 16-bit byte

Numeric prefixes

If cardinal numeric morphemes are used as prefixes, -n is added, unless the base to which it is being attached already begins with that letter:

root numeric adjective
kunid edge enkunida double-edged
nid line anida single-lined
nag dimension enaga two-dimenesional
nég space enéga double-spaced
tep mind antepa single-minded
neg level enega split-level
mep way anmepa one-way
voz color anvoza monochrome
can form ancana uniform
tooc sex entoocifa bisexual
tot god antotina monotheistic
izan direction enizana bidirectional

Numeric Expressions

Distance/size measurements (zák = meter)

(zág is width, ág is length, ag is size, íban is distance, ábag is height, óbag is depth, gán is girth):

measurement example
zák meter It ca á záki íb. He was 5 meters away.
arozák kilometer Ce eli arozáki bú dom. It is 23 km. to (until) the city.
aroyzák millimeter Cizo alo aroyzáka nid. Draw a ten mm. line.
acozák centimeter Odgan acoyzáki ága ce? How many cm. long is it?

Weight measurements (kík = gram)

(kín is weight, kíncer is to weigh):

measurement example
kík gram Odgan kíki id kínce? How many grams does that weigh?
arokík kilogram At vage u arokíki vâba. I want five kg. of grain.
aròkík milligram Mez kínce e aròkíki. The crystal weighs two milligrams.

Volume measurements (nék = liter)

(néd is volume):

measurement example
nék liter Odganu néki it ébe? How many liters does it hold?
aronék kiloliter At vage u aronéki vâba. I want five kilos of grain.
arònék milliliter Ézbo e arònéki mila. Insert two ml. of water.

Math expressions

(gaber to add, gober to substract, garer to multiply, gorer to divide, gecer to equal):

Mirad English
A gab a gece e. One plus one equals two.
U gob a gece i. Four minus 1 equals three.
E gar u gece ó. Two times four equals eight.
Alo gor e gece á. Ten divided by two equals five.
E veg e gece u. Two to the second power equals four.
E nod u. Two point five (2.5)
U gab a èon or u a èonà 5 1/2

Clock time expressions ( jób = hour)

The international 24-hour clock is used.

Mirad English
Odjób ce? What time is it? (lit: Which hour is [it]?)
Ce a jób. It's one o'clock.
Ce ali jób alá. It's 1:15 PM.
Ce i jób ilo. It's 3:30 AM.
Ce á jób gob alo. It's ten 'til five. (lit: five hours minus ten)

Calendar expressions

Unilingua English
Od ce uda jud? What's today's date?'
Udjub ce alá jiub aroúcúli. Today is 16 April 1993.
Ted puo jo i jubi. Father will arrive in two days.
Nunam íjwe yada juebu. The store opens on Mondays.
Nunam íjwo zoa juebu. The store opens on Monday (next).
Zajibu mamila gá ádjoba. Last month it rained the most ever.
Ju zajub! Until tomorrow!
Gla dropeki swa je jabi aroúco. There were many wars during the 1900s.
Zoyejubánu juebu at so ivsej. On monday of next week I will give a party.

Age expressions (jag = age)

Mirad English
Odjaga et ce? How old are you?
At ce ele jaga. I am 22 years old.
At upta úlo jaga tob. I met a 90-year-old man.

Forming chemical element names

To form words for chemical elements, use the following method: The first letter is the ordinal vowel for the number of electrons. The next letters are:

  • m for metals
  • mc for nonmetals
  • al for gases
  • il for liquids

electron count type Mirad English
47 metal ulém silver
13 metal alim aluminum
26 metal elám iron
15 nonmetal elómc phosphorus
6 nonmetal ámc carbon
1 nonmetal gas amc hydrogen
7 nonmetal gas émcal azote
8 nonmetal gas ímcal oxygen
80 metal liquid ílomil mercury

Codifyng new words based on mnemonics and analogy

Sometimes a word or group of words can have a connection with the meaning of a derived word. Such words are formed from this derived word by changing the generic final root consonant or sometimes other consonants of this word:

teub mouth < teb head
teud utterance d say
teuz voice z precious/art,etc.
deuz song d speak/write

taéb hair tab human body
faéb leaf fab tree
vocaéb petal voc flower
potaéb mane pot animal
pataéb feather pat bird
petaéb fur pet land animal
upetaéb fleece upet sheep
pitaéb fin pit fish

taób skin tab human body
taóf leather nof cloth
faób bark fab tree
fáób rind fáb fruit
pitaób scales pit fish
petaób hide, pelt pet animal

cim chair bimer to sit
cum bed bumer to lie
cem table bemer to sit down at the table

teacer to see ceacer to appear
beacer to keep watch
neacer to target
teaper to visit
izeacer to show
váleacer to check
óneater to discern
ágeacer to contemplate
izeader to indicate
abeacer to survey
ijeacer to notice
teader to witness

Forming new words with prefixation

Prefixed elements (sometimes more than one) can be used to form new concepts related to the root word.

Here are examples where morphemes are joined to der to say:

prefixed morpheme derived concept
ja before jader to predict
early jáder to warn
ja ve before maybe javeder to guess
jo after joder to reply
eg again egder to repeat
oz weak ozder to whisper/hint
az strong azder to insist
óz out ózder to express
all around zíder to broadcast
uj end ujder to conclude
ka- find kader to reveal/admit/confess
ko- hide koder to keep secret/deny
fi well fider to eulogize/bless
fu poorly fuder to curse/damn
fia good fiader to praise
fua bad fuader to malign
via beautiful viader to compliment
vua ugly vuader to malign
fri wonderful frider to flatter
fru terrible fruder to insult
evfia whether good evfiader to critique
av for avder to favor
ov against ovder to object/oppose
ava favorable avader to side with
ova opposed ovader to contradict
av od for what avoder to question
va veg yes can vavegder to permit
vo veg no can vovegder to prohibit
vo va no yes vovader to contest
az ov strong against azovder to protest
va yes vader to affirm/decide
ve maybe veder to speculate
vo no voder to deny
fiva good yes fivader to approve
o fi va not good yes ofivader to disapprove
fu va bad yes fuvader to condemn
az va strong yes fivader to confirm
val certainty valder to certify
vac assurance vacder to assure
vag want vagder to mean/express desire
ván truth váder to swear
vón falsehood vóder to lie
áva innocent ávader to vindicate
óva guilty óvader to indict
áva innocent ávder to thank
óva guilty óvder to blame
íva free ívader to acquit
íva free ívder to forgive
év judgement évder to judge
éb between ébder to discuss
ók surprise ókder to improvisate
ág long ágder to ramble
óg short ógder to summarize
iva happy ivader to thank
iva happy ivder to congratulate
uva sad uvder to complain
uva sad uvader to apologize
jo uva after sad jouvder to regret/mourn
ivcan merriment' ivcder to joke
fu iva bad happy fuivader to mock
ók surprise ókder to improvisate
aj past ajder to evoke
oj future ojder to promise
naz value nazder to evaluate
ók surprise ókder to improvisate
dún name dúnder to nominate
kua lateral kuder to remark (aside)
kia sloped kider to hint
dún name dúnder to nominate
gra too much grader to exaggerate
gro too little groder to underplay
gan quantity gander to quantify
teab eye teader to testify
cin picture cinder to describe
kóa fixed kóder to insist
o not oder to keep silent
kebi choice kebider to vote
tata holy tatader to bless/sanctify
fún fear fúnder to express fear
vates belief vatesder to affirm
vetes doubt vetesder to question/doubt
vika admiration vikader to express admiration
fíl courage fílder to encourage
ofíl not courage ofílder to discourage
ga more gader to say more/go on
ge equal geder to agree
oge not same ogeder to disagree
ék risk ékder to dare say
ég obligation égder to be obliged to say
ek play ekder to pretend
iz straight izder to say frankly
uz crooked uzder to beat around the bushes/equivocate

Forming new adjectival concepts with compounding

New adjectival concepts can be readily formed by compounding a noun or other rootword with an existing root adjective:
tep intellect aza strong tepaza smart
tep intellect oza weak tepoza dumb
vag will aza strong vagaza strong-willed
vag will oza weak vagoza weak-willed
vag will ána together vagána consensual
vag will óna apart vagóna non-consensual
veg possibility aza strong vegaza likely
veg possibility oza weak vegoza unlikely
tep intellect kía heavy tepkía serious
tep intellect kúa light tepkúa light-hearted
tep intellect káa variable tepkáa scatter-brained
tep intellect kóa fixed tepkóa attentive
tep intellect záa wide tepzáa fair-minded
tep intellect zóa narrow tepzóa narrow-minded
tep intellect íja open tepíja open-minded
tep intellect úja closed tepúja close-minded
tep intellect iga fast tepiga quick-witted
tep intellect uga slow tepuga retarded
tep intellect ána together tepána like-minded
tep intellect óna apart tepóna dissenting
top spirit íga hard topíga cruel
top spirit úga soft topúga leninent
top spirit vaa positive topvaa optimistic
top spirit voa negative topvoa pessimistic
top spirit ába high topába up-beat
top spirit óba low topóba down-beat
top spirit iva happy topiva jolly
top spirit uva sad topuva melancholy
nac money ika full nasika rich
nac money uka empty nasuka poor
áb up ága long ábága tall
ób down ága long óbága deep
áb up óga short ábóga short (vertically)
ób down óga short óbóga shallow
job time ága long jobága long (duration)
job time óga short jobóga short (duration)
mep way iza straight mepiza direct
mep way uza crooked mepuza convoluted
váb rule aza strong vábaza strict
váb rule oza weak váboza lax
dab government ava for dabava pro-government
dab government ova against dabova anti-government

Word Classifiers

The following are common combinatory morphemes used to distinguish or classify entities. Many of them are abbreviated forms. If you were to produce a list of word rhyming with any of these morphemes, you would have a list of words that all fit within a similar taxonomic category. For example, all Unilingua words ending in pyot refer to wild animals. All those ending in il are liquids.

classifier meaning
am building
em place
im room
ém container
ut agent
j time
jig rate
nog degree
bén manner
caun kind
can shape
gan quantity
pat bird
pet land animal
pót wild animal
pét reptile
pelt insect
peit amphibian
piit crustacean
pit fish
fab tree
fáb fruit
vob plant
vab grass
vol vegetable
voc flower
voz color
ar instrument
par vehicle
ir machine
ur motor
er verb
ez gem
tun science
tut scientist
il liquid
el food
él semi-solid
ol solid
of material
uf cylinder
án collective
ber put
per go
cer be
ser do
un result
en process
an state
on abstract thing
in doctrine
ub apendage
eb head
euz sound
dren document

Word Families

Doing / making (ser)

ser to do/act seud agent

seem agency
sen action
aasen initiative
seyn act
seun business
seunud businessman
seon fact
seoj case
sej event
sejet incident
seb boss
sem studio
casem factory
jeser continue
ánser to cooperate
gèser to copy
jaser to prepare
zòser to undo
igser to hurry up
ojser to plan
egser to redo
aanser to unify
seser to have (sth) done
sener to activate
senan activity
senen activation

aser to act as action

asud actor
alser to operate
als operation
alsud operator
alsea operational
arser to effectuate

saer to execute saen execution

saud executor
saena executive
saler to accomplish
sal accomplishment

iser to have an effect is effect

ois zero effect
ujis purpose

user to cause us cause

usa causal
ùser to motivate
ùs motive
ùsen motivation
ùsea motivating
ùsena motivational
ulser to influence
uls influence
ulseá influential
us và is cause and effect

eser to function es function

esea functioning
esena functional
esud functionary
esem office

éser to work ésem worksite

éset job
éser to work
ésud worker
éstut engineer
ésán handiwork
éscén process
ésnic salary
ésnicud salaried emploée
ésep strike
ésepud striker
oyés unemployment
oyésud jobless person
oésea lazy
ésjub workday
oésjub holiday
ánés collaboration
ánésa collaborative
ánésud collaborator

sier to result siun result
osiun lack of result
suer to occasion suler to provoke

sul provocation
suleá provocative
sulud provocateur

seer to behave seen behavior

seena behavioral
seler to conduct oneself
séer to busy onself
séler to practice
séner to profess

íser to use ís use

ísud user
írser to exploit
írs exploitation
írseá exploitative
fiíser to put to good use
fuíser to misuse

úser to serve ús service

úsud server
fiúser to benefit
fuúser to serve poorly
úrser to be a slave to
úrs slavery
úrsud slave

Being/becoming (cer)

cer to be cat creature, cyd subject
acer to become  
ocer to be nonexistent ocun nothing, ocuner to annihilate
icer come about, happen ic event, ijicer to originate, ujicer to end up, ujic fate, destiny, fuic misfortune
ucer to make, create, cause ucud creator, ucun a creation, ucunán (all of) creation, uceá creative
ecer to exist ece there is/are, ecea available, ecen existence, oecea nonexistent
àcer to have, own, possess àcun possession, àcud (owner), àca own, utàc property, àser to make available
òcer to lack, need òc gap, òcea lacking, òser to deprive, òcler to need, òcleá necessary
can form, shape caner to form, canòa shapeless, fucana malformed, canen formation, ózcan aspect, ficaner to reform, kácaner to transform, canáner to compose, áncaner to constitute, candrener to formulate
caun type,kind aacaun prototype, vicaun model, vácaun original, utcaun example, ajcaun precedent
caser to fabricate casem factory
ceser to build cesen construction, cesud builder, cesem building site, oceser to destrò, ocesen destruction, oceseá destructive
cun thing (concrete) cunán reality, ocuner to anihilate
acun element acana elemental, acunéna elementary
con matter (abstract) gícon problem, kocon secret, kacon revelation, kécon case, égcon crisis
cin picture tecin figure, cìn mark, zocìn trace, utcìn character, pencìn track, ciun sign, siunet signal, mancin photograph, mancinar camera
cén fashion utcén genre, secén procedure
cún object cúnet article, cúfi effects

Putting (ber)


  ber to put  
  bler to carry brer to haul
aber to put on eber to stop ober to take off
áber to raise éber to contain óber to lower
baer to lean on beer to hold boer to hold up
barer to press (down on) beler to keep boler to support (from below)
báer to lift béer to block bóer to hang
báler to rouse béler to hold back, retain/conserve' bóler to suspend
álber to elevate élber to hold steady ólber to lower
  ézber to insert ózber to extract
  ézbler to carry in ózbler to carry out
obaer to relieve obeer to release, let go oboer to drop
obaler to relax obeler to abandon oboler to shirk
  obéer to yield  
    obóer to depend
úzbaer to squeeze úzbeer to embrace úzboer to smash
úzbaler to pinch    
obéer to release
iber to receive   uber to send
bier to take   buer to give
íber to take away   úber to bring near
zíber to diffuse zeyber to transpose  
zíbler to carry around zèbler to carry across, transport  
biner to pull bener to hold buner to push
ézbiner to draw in ézbener to hold in ézbuner to push in
úbiner to attract úbener to hold near íbuner to repel
ózbiner to extract ózbener to hold out ózbuner to expel
ábiner to pull up ábener to hold high ábuner to push up
ónbiner to yank apart ónbener to hold apart ónbuner to shove apart
ánbiner to attract ánbener to adhere ánbuner to combine C
vabier to accept   vabuer to volunteer;
zébirer to yank through   zéburer to stab (shove through)
kebier to choose   kebuer to disperse
vobier to refuse   vobuer to deny
embier to occupy   embuer to give way
gorcbier to take part   gorcbuer to give out shares
pitbier to fish    
jobier to borrow   jobuer to lend
émbier to replace   émbuer to resign
ánabier to collect   ónabuer to scatter
    buér to remit
    buler to accord
    bùler to attribute
    bùrer to concede
zòbier to take back   zòbuer to give back
ifbier to welcome   ifbuer to offer
    vegbuer to delegate
    ifbuler to consacrate
    ifbùler to dedicate
    ifburer to sacrifice
nucbier to bù   nicbuer to sell
nacbiler to expend   nacbuler to allocate
    ifburer to sacrifice
    bluér to confer
    zíbuer to distribute
obier to relinquish   obuer to deprive
bin receipts   bun donation
    ivbun gift
baner to gesticulate   boner be calm
baaner to shake   booner to be still
banler to shake  
bànler to shudder    
baneter to rock baaneter to vibrate  
abaner to caress    
albaner to wipe    
ovbaner to resist    
    bos quiet
    obos trouble
    bòs quiet
    obòs worry
    óbos care
    óbós anxiety
  bén manner
    búer to reach (out to)
    búner to touch
    brúner to contact
  bemer to maintain  

Going (per)

  per to go  
aper to get on eper to stop oper to get off
paer to stand peer to stay poer to hang
áper to get up éper to intervene óper to get down
álper to rise/ascend élper to block ólper to sink'/descend'
âlper to climb up ôlper to bow
árper to soar   órper to tumble
áprer to scamper up ... ... óprer to collapse
páer to jump péer to stand still póer to drop
páner to leap péner to seize póner to dive
párer to shoot up pénuer to attack pórer to plummit
iper go (away)   uper to come
emiper to emigrate   emuper to immigrate
igiper to flee igeper to stop suddenly iguper to rush (toward)
jauper to come before, precede   jouper to come after, succeed
aíper to off with/take along   aúper to come along with/bring along
    zoâuper to pick up (and bring back)
zoíper to go back   zoúper to return (come back)
íper to go away   úper to approach
ílper to escape   úlper to come home
íbemper to go in exile ... ... ... ...
pier to depart   puer to arrive
jopier to get a headstart   jopuer to arrive ahead of/beat
igpier to flee    
piler to quit    
cper to carry    
ézcper to import zècper to transport ózcper to export
zòciper to take back zícper to propagate zòcuper to bring back
zàper to advance zèper to cross zòper to retreat
ánper to go together   ónper to separate
izper to head (straight)   uzper to veer, turn
zíper to tour   zúper to rotate
japer to precede jeper to go along joper to follow
zaper to go in front zeper to go in the middle zoper to go in back
ézper to enter zéper to go through ózper to exit
igper to run zoigper to chase after ugper to amble
ízper to pass up uzper to curve úzper to go around
kiper to limp képer to stagger kuper to avoid, sidestep
egézper to reinter azézper to invade egózper to reemerge
ifper to stroll ifpoper to tour ifpiper to cruise
  zéper to penetrate  
poper to travel képoper to shuttle back and forth zípoper to travel around
papier to take off (flying) paper to fly papuer to land
pepier to ride off peper to ride pepuer to park
pipier to set sail piper to sail pipuer to dock
tôaper to walk, step tuáper to crawl tôuper to tiptoe
pan motion pen seizure pon rest
paz dance    
paner to move pener to seize poner to rest
pazer to dance    
opaner to freeze opener to release oponer to stir
paaner to shake peener to catch pooner to stay
apaner to massage paaneter to vibrate  
alpaner to rub    
ópaner to reverse    
kipaner to stumble   kupaner to slide
ónpaner to break    
papaner to soar pepaner to skate pipaner to swim
ovpaner to block    
paneter to balance    
puner to throw punrer to hurl pùner to launch
púner to bump into    
prúner to crash into    
apéner to hit apéneter to batter  
apêner to tap    
apénler to beat    
ópéner to knock down    
ónpéner to break    
ónpêner to crack    
ónpléner to smash'    
ónpléner to burst    
ónpréner to explode    
pénuer to attack ovpénuer to counter-attack opénuer to defend
páner to leap (up) péner to lunge póner to dive
ézpáner to jump in zépáner to jump through ózpáner to jump out
zàpáner to leap forward zèpáner to leap across zòpáner to leap backward
pénarer to whip páneter to skip peneter to step
  pòn respite pos peace

Saying/talking (der, daer)

dier to ask der to say duer to propose
updier to invite ebdier to discuss  
dider to question doder to be silent duder to answer
vader to affirm veder to quibble voder to deny
váder to swear   vóder to lie
ávder to excuse évder to judge óvder to accuse
fivader to approve   fuvader to condemn
fider to praise   fuder to curse
avder to advocate   ovder to oppose
frider to glorify   fruder to blaspheme
    fúder to offend
    flúder to insult
    frúder to outrage
    ufúder to threaten
    fuébder to dispute
azder to shout egder to repeat ozder to whisper
jader to predict jeder to narrate joder to recount
ivder to thank   uvder to complain
ijder to introduce   ujder to conclude
fiader to recommend   fuader to criticize
ajder to evoke   ojder to promise
tider to understand   tuder to explain
ágder to elaborate   ógder to summarize
diler to beseech deler to announce duler to submit
direr to require dèler to declare  
daer to speak
ágdaer to ramble
ébdaer to converse fuébdaer to quarrel
dad language daun speech dod silence
din history dìn story diin recitation
dún name zadún first name abdún last name
dun word dlun phrase drun sentence

Writing/reading (drer, déder)

drer to write védrer to correspond, dúndrer to sign, abdrer to inscribe, gèdrer to copy, ézdrer to register, zèdrer to transcribe, tuúdrer to type, tuúdra typewritten, tuúdrud typist, cindrer to draw, drecìn letter (of the alphabet), dresìna literal, drecìnán alphabet, drecìnána alphabetical drecìnánser to alphabetize, dra written, odra unwritten
droer to erase droun erasure, droar eraser
dren script , dreud writer, drenet article, drenetán series of articles, ébdren letter, ébdrenán mail, tuádren manuscript, jadren preface, jodren postscript, dedren prose, candren formula, vádren spelling, védren correspondence, vidrenán literature (belles lettres), drenán scripture, dreden report, cunándren program
drèn text drèna textual, óbdrèn subtext, zúdrèn context, zúdrèna contextual
déder to read dédud reader, dédudán readership, zídéder to scan, déd lecture, dédim lecture hall, dédar scanner
dén book dénám book collection, dénánam library, dénunam bookstore, déngorc chapter, dénifud bookworm, dénabkum bookcover, dénembelar bookmark, déndúnán bibliography, dénet booklet, dindén storybook, novel, tiundén textbook
dreun document, file dreunán dossier, documentation, dreuner to document, file


drec note drecer to note, dodrec bulletin
drecin drawing, design dreciner to draw, drecinud designer, drecinam design studio
drez poem drezán poetry, drezet verse, drezut poet, drezéna poetic
dreván grammar drevána grammatical, drevánut grammarian
dréner to print drén print, drénar printer, drénam printshop, jubdrén newspaper, jubdrénán the press, jubdrénud journalist, jobdrén magazine, cindrén illustration, zídrén poster, zídrénet prospectus, drénet ticket, ózdréner to publish, ózdrénam publishing house, dréncìn type, character (of a font), dréncìnán font, dréncìnánam foundry
drar pen drear pencil, dril ink
dof cardboard  
daf card mircindaf map, ekdaf playing card, ébdrendaf postcard, dafán stack of cards
def paper defán stationary, defánam stationary shop, defet scrap of paper, defcasam paper mill
dáf notebook dáfet book (of tickets, etc.), agdáf register
dúf sheet (of paper) dúfbuar sheetfeeder
dúv page dúván ream of paper, mirmepán dúv web page, zàdúvper to page forward

Society (dot)

dot society dota societal, dotcer to socialize (intr.)
dotin socialism, dotinat socialist
odota savage, barbaric, odotan savagery, barbarism, odotat savage, barbarian
dotús social welfare
dotvàcan social security
dotbén custom, more (n.)
dotbéna customary

ajdotbén tradition
ajdotbéna traditional
dotcén civilization, dotcéner to civilize

dat friend data friendly, datcer to befriend, datan friendship
dàt girlfriend
daat buddy, daater to buddy around, daatan buddyship
ifdat sweetheart, ifdatan romance, ifdata romantic
odat enemy, odata inimical, ovdata hostile, ovdatan hostility
datibut host, dàtibut hostess, datibéa hospitable, datibéan hospitality
datupud guest, visitor, datupudim guestroom, datupudem reception area, datuper to be a guest, to visit, datup' visit
det comrade, companion, associate detan comraderie, association, detcer to associate
àdet companion, àdetan company
dit citizen dita civil, ditan citizenship, ditán citizenry
ditbén civility
doita civic
dut sir, Mr. dùt madam, Mrs., dután messieurs
dutet master, lad
dùtet miss, mademoiselle, young lady
duut sire
ditús civil service
dout bourgeois douta bourgeois (adj.), doutan bourgeoisie, doután bourgeoisie (coll.)
aut person auta personal
autbén personality
agaut personnage, v.i.p.
aután group, autána collective
autgran crowd, autgrana crowded, autgrancer to form a crowd
aut individual auta individual, autan individuality
anuta private, anutan privacy
aután group
áud commune áuda communal, áudan community, áudana comunity-related
áudin communism, áudinat communist
áut collective áuta collective
áutan collectivity
áutser to collectivize, áutin collectivism, áutinat collectivist
át everyone áta everyone's
tán people tána popular, tánikcer to populate, tánikca populated, tánika populous, tánukser todepopulate, also: tánòser to depopulate, tánuka unpopulated, deserted
táncág population, táncágtut demographics
tân populace
tánin populism, táninat populist
tánifa popular, tánifan popularity, tánifser to popularize, otánifa unpopular
tánbén custom, tánbéna customary

State (dob)

realm chief female counterpart
dob state deb leader  
adob empire adeb emperor adèb empress
edob kingdom edeb king, monorach edèb queen
idob principality ideb prince idèb princess
udob marquisate ideb marquis idèb marquise
ódob earldom ódeb count ódèb countess
ádob barony ádeb baron ádèb baroness
édob duchy édeb duke édèb duchess
ídob domain ídeb lord ídèb lordess
údob tribe údeb tribal chief  
tándob republic tándeb president (of the republic)  

Government (dab)

dab government daber to govern
dabdren ordnance
daba government
dabzem government center, capital
andab autocracy
nacdab plutocracy
abdaber to dominate, abdabin imperialism, dabovper to revolt, dabovpen revolution
dabtun politics, dabtut politician, dabtuna political
daab administration daaber to administer
daaba administrative
deb chief, leader deber to lead, command
andeb dictator, autocrat
deban leadership
debán leadership (coll.)
debveg authority, debvegdren authorization
debòser to depose
debovper to rebel, debovpud rebel, debovpen rebellion, vodebder to prohibit, vodebden prohibition, debden order
doob nation dooba national
dooban nationality
doof flag, doobdeuz national anthem
dub minister duba ministerial, dubam ministry
ózdub ambassador, ózdubam embassy
ózdubet consul, ózdubetam consulate'
dek combat deker to combat
dekpan fight, dekpaner to fight, dekpanud fighter
dopek battle, dopekem battlefield
dropek war, dropeker to wage war, dropekud warrior, dropekéna bellicose
damem metropolis damema metropolitan
obdamam colony, obdamemser to colonize, obdamemsud colonialist
domem territory domeam province/state, domeameb governor
domeem department (eg. of France), domeemeb prefect
domeim canton
domeum commune
dom city doma urban, domaser to urbanize
dombén polity
úzdom suburb, domag metropolis
debdom capital, midom port, domgon district, domgob quarter, domeb mayor, domam mayor's office, domab municipality, domaba municipal
dòm town
doam borough
doem village
doim hamlet
domcin cityscape
domep boulevard domèp avenue
domeap street
domeep lane
mepet alley
gacmep intersection
omep impasse, cul-de-sac, deadend
ábmep highway
igmep expressway
abzèmep bridge, overpass
obzèmep underpass
zémep tunnel
ízmep bypass, detour
úzmep beltway
ébdoma mep interstate highway (lit: intercity road)
domém square domzúm circle

Knowing (ter)

tier to study
tiud student
titam school
atitam elementary school
etitam high school
ititam college
tin doctrine, -ism
ter to know
oter to ignore
keter to be curious
jàter to guess
egter to recognize
vater to believe
veter to wonder
voter to doubt
ten knowledge, information
tuer to teach
tuud teacher
tutam institute
tutamán university
tut expert, scholar, scientist
tun science, -ology
ticer to learn
ticun lesson
tecer to perceive, sense
tecun data
tucer to instruct
tucun instruction
tiser to agree teser to think
tújteser to dream
ijtes idea
jotes afterthought
tuser to convince
akteser to remember   okteser to forget
vateser to assume veteser to suppose voteser to discount
váteser to believe véteser to wonder, weigh vóteser to doubt
ánteser to agree   ónteser to disagree
avteser to favor evteser to quibble ovteser to oppose
fiteser to thank   futeser to regret
jàteser to plan   jòteser to reflect
kateser to recall keteser to search one's memory koteser to forget (deliberately)
keter to be interested keten curiosity, ketea curious, ketenàa interesting, ketenukser to interest, oketer to be uninterested
  tújteser to dream  
tep mind tepa mental tepén attitude,aztepa intelligent, vátepa wise, tepbén method, tepbéna methodical, otepa imbecile
tèp spirit tèpa spiritual agtep genie
tez culture teza cultural óbtez subculture, tezser to cultivate
tén industry téna industrial joténa post-industrial,téntun technique, téntuna technical
tun science tuna scientific tut scholar
tin doctrine tina doctrinal tinéna doctrinaire
tún idea túna ideal túncer conceive of, túnca conceptual, túnán ideology, túnánud ideolog
tekóer to pay attention tekóa attentive otekóa inattentive

Family (tod)

tod family toda familial
tòd home, tòda domestic
todana familiar
tad spouse, husband tàd wife
tadán household
tadcer to get married, tadca married, tadcen marriage, tada marital
otadca unmarried, otadcat bachelor
tadòcat widower, tadòcàt widower, tadóncer
to divorce, tadóncat divorcee, tadónc divorce
tadán husband and wife team, jatad fiance, jatàd fiancee
tadceat groom, tàdceat bride, tàdceata bridal
tadet brother, tadeta fraternal, tadetan fraternity, tadetán fraternity (group), tàdetán sorority
tàdet sister
taodet brother-in-law
taódet sister-in-law
ted parent, father teda parental, paternal
tèd mother, tèda maternal
tedòa orphaned, tedòat orphan, tedòan orphanhood, tedòcer to be orphaned, tedòatam orphanage
tedet son, tedeta filial
tèdet daughter
teodet son-in-law
teódet daughter-in-law
tid uncle tidéna avuncular
tìd aunt
tidet cousin
tìdet cousin (female)'
tud brother-in-law tùd sister-in-law
tudet nephew
tùdet niece
tód father-in-law tôd mother-in-law
tódet son-in-law
tôdet daughter-in-law
tád grandparent, grandfather tádéna grandfatherly
tâd grandmother, tâdéna grandmotherly
tádet grandson
tâdet granddaughter
tádán grandparents
tádetán grandchildren
téd relative téda related, tédan kinship
tédcer to be related, tédán kin(folks), otéda unrelated
tíd god-parent, god-father tídet godson
ajted ancestor ajteda ancestral, ajtedán ancestry
jat ascendant  
jot descendant jòtan descendance

Human being (tob)

tob human being
tab body
. taab lymph
.. taaba lymphatic
.. taabocet lymph gland
. taeb muscle
.. taeba muscular
. taib bone
.. taibán skeleton
... taibána skeletal
.. taibàa bony
.. taibcer ossify
... taibcen ossification
.. taibòa boneless
... taibòser to debone
. taob flesh
.. taoba carnal
... egtaobcen reincarnation
.. taobàa fleshy
.. taobtelea flesh-eating
.. potaob meat
... potaobtelea carnivorous
. taub cartilege
.. tauba cartilagenous
. taób skin
.. taóbil sweat
... taóbiler to sweat
... taóbilàa sweaty
.. petaób hide
.. taóf leather
... taófud leatherer
... taóféna leathery
. tàab fat
.. tàaba fat-related
.. tàabòa fat-free
.. tàabél lard
.. tàabil oil
... tàbiler to oil
... tàabilém oilcan
... tàabilàa oily
.. tàabàa fatty
. taéb hair
.. tàabàa hairy
.. taébòa bald
... taébòcer to go bald
... taébòat bald person
... taébòan baldness
... taébòser to depilate
.. taêb fuzz
... taêbàa fuzzy
.. pataéb feather
... pataébán plumage
.. petaéb mane
.. pitaéb scales
... pitaébàa scaly
.. taéf wig
. taíb nerve
.. taíba nervous
.. taíbaanea nerve-rattling
.. taíbzem nerve-center
. tap physique
.. tapa physical
.. íztapa metaphysical
.. taptun physiology
.. taptut physiologist
. taf suit [of clothes]
.. tàf dress
teb head
. tebném cranium
.. tebnéma cranial
. teboc brain
.. teboca cerebral
. ábteb forehead
. óbteb chin
. obteb neck
.. obteba cervical
.. zaobteb throat
.. zoobteb nape
. tebzan face
.. tebzana facial
.. tebzanábs face-lift
.. tebzanòa faceless
. teab eye
.. teaba ocular
.. teabéb eyebrow
.. teabil tear
... teabiler to weep
.. teabéb eyebrow
.. fateab eyelid
... fateabéb eyelash
.. zeteab pupil
.. anteaba one-eyed
.. teac sight
... teacer to see
... oteaca blind
.... oteacan blindness
.... oteacat blind person
.... oteacacer go blind
.... oteacaser to blind
... teacoker gain one's sight
... teacoker lose one's sight
... teacar eye glasses
.. teas look
... teaser to look
.... igteaser to glance
.... ágteaser to stare
.... uzteaser to look askance
.... izteaser to look directly in the eye
.. teabzúen eyeball
.. teaczéc eye socket
. teeb ear
.. teeba aural
.. fozteeb ear lobe
.. teec hearing
... teecer to hear
... teeca auditory
... teecier to listen
.... teeciud listener
..... teeciudán audience
.... teecien audition
.... teeciar listening device
... oteeca deaf
.... oteecser to deafen
..... oteecseá deafening
.... oteecat deaf person
.... oteecan deafness
... teecar hearing aid
.. ózteeb outer ear
. teib nose
.. teiba nasal
.. teibil snot
... teibila mucous
.. teiv handkerchief
.. ózteiber to sneeze
.. teic smell
... teicer to smell
... teica olfactory
... treic odor
.... treicàa odorous
... fiteic fragrance
... futeic stink
... teiz perfume
... teicier to sniff
.. teiceucer to snore
.. teibzéc nostril
. teob cheek
.. zeteob cheekbone
.. teobéb beard
... teobébàa bearded
... teobébòa beardless
. teub mouth
.. teuba oral
.. teubil saliva
... teubiler to salivate
.. ózteuber to spit
.. teubíjer to yawn
.. ézteuber to swallow
.. teubob lip
... teuboz smile
... teuboc kiss
... teuboba labial
.. teud shout
... teuder to scream
.. teuc taste
... teucer to taste
... fiteuca delicious
... futeuca nasty-tasting
.. teumib palate
... teumiba palatal
.. teubéb mustache
... teubébàa mustachioed
.. teubab tongue
... teubaba lingual
... teubaber to lick
... éztèbaber to suck
.. teubeb gum
.. teubib jaw
... teubiser to chew
.. teupib tooth
... teupiba dental
... teupibut dentist
.... teupibutam dentist's office
... teupicer to bite
.... teupicoger to nibble
... oteupiba toothless
... teupibán denture
. tef hat
.. tefet cap
.. tefud haberdasher
.. tefam haberdashery
. tep mind
.. tepa mental
.. tepcan sentiment
.. tepcana sentimental
. tes thought
.. teser to think
... ágteser to ponder
.. tesa cognitive
.. tesen cognition
.. teseá conceivable
.. oteseá inconceivable
.. tesoker to forget
... otesokeá unforgetable
.. tesaker to remember
. ter to know
.. oter to ignore
.. ota unknown
.. otea unaware
.. tuer to teach
... tuna scientific
... tut scientist
... tuen teaching
.... tuena didactic
... tuut teacher
.... tuután academe
... tun science
... tuun lesson
.. tier to learn
.. titam school
.. atitam grade school
.. etitam high school
.. ititam college
... tiud student
... tiudán student body
... tiun study
.... tiuna scholastic
.... tiunán studies, scholastics</i
... tin
.... tina
.. tez
... teza
.. ten
... tena
.. teá
.. tea
... tean
. trer
to recognize
.. tren
.. treá
.. trea
.. éztrer
be conscious
.. éztren
.. éztrea
.. oéztrea
.. otra
.. otrea
. tec
.. tecer
to perceive
.. teceá
.. tecpan
.. tecpana
.. tecpanea
.. tecpanean
.. tecpaneá
.. tecpaner
to emote
. zetib
.. tetibgan
waist size
. zotib
.. zotiba
.. zotibók
back pain
. tiab
.. tilab
... tilabil, bil
.... tilabiler
to lactate
.... tilabila
.... tilabilbier
to milk
.... tilabilbuer
to give milk
.... tilabiléna
. tieb
.. tieba
.. tieser
to breathe
.. éztieser
to inhale
.. óztieser
to exhale
.. tiebok
... tieboser
to cough
. tiib
.. tiiba
.. tiibil
... tiibiler
to bleed
... tiibilàa
... tiibiloker
to lose blood
... tiibilotila
... tiibila
... tiibilánam
.. tiibuf
... tiibufa
... tiibufog
... zòtiibuf
.... zòtiibufa
. tiub
.. tiuba
.. tiùb
... tiùba
.. zetiub
.. zotiub
. tiób
.. tióba
.. tióbok
kidney disease
.. tióbil
... tióbiler
to urinate
... tióbilem
... tióbila
. tiáb
.. tiába
.. tìáb
... tìába
.. ébtiába
.. tiábcan
... tiábcana
.. tiábòser
to castrate
.. tiábòcat
.. tiáv
. tikob
.. tikoba
. tikab
.. tikaba
. tikeb
.. tikeba
.. tikebok
.. tikebil
. tikib
.. tikiba
. tikub
.. tikuba
.. tikubil
... tikubila
... tikubiler
to defecate
.. tikubuj
... tikubuja
... tikubujbok
. tuba
. tuab
. tueb
upper arm
. tuib
.. tuiber
to elbow
. tuub
. tuób
. tuáb
.. tuába
.. tuácer
to handle
.. tuábier
to grasp
.. tuábuer
to lend a hand
.. tuúpúner
to slap
.. ébtuáber
to clasp/shake hands
.. tuápaner
to clap/applaud
.. tuálpaner
to massage/knead
.. tuásiner
to sign
.. tuádotsiner
to wave [hello/goodbye]
.. tuáf
... tuáfém
glove compartment
... tuáfud
. tuéb
.. tuépaner
to pound
. tuúb
.. tuúba
.. atuúb
.. etuúb
... etuúber
to point
.. ituúb
middle finger
.. utuúb
ring finger
.. ótuúb
little finger
.. tuúcer
to feel
... tuúca
... tuúceá
.. tuúpaner
to tap
.. tuúdrer
to type
... tuúdrar
typewriter, keyboard
.. tuúbuj
finger tip
. tulob
.. tulocer
to scratch
.. tulop
... tuloper
to claw
. tuúb
.. tuúpaner
to slap
. tulib
.. tulipaner
to knock
. tóab
.. tóaper
to sit
. tóeb
. tóib
.. tóiper
to kneel
. tóub
. tôab
.. tôabektun
.. tôabektut
.. tôaper
to walk
... tôapud
... tôapem
... tôapar
... igtôaper
to run
... igtôapem
.. tôapúner
to kick
.. tôapaner
to stomp
.. tôabar
.. tôaf
... tôafser
to cobble
.... tôafsud
.... tôafsam
shoemaker's shop
.... tôafber
to shoe
.... tôafba
... apetôaf
... tôafmacil
shoe polish
... tôafnífet
... tôafodet
. tôeb
.. tôepaner
to supplant
. tôib
. tôub
.. tôuper
to tiptoe
. tólob
. tobaser
to humanize
. otobaser
to dehumanize
. toban
. tobin
.. tobina
.. tobinat
. iftoba
.. iftoban
. tooba
.. otoobaser
to emasculate
.. tooban
. toòba
.. toòban
. tooca
. toocan
. otooca
. entooca
. hátooca
. getooca
.. getoocan
.. getoocat
homosexual [person]
. tosa
. toséna
. toptun
. toptuna
. toptut
. topéna
.. topénaser
to animate
.. topénasen
.. otopéna
. topòa
. tòba
.. eóntòba
effeminate, quasi-female
. tòbéna
.. otobéna
. tòbet
.. tòbeténa
.. tòbetan
. tòbán
. toboba
.. toboban
. tobéna
. tobobòa
. tobobikam
child care center
. tobeténa
. tobetan
kid, midget
. tobòg
. tobagéna
. tobágéna
. toca
. tocan
. tocer
to sense
. toceá
. tocea
. boca
. bocán
. bocet
.. boceta

Bodily functions (tab...er)

body part body function
tab body óbtaber to bow, stoop
áztaber to prostrate oneself
ábtaber to stand erect
teb head óbteber to duck
tebciner to nod
tep mind ter to know, etc. [see Mental Activities]
teab eye teacer to see
teaser to look
teabiler to weep
zóteaber to squint
ágteaser to stare
igteaser to glance
to glimpse
to wink
teabigíjer to blink
taéb hair taébòcer to bald
taób skin taóbiler to sweat
taóboker to shed
taíb nerve taíser irritate
iftaíser to tickle
taícer to itch
teeb ear teecer hear
teeser listen
teib nose teicer to smell
teiser to sniff
teiseucer to snore
teibiler to run at the nose
teibilpuner to sneeze
teibukser to blow the nose
teub mouth teubiler to salivate
teubilpuner to spit
ézteuber swallow
teubíjer to yawn
teuder to shout
teubob lip teubocer to kiss
éztèbober to suck
teubozer to smile
teucozer to laugh
teubab tongue teubaber to lick
teucer to taste
teubib jaw teubiser to chew
teipid tooth teupicer to bite
tilab breast tilabiler to lactate
tikab stomach tikabilpuner to vomit
tieb lung tieser to breath
éztieser to inhale
óztieser to exhale
tiebil phlegm
tiebukser to cough
tiib heart tiibiler to bleed
tiób kidney tióbiler to urinate
tuab shoulder tuaber to shoulder
tuib elbow tuiber to elbow
tuáb hand tuábier to grab
tuábuer to hand
tuáser to manipulate
ébtuáber to shake hands
tuáciner to wave
tuápéner to slap
tuápéneter to pat
tuálpaner to massage
tuúb finger tuúcer to feel
tuúpéneter to tap
tuúdrer to type
iztuúber to point
ivtuúcer to tickle
tuúbginer to poke
tuúser to strum, fiddle
tôab foot tôapéner to kick
tôaper to walk
igtôaper to run
kitôaper to hobble
tôob knee tôocer to kneel
tôoper to crawl
tôeb heel tôepéner to stomp
tôub toe tôuper to tiptoe
tulob nail tuloser to scratch

Bodily fluids and other liquids (tab...il)

object fluid
tab body tabil humor
teab eye teabil tear
teib nose teibil mucus, snot
tilab breast bil milk (tila dropped)
teub mouth teubil saliva, spit
tiib heart tiibil blood
tiób kidney tióbil urine, piss
tikeb liver tikebil bile
tikub intestine tikubil feces, shit
taób skin taóbil perspiration, sweat
tieb lung tiebil phlegm, sputum
tobij seed tobijil semen
mam sky mamil rain
vafáb grape vafil wine (vafáb shortened to vaf)
voz color vozil paint
dr- write dril ink
mag fire magil petroleum
mag fire maagil fuel
mag fire maegil gasoline
mag fire maigil kerosene
meg rock megil cement
magmeb volcano magmebil lava (fire mountain liquid)
án together ánil glue
mel ground meil mud
tel food telil soup
ovob cereal ovobil meal, porridge
bil milk biel cream
fáb fruit fábil juice
afáb apple afábil apple juice
ufáb prune ufábil prune juice
lafáb orange lafábil orange juice
afáb apple afil cider (afáb shortened to af)
kafáb olive kafábél olive oil
vol vegetable volél vegetable oil
levol beet levolil beet juice
fab tree fabil sap
ávob hop ávil beer (ábov shortened to áv)
levaf ... levafil liqueur
level sugar levil syrup (el < tel food, il < til drink)
tul plate tulil sauce
m- nature mil water
mil water miil liquid
óm ice ómil dew
óm ice ómbiil ice cream
t- human/animal til drink
bek treatment bekil medicine
bok illness bokil poison
cafaéb tea leaf cafaél tea (-b organism to -l liquid)
cefáb coffee bean cefál coffee
  él oil
  fél wax
apelat bee apelatel honey (-el food)
apelat bee apelatél wax (-él oil)
c metaloid cil acid
ílom 80-electron metalloid ílomil mercury
mam sky mal air (mam shortened to ma)
mal air meal gas
mal air mial vapor
amc 1-electron metalloid amcal hydrogen (-al gas)
ímc 8-electron metalloid ímcal oxygen
émc 7-electron metalloid émcal azote

Health (bak)

bak health
baka healthy
baker to be healthy
bakcer to heal'
bakser to cure
baktun hygiene
baktut hygienist
bakam sanatorium
bakat healthy person
baktel health food
baktelam health food place
baak sanitation
baaka sanitary
obaaka unsanitary
baakser to sanitize
tabak physical health
tebak mental health
bàk safety
bàka safe
bàker to save
bàkser to make safe
bàksud savior
obàk danger, peril
obàka unsafe, dangerous
obàkser to endanger
bek treatment, remedy, cure
beka clinical
beker to treat
bekcer to heal [intr.]
bekser to heal [tr.]
bekler to cure, to remedy
beklacer to be cured
bektun medecine (practice of)
bektut doctor
bekam clinic, hospital, care facility
bekim hospital room
bekat patient
bekut care-giver, nurse
bekil medecine, drug
bekel pill
bekila medicinal
bekilam pharmacy
bekiler to medicate
tebektun psychiatry
tebektut psychiatrist
bekleá curable
obekleá incurable
obekeá untreatable
fubek mistreatment, abuse
fubeker to mistreat, to abuse
bok illness
boka sick
boker to be sick'
bokcer to fall ill
bokser to sicken'
boktun pathology
boktut pathologist
boktuna pathological
bokus pathogen
bokam hospital
bokamber to hospitalize
bokat patient
book fatigue
booka tired
bookcer to grow tired
bookser to tire
bookseá tiresome
bokil poison
bokiler to poison
bokiléna poisonous
obokilam detox facility
ombok cold
teibok influenza, flu
vúrbok infection
ambok inflammation
tebok mental illness
teboka mentally ill
tebokam insane asylum
tebokat mentally ill person
tebook boredom
tebooker to bore
tebookcer to grow bored
tebookca bored
oboker to cure, to heal, to save
obokut savior, healer
egbokcer to relapse
bik care
bikea careful
biker to care for
biktun nursing
biktut nurse
bikam care facility
bikat care patient
bikof bandage
bikofer to bandage
obik lack of care
obiker to leave uncared for
tebiker to care (about)
otebik apathy, lack of concern
otebiker to be unconcerned about
obikea careless
otebikea unconcerned, apathetic
igéga bik urgent care
igéga bikim emergency room
buk wound
buka wounded
buker to wound
bukcer to be wounded
bùk sore
buket scratch
buketer to scratch
bukof patch
bukofber to patch up
bukat trauma patient, victim
buuk harm
buuker to harm
buukeá harmful
buukòa harmless
buukék danger
bók pain
bôk ache
bôkcer to ache
bóker to hurt (someone)
bókcer to be in pain
bókeá painful
bókòa painless
bókòsil painkiller
bôker to ache
bóokcer to suffer
brók agony
bróker to torture
brókeá torturous
brókcer to agonize
tebók anguish
tebókcer to anguish

Clothes (tof)

body part heavier material lighter material
tob man tof apparel tov underwear
tab body taf suit pontav pijama
teb head tef hat tev scarf
teib nose teif nose cover teiv handkerchief
teób neck teóf tie teóv collar
tuab shoulder tuaf shawl  
tib trunk tif vest  
zetib waist zetif belt zetiv sash
tiab chest nefiaf sweater tiav shirt
tiub belly tiuf corset tiuv underpants
tilab breast   tilav brassiere
tiáb penis   tiáv loin cloth
tób leg tóf pants  
tôab foot tôaf shoe tôav sock
tuáb hand tuáf mit
tuáfém pocket
tuáv glove
tiúb tail tiúf train  

Habitation (tom)

tom habitation tomer to live, tomud inhabitant
tòm home, tòma domestic
toem place of residence
toom accommodation, lodging, toomer to accommodate
tomet apartment, tometán apartment building
tomof tent
utom property
tomtun architecture, tomtut architect, tomtuna architectural
tombuer to lease,tombuud landlord, dren tombuena lease
tombier to rent, let, tombiud renter, lessee
tomnoc rent

tombel housekeeping, tombelud concierge
ábtom hi-rise
tém residence témer to reside
témud resident
téma residential
vegdren témuda resident's permit
otémud non-resident
tam house tameb master of the house
taam villa
agtam chateau
ivagtam palace
ogtam cottage
tamet cabin
ogtamet hut
potam hotel, igpotam motel
zútam tower
azcatam castle
tamán housing complex
tamózem yard
tameézem courtyard
abtamac roof
zatam facade
telam restaurant
epam station
tilam bar
tuzam museum
dénam library
titam school
tutam institute
nunam store
cesam factory
avolam bakery
bikam hospital
totam church
tabekanam gym
milbam bathhouse
partam garage
beelam warehouse
vobésam farm
tàm building tàmser to build, otàmser to demolish, otàms ruins, tàmsud builder
tamcer to found, tamc foundation
mamtàm skyscraper
tem space abtem attic
obtem basement
ágtem gallery
pemepem parking lot
ponem rest stop
ifekem playground
dropekem battleground
maparem airport
ózem yard, outdoors
ázem flat space
úbem neighborhood
íbem the far side
kum side
abem top
obem bottom
zam front
zom back
zem middle
zém indoors
kunadam frontier
kim slope
ábem upstairs
óbem downstairs
zém tunnel
zèm bridge
ifpem promenade
mimkum beach
ifpopem resort
tujémem cemetery
tatem shrine
zúm zone
ubem destination
ibem origin
pum destination
pimstarting point
starting point
tim room, chamber miltim bathroom
éstim bureau
datim salon, living room
zótim hall, corridor
tjujim bedroom
telim dining room
magelim kitchen
tilim bar
zatim lobby
zotim antechamber
áktim waiting room
timet cubicle, cabin, roomette

Places and containers

The "place" suffixes am, (e)m, im, ém, and éb are short for and recall tam house, tem space, tim room, ném box, and céb container.

Buildings (-tam, -am)

t- human-related tam house
nun merchandise nunam store
nac money nacam bank
apelat bee apelatam beehive
pancin cinema pancinam moviehouse
tel food telam restaurant
til drink tilam bar
tier to study titam school
tuer to instruct tutam institute
tata holy tatam church
dénán book collection dénánam library
cuzán art collection cuzánam museum
bekil drug bekilam pharmacy
ep stop epam station
pon rest ponam hotel
bek treatment bekam clinic
bok illness bokam hospital
bik care bikam nursing home
bak health bakam sanatorium
avol bread avolam bakery
dez show dezam theatre
daz dance dazam dance studio
cefál coffee cefálam café
belud guard beludam guardhouse
apet horse apetam stable
koer to hide koam shelter
def paper defam stationery
túj sleep tújam dormitory
voc flower vocam floristry
par vehicle param garage
pat bird patam nest
vab grass vabam grange

Places and spaces (-tem, -em)

t- human-related tem hall
ep stop epem stopping point
tij birth tijem birthplace
és work ésem factory
ek play ekem playground
dropek war dropekem battlefield
koer to hide koem hideaway
pier to depart piem departure point
puer to arrive puem arrival point
ab on abem top
ob under obem' bottom
áb up ábem upstairs
ób down óbem downstairs
éb between ébem interstice
éz in ézem interior
óz out ózem exterior
ib from ibem origin
ub to ubem destination
ij start ijem starting point
uj end ujem endpoint, goal
úb near úbem vicinity
íb far íbem distance
za before zam front
zo behind' zom back
ze middle' zem center
ák wait akem waiting area
úz around územ environment
round zúm zone
uka empty ukem vacant lot
kua lateral kum side
kua lateral kuem sidelines
kia oblique kiem slope
kes trial kesem proving ground
vab grass vabem prairie
áza flat ázem plain
íja open íjem open area
through zém transit area
across zèm crossing/bridge
záa wide zám expanse
zóa narrow zóm tight spot
pon rest ponem rest area
tapek sport tapekem sports arena
ifzíp tour ifzípem tourist site
ánup meeting ánupem meeting venue
tujém coffin' tujyemem cemetery
ézmelben burial ézmelbem burial ground
tata holy tatem shrine
tesbeler to memorialize tesbelem memorial (site)
nun merchandise nunem marketplace
hea which hem where?
háa every hám everywhere
héa any hém anywhere
hoa no hom nowhere
hua this hum here
hia that him there
gea same gem the same place
teler to eat telem refectory
ób under óbtem cellar
úja open újtem court
ága long ágtem gallery
áb above ábtem attic
zaóz front outside zaóztem front porch
zaéz front inside zaéztem lobby
tier to study titem study hall
tuer to teach tutem class

Rooms (-tim, -im)

t- human-related tim room
tjujer to sleep tjujim bedroom
teler to eat teltim dining room
mageler to cook magelim kitchen
és work ésim bureau
mil water miltim bathroom
tata holy tatim chapel
vi nice vitim salon
ák wait áktim waiting room
za front zatim lobby
zo back zotim backroom
daer to talk datim parlor
tapek sport tapektim exercise room
teacibar t.v. teacibarim t.v. den
mover to smoke movim smoking den
ón apart óntim compartment
éz in éztim chamber
zóa narrow zótim corridor/hall
tuer to teach tutim classroom
cim chair bimer to sit
cum bed bumer to lie down

Enclosures (-tém, -ném, -ém) and containers (-céb, -éb, -éf)

t- human-related tém residence
aza strong azém safe
koer to hide koém shelter
pon vacation poném suitcase
mog ash mogém ashtray
óm ice ómém ice chest
voc flower vocém flower bed
voc flower vocéb flower pot
il liquid + neer reserve ilneéb tank
il liquid iléb bottle
il liquid ilcéb carafe
til drink tiléb glass
til drink tilcéb cup
el food elcéb pot
tol food toléb casserole
áz flat+tol consumables áztoléb pan
telil soup teliléb bowl
ber put bém position
tab body tabém posture
tes thought tesbém method
tep mind tebém attitude
eber to stop ebém situation
uka empty ukém slot, vacancy
nac money nacém cashbox
noz jewel nozém jewelry box
n- commercial ném box
nac money nacéf purse
n- commercial néf bag
néf weave néfém basket
faof wood faoféb barrel
mak electricity makéb battery

Building structures (moc) and furniture (com)

moc floor [stage] amoc ground floor
emoc second floor
imoc third floor
obmoc basement
abmoc penthouse
ébmoc mezzanine
mocpar elevator (also: álbur)
mac wall abmac roof
obmac foundation
ézabmac ceiling
ézobmac floor
uzabmac vault
abzamac balcony
abkumac ledge
macsud mason
mactén masonry (industry)
macán masonry
ózmac outer wall
ézmac inner wall
úzmac fence
mefa mac brick wall
macet fence
ónsmac partition
màc screen
mec door mecag entrance-way
zamec threshold
mic window micet ticket window, porthole
micof blinds
micov curtain
abmic sunroof
micog skylight
muc stairs mucnog step
mùc ladder
zúpea muc escalator
mucim stairwell
igózpen muc fire escape
com item of furniture comber to furnish
comán furniture
comser to make furniture
comsud furniture maker
milcom sink
comiper to move
cam closet telarcam buffet
tofcam clothes closet
déncam bookcase
macam cupboard
comoc shelf
tovcam linen closet
ècam alcove
cem table drecem desk
cèm pulpit
cemném drawer
cemof table cloth
cemób table leg
cemet board
úscemet serving tray
tilcem bar
cágcem counter
cemaper to sit down at the table (also: bemer)
cim chair cìm seat
agcim armchair
ágcim couch
ciim bench
ècim stool
tôabcim footstool
cimub arm rest
cimzom seat back
baanetcim rocking chair
zoólbcim recliner
milnef cim bucket seat
cimbier to occupy a seat
cimbuer to seat (someone)
cimober to unseat
cimaper to sit down (also: bimer)
cum bed cuam cushin
cuàm pillow
cuem mattress
cuav bedspread
cuev sheet
cuef cover
cuim box springs
cumnán litter
cumaper to go to bed, lie down (also: bumer)

Food (tol)

tol foodstuffs toler to feed
tola alimentary
tolcéb pot
toléb casserole
áztoléb pan
tolam grocery store, market, tolamud grocer
tolar eating utensil, tolarán dishes
tolnún produce, groceries
tel (prepared) food teler to eat
otel hunger, otelcer to hunger, otela hungry, otelag famine, oteltujer to starve (to death)
telun edible (item)
vitelyd gourmet
vitelea gourmand
telam restaurant, telamet cafe, telamseb restauranteur
telém buffet
teléb plate, telébar serving tray
telar fork, telarán place setting, cutlery
telim kitchen
telten culinery
telsur cooker
telsud cook
telseb chef
telil soup, teliléb soup bowl
magtelur stove
teleá edible, oteleá inedible
teluz taste teluzer to taste
tèluz savor, tèluza savory, tèluzer to savor
oteluz disgust
oteluza disgusting
oteluzer to be disgusted
til drink tiler to drink
otil thirst
otilcer to thirst
otila thirsty
otilag draught
tilam bar
tilamag brasserie
tiléb glass
tilcéb bowl
tìlcéb cup
tilar spoon
tilarag soup spoon
tilarog teaspoon
tileá potable, otileá non-potable
omtil refreshment, soft-drink
tul dish, served food tulán meal
atulán breakfast, atuláner to eat breakfast
etulán lunch, etuláner to lunch
itulán dinner,ituláner to dine
jatul appetizer
jotul dessert
ébtul snack
tuléb platter
tulil soup
tulánag banquet
tuldren menu
tulusud waiter, tulusudán wait staff, tulusdeb head waiter, maitre d' , tulúsnac (restaurant) tip
tuljób mealtime
-ol/ól (solid) taol meat,taolam butcher shop, taolud butcher, taolil stew, úgtaol beef steak, ápetaol sausage, ápetól ham
mimol salt, mimolika salty
vavol salade, greens
avol bread, avolet bread crumb, abavol crust, avolek flour, avolam bakery, avolud baker
ébcavol sandwich
cabavol slice of bread
ázavol pancake, flatbread, pizza
úzavol wrap, burrito
góavol crepe
leavol pastry
leávol cake
aleavol brioche
umleavol cookie
umcavol cracker, biscuit
uzleavol croissant
afleavol fruit pie
taoleavol meatpie
leavolser to make pastry
leavolsud pastrymaker
leavolam patisserie
-el/él/ál (semi-solid) eopel beef, gocra eopel ground beef, gocra eopel ébcavol hamburger
uopel mutton
ápel pork
él oil
kafabél olive oil
gevobél corn oil
magél cooking oil
tàal fat, grease
mageler to cook
magéler to fry
level sugar, levela sweet, leveler to sweeten, lèvel candy, levil syrop, lèvelud confectioner, lèvelam confectionary
elcéb pot
ápel pork, ápelán pork meats, ápelam pork butchery
-il (liquid) iléb bottle
tuil sauce
tulil soup
vafil wine
ígvafil vinegar
afil cider
ávil beer
levafil liqueur
bil milk, bilam dairy, bilíg cheese, bilúg butter
bilúgl yoghurt
abil cream
fáblevil compote
fábil fruit juice
taobil gravy, jus
levil syrup
apelatil honey
mag- mageler to cook, magelur cooker
magiler to boil, magilur boiler
màgiler to broil, màgilur broiler
magler to roast, maglúr roaster
abmagler to grill, abmaglur grill
magéler to fry, magélur frier
magoler to bake, magolur oven
magler to roast, maglur roaster
magtelur stove
magsur burner
gopar knife  

Time (job)

job time joba temporal
ponjob vacation
ógjob short while, ógjoba temporary
ívjob leasure
ágjob longtime, ágjoba chronic
jejoba chronic
zé job over time
ádjob eternity, ádjoba eternal
gonjoba part-time
jobúgc delay, jobúgser to delay, jobúgca delayed
jobigc haste, jobigcer to hurry
kóca (jonabca) jobem appointment
jobnabs schedule
jobdaf schedule
joob period joòb era, epoch
joobag eon
joobog short period
jooba periodic
jooban periodicity
joobà periodically
odjobu? when?
udjobu now
idjobu then
ádjobu always
ódjobu never
édjobu whenever
gedjobu at the same time
ogedjobu some other time
údjobu sometime
jab year jaba annual
cojab century, cojaba secular
jabij new year
jabuj year's end
jabdén yearbook
jabzòp anniversary
jeb season jeba seasonal
jeab spring
jeeb summer
jeib autumn
jeub winter
jib month jiba monthly
ijib trimester
ájib semester
jiab January
jieb February
jiib March
jiub April
jiób May
jiáb June
jiéb July
jiíb August
jiáb September
jilob October
jilab November
jileb December
jub day juba daily
éjub week, éjuba weekly
juab Monday
jueb Tuesday
juib Wednesday
juub Thursday
juób Friday
juáb Saturday
juéb Sunday
ponjub holiday
ívjub day off
ádjubu every day, ádjuba daily
jubdén diary
jubdrén newspaper, jubdréna journalistic, jubdrénud journalist
zojub yesterday
udjub today
zajub tomorrow
ivjub feast, ivjuber to feast, ivjuber to celebrate
tijub birthday
agtijub Christmas
zòtujub Easter
jób hour jóba hourly
jóbar clock
tíjóbar alarm clock
tubjóbar wrist watch
jóbándaf schedule
jáb minute jâb moment, jâba momentary
jéb second jêb instant, jêba instantaneous
maj daytime maja diurnal
ijmaj dawn
imaj morning
ujmaj dusk
umaj evening
èmaj noon
joèmaj afternoon
fimaj good day!
fiumaj good evening!
ádmaju every morning udmaju this morning zomaju yesterday morning zomaju tomorrow morning
moj night moja nocturnal
èmoj midnight
fimoj good night!
ádmoju every night
udmoju tonight
jud date judrer to date
jojudrer to postdate
jajudrer to antedate
judar calendar
judaf calendar
judén datebook
odjudu on what date
udjudu on this date idjudu on that date
jàg age jaga old, jagat elder, jagan old age, jagat bikam elder care facility, jagcer to age, jagca aged, ágcea ageing
joga young/new, jogan youth (state), jogat youth (person), jogatán youth (coll.), egjogser to rejuvenate/renew, joganéna youthful
gajàga elder
gojàga younger
gejàga of the same age, as old (as)
jéga adult
jega middle aged
jòga adolescent
ojéga minor
gájàga eldest
gójàga youngest
glajàga antique, ancient
glojàga brand new, very young
odjàg how old?

Time expressions

expression example
ja before Yujo mani ja et pio. Turn out the lights before you leave.
je while Tobob tuja je tújá. The child died while sleeping.
jo after Jo teacera mavi it igípa. After seeing the flames, he fled.
ji since Aita tijé ga fià ji dropek úja. We have been living better since the war ended.
ju until Ju et agco, et ho tido. Until you grow up, you won't understand.
early Ga já ga fi. The earlier the better.
on time Valco puer jé. Be sure to arrive on time.
late Ho puo já! Don't arrive late!
zojubu yesterday Hè mamila zojubu? Did it rain yesterday?
udjubu today Iyt deuzo udjubu. She is going to sing today.
zajubu tomorrow At ikso dén zajubu. I will finish the book tomorrow.
zomoju last night Hè et fi túja zomoju? Did you sleep well last night?
udmoju tonight Udmoju ho eco màri mamu. Tonight there will be no stars in the sky.
zamoju tomorrow night Tijuba vitul aco zamoju. The birthday feast will occur tomorrow night.
jazojubu the day before yesterday Vab gorfàa jazojubu. The grass had been mowed the day before yesterday.
jozajubu the day after tomorrow Avolam íjco jozajubu. The bakery will open the day after tomorrow.
already Uvà eta ted jà pia. Sadly, your father has already left.
gaj still Hè pati gaj tijea? Are the birds still alive?
yet Hè et jù teuca hia pancin? Have you seen this movie yet?
aju in the past Uti sá hubén aju. People used to act that way in the past.
eju at present Eju ait ukce mil. At present, we are out of water.
oju in the future Et fi to oju. You'll know better in the future.
ji idjob since then, thenceforth Ji idjob eca hoga sejeti. Since then, there have been no further incidents.
jo udjob from now on, henceforth Jo udjob at éso ga tepazà. From now on I will work more diligently.
ju idjob until then Ju idjob at ho teacàa ídcuni. Until then, I had not seen such things.
ju udjob until now, up to now, so far Hot ózpa ju udjob. Nobody has emerged so far.
iju first At vagó iju ivader et av updier at. I would first like to thank you for inviting me.
next Jò ait teeco drez Sekspira. Next we shall hear a poem by Shakespeare.
uju finally Elánidpar uju pua. The train has finally arrived.
gloja recently Iit gloja tadca. They recently married.
glojo soon Jobipar co him glojo. The taxi will be here soon.
glaja a long time ago Hua pancin ózpa glaja. That movie came out a long time ago.
glajo a long time hence Dropek ujco glajo. The war will come to an end a long time from now.
gója just At gója ijeaca eta vóon. I just now noticed your error.
úbji just At úbji ijeaca eta vóon. I just now noticed your error.
úbju almost At úbju aka. I almost won.
ja ago Keus aca ja e jub. The accident occurred two days ago.
glaj for a long time At ésa hum glaj. I worked there for a long time.
gloj for a short time At ésa him anà gloj. I worked here only for a short time.
ókbénà suddenly, all of a sudden Yokbénà teuzibar ceusa. Suddenly the phone rang.
igjobu suddenly, all of a sudden Igjobu teuzibar ceusa. Suddenly the phone rang.
odjobu? when? Odjobu et sa uda cizun? When did you do this painting?
adjobu when (relative) At sa cizun adjobu at ca joga. I did the painting when I was young.
ji odjob? since when? for how long? Ji objob et ce tadca? How long have you been married?
ju odjob until when?, how long Ju odjob et drecéo eta dén? How long will you be writing your book?
idjubu then, at that time Et ca via idjubu. You were beautiful then.
udjubu now, at this time At ése ge tuut udjubu. I work as a teacher now.
ádjubu always, all the time Iyt ádjubu teubòze. She always smiles.
údjubu sometime Iyt egteapo údjubu. She'll visit again someday.
ódjubu never Ata épet ódjubu épede. My dog never barks.
ju ádjub forever Iit áke beer tadca ju ádjub. They hope to remain married forever.
édjubu ever, anytime Et vege teaper édjubu et vage. You can visit anytime you like.
údjubu sometime At teapo et údjubu úboju. I will visit you sometime in the near future.
ogedjubu some other time Et égo uper ogedjubu. You'll have to come some other time.
ídjubu at such a time Ait ége doer ídjubu. We must be silent at such a time.
gedjubu at the same time Yad e nidpari pua gedjubu. Both trains arrived at the same time.
vo...gaj no longer, anymore At vo vage gaj teacer et. I don't want to see you any longer.
odjopi? how often? Odjopi et pe pancinu? How often to you go to the movies? (jop instance in time)
ajop once Et ége utmilabaner ajop jubè. You must bathe once a day.
ejopi twice At vísa par ejopi. I washed the car twice.
glajopi often Ait deuze ánà glajop. We often sing together.
glojopi seldom At glojopi teaca ídcun. Seldom have I seen such a thing.
gaijopi sometimes, at times Iyt ceace geijopi jó. She sometimes shows up late.
ojop never At ojop vóde. I never lie.
ídjop so often Et ídjop abdabe ébdaen. You dominate the conversion so often.
gejopi as often Upo gejopi vé et vage. Come as often as you like.
gajopi more often Ata ted datupe gajopi vé ja. My father visits more often than before. ( than)
gojopi less often At zípe gojopi udjubi. I travel less often these days.
géjopi quite often Nun ce géjopi nasaga. The merchandise is quite often expensive.
grajopi too often Et tile grajopi. You drink too often.
grojopi too infrequently At ózpe tam grajopi. I get out of the house too infrequently.
gájopi as often as possible Et ége milaber voci gájopi. You should water the flowers as often as possible.
gójopi as seldom as possible At ázte maru gójopi. I lie in the sun as seldom as possible.

Beginning and ending (ijer, ujer)

The following table shows j (time) words that forms parallels on the basis of the iu ordinal vowel opposition:
ijer to begin ujer to end
ij beginning uj end
ija initial uja final
tijer to be born tujer to die
tij birth tuj death
tija natal, born tuja mortal, dead
tijser to birth tujser to kill
majij dawn majuj dusk
tobij ovum>  
vabij seed  
patij egg  
magijer to spark magujer to extinguish
manijer to light manujer to turn off
esijer to set in motion esuj to terminate
tesij idea  
jabij new year's jabuj year's end
íjer to open újer to close
íj opening új close
íja open úja closed
íjar key újar lock
íjem passageway újem dead end
íjofer to unfold újofer to fold
íjden introduction újden conclusion
tíjer to wake tújer to sleep
tíj wakefulness túj sleep
tíja awake túja asleep

aj past aju in the past, then ajer to delay taj former life ja before early
ej present eju at present, now ejer to wait tej life je during on time
oj future oju in the future ojer to preempt toj afterlife jo after late
ij beginning iju in the beginning, at first ijer to begin tij birth ji since  
uj end uju in the end, at last ujer to end tuj death ju until  

Natural phenomena (mor, mar, etc.)

mor universe mora universal,
mòr cosmos mòra cosmic, mòrtun cosmology
mar sun mara solar, marnad sun ray
màr star màra stellar, màrán constellation, màránag galaxy, màrtun astronomy
mer planet mear Mercury
meer Venus
meir Earth
meur Mars
meór Jupiter
meár Saturn
meér Uranus
meír Pluto
mir world mira global
amir north, amira nordic
omir south, omira southern
imir east, imira oriental
umir west, umira occidental
emir equator, emira equatorial
mur moon mura lunar
mùr satellite
muar comet
muer meteor
muerog meteorite
mol nature mola natural, omola artificial
mul matter mula material, multun physics
mulet particle
amul atom
amulán molecule
amulet atomic particle
amula atomic, amulzem nucleus, amulzema nuclear
emul electron
imul proton
umul neutron
umulet neutrino
ámul quark
mal air mala aerial
màl gas
maal atmosphere
mael troposphere
mail stratosphere
maul ionosphere
maól exosphere
malp airwave
mam sky mama celestial, mamnad horizon, mamèzún rainbow, mamceus thunder
mamevan weather
mamevantun meteorology
maem space maema spatial, paem spacecraft, maempopud astronaut
map wind maap gust
maep breeze
maip puff
mapag cyclone
mapaget storm
maper to blow
maiper to puff
maf cloud maaf stratus
maef nimbostratus
maif cumulus
mauf cumulonimbus
maóf stratocumulus
màaf allocumulus
maéf allostratus
maíf cirrocumulus
maúf cirrostratus
malof cirrus
óbmaf nimbus
mafàa cloudy
mafòa cloudless
mel ground, earth mela terrestrial, meltun geography
ánmel continent, ánmela continental
ónmel island, ónmela insular
mem country meam region
meem land
meim countryside
memcin scenery
memud peasant
ázmem plain
ázmeam valley
ázmeem dale
ukmem desert
ènukmem steppe
vabem prairie
vabemet meadow
ébmem isthmus
ézmelber to bury
mep way mèp route
meap road
meep path
meip lane, track
meup pass
mepet alley
uzmep detour
izmep bee-line
kumep sidewalk
domep highway
óbmep subway
meb mountain
mebán mountain chain
ázmeb plateau
miekmeb dune
magmeb volcano, magmeba volcanic, magmebil lava
mèb mount
meab hill
meabet hillock
met garden zamet front yard, zomet back yard, kumet side yard, vocmet flower garden
med park potmed zoo, fabmed arboretum, pemed parking lot
mom underground moma subterranean
mompar subway
momesem mine, momesud miner
mob precipice mòb abyss
moab canyon
moeb ravine
moib cave
moub ditch
mop tunnel  
mim sea mima marine
mimag ocean
miam lake
miem pond
miim marsh
mióm swamp
ézmim bay
midom port
mimkum shore
mimázkum beach
mimuzkum gulf
ébmim strait
mimpop ocean cruise
mimbok seasickness
mimanar lighthouse
mit basin  
mip river mipa fluvial, miper to flow, run
miap river
miep stream
miip brook
mipet tributary
igmip torrent, igmipa torrential
ébmip canal
mipkum riverbank
mimzèmep bridge
mipugar dam
mipàa riparian
mil water mila aquatic
óbmila underwater
mamil rain
mamiler to rain
mileter to drip, milet drop, miletog droplet, mileteá drippy
umilóbiner to drown [intr.]
milpóer to drown [intr.]
miltujer to drown, miltujat drowning victim, miltuj drowning
milper to swim
milber to water, irrigate
milpón waterfall
milabaner to wash [tr.], utmilabaner to bathe, milaban bath, milabanim bathroom, milabanam bathhouse, milabaném bathtub
miltim bath, washroom
milcom sink
ilper to flow, ilp flux, current
iligper to gush, stream
ilaper to float, ilapar flotation device
ilukser to flush, iluksar toilet
ilikser to flood, iliks inundation
gámiluper to flood, gámilup flood
ilóper to downpour
ilzíber to spray
ilpúner to squirt
ilpáner to gush
iloker to leak, ilok leak
ilpéner to splash
tiibiloker to bleed
ilzéper to leak, ilzép leak
ogilzéper to trickle, ogilzép trickle
zoílper to back up with water, zoílp reflux
ilpan wave
ilpanet ripple
ilápóper to undulate, ilápóp undulation, wave action
mimupip tide, mimupipa tidal
mimbin tide, mibina tidal
mimpán surf, mimpánud surfer, mimpán faof surfboard
ilbuner to pump, ilbunar pump
milbiner to pump, draw water, milbinar pump, milbinéc well
ilaber to pour
utmilzíber to take a shower
milbím spring
tilcom drinking fountain
milbíc fountain
mimper to navigate, sail, mimpar ship
mimpoper to sail, travel by sea, mimpop cruise, sea voyage, mimpopud sea voyager, mimpopar cruise ship
ima wet imcer to get wet,imsrer to drench, ìmser to dampen, iman wetness, ìman humidity, olimsar dehumidifier
uma dry uman dryness, umser to dry, umsar dryer, umca dried
ama hot aman heat, amanàg temperature, àma warm, àman warmth, amser to heat, amsar heater
oma cold oman cold, òma cool, omser to cool, omsur refrigerator, òmser to refresh, òmsea refreshing, òmsun refreshment
óm ice óma frozen, ómser to freeze, ómsur freezer
óom frost, óoma frosted, óomcer to frost over, olóomser to defrost, ovóomil antifreeze
man light maer to shine
manet glimmer, maneter to glimmer
manser to light up
maníjer to turn on the light
manújer to turn off the light
manager to illuminate
màna clear, mànser to clarify, mànan clarity
lomàna opaque
manig sparkle, maniger to sparkle
kumaner to reflect
zòmaner to mirror, zòmanar mirror
mag fire magar match, magam fireplace
magser to burn, magsar burner
magcer to burn (intr.), magca burned, magcun a burn
mageler to cook, magelud a cook, magelun cuisine, magelar oven, magelur frying pan
magújer to extinguish a fire, magújud fireman, magújam' fire department

magil petroleum
magìl napth
maagil fuel
maegil gasoline
maigil kerosene

mav flame maver to flame, maveá flammable, mavser to inflame, mavsen inflammation, mavugea flame retardant
mak electricity maka electrical, makser to electrify, makéna electronic, maktun electronics, makveg electric power, makvegam electric power plant
mov smoke mover to smoke, movikca smoke-filled, movet plume
mon dark mona dark, moncer to grow dark, monser to darken (tr.)
otmon shadow, otmonéna shadowy
mòn shade, mòna shady, obscure, mònan obscurity
meg stone megéna (made of) stone, megàa rocky, megunkum cinder block
megag boulder
megog pebble
meag marble
meeg slate
meig granite
meug clay
meóg clay
meág chalk
meég limestone
meíg alabaster
meúg rubble stone
mealog sandstone
megóg gravel
mieg pebble
mameg coal
maameg anthracite
èmameg coke
maemeg peat
maimeg lignite
mek dust mék powder
méik paste
mékar mill
mékam mill
meil mud
mef brick abmef tile
mev porcelaine  
mez gemstone amez diamond
emez topaze
imez ruby
ómez sapphire
ámez amethyste
vamez emerald
jewelry, mezánam jewelry shop

Money (nac)

naz value nazer to be worth, nazika valuable, nazuka worthless, nazder to evaluate, nazter to esteem, utnaz merit, utnazer to deserve, utnazika meritorious, onazteá inestimable, nazta esteemed
nas price nasaga expensive, nasoga cheap, nasán rates, nasuka priceless
nàs cost, nàser to cost, nàsaga costly, nàsòa cost-free, nàsán costs, nàsder to cost out
nac money nacet change, nacetéb coin purse, nacdref check, jonacdref bill, nacán capital, ánac funds, ánàc sum, nactun finance, donactun economy, nacam bank, nacika rich, nacuka poor, úsnac gratuity, tip, nasak profit, nacok loss, gornacdren stock, gornacdrenam stock market, yebkyanac commission, nacyeg debt, nacyegaya indebted, nacyeger to owe money
noc expense nocer to spend, nòc fee, funoc waste, finoca generous
nec savings necer to save, necán savings, cágdin necána savings account, funeca stingy, nècer to economize
nuc payment nucer to pay out, nucbier to buy, nucbiud buyer, nucbiudán clientele, dobnuc tax, nucvegeá solvable, jobnuc credit, jobnucud creditor, jobnucdaf credit card, januc prepayment, zònucer to reimburse
nic income nicer to collect, cash, nicán revenue, nicbuer to pay for, nicbuud vendor, ésnic salary, ésnìc wage, tutnic honorarium, égnicag tribute, dobnic pension, dotnic allowance, donic annuity, ésnicud wage earner, jonic debit, jonicud debitor, jonicdaf debit card, zònicerto recover

Merchandise (nun) and materials (nof)

nun merchandise nunam store, nunàm boutique, nunamet shop, nunamán shopping center, nunem market, nunud merchant, nunébkán commerce, nundel advertisement, nunemtun marketing, nuler to acquit,
noz jewel nozud jeweler, nozam jewelry shop, nozán jewelry, nozika bejeweled, tuóz bracelet, obtez necklace, tuúz ring, tiaz broche, teez earring, tez crown, teiz nose ring, nozkobilud jewel thief
nof material nofser to weave, nofsar loom, nofán textiles
tof clothes taf suit
tif vest, etc.
nov linen nòv sheet
novet rag
milnov towel
milnovet handtowel
milov wash cloth
naf cloth naaf drape/curtain, naafán drapery
naef canvas
naif velvet
nauf net
nef knit, yarn nefser to knit, yarn
neef lace
nif thread, wire nifser to thread, wire
nìf string
nifet filament
nifar needle
nivar pin, ánifer to sew, ánifur sewing machine, ániftén couture, nifòa wireless, maknif electrical cord
náf knot náfser to knot
níf cord nífet lace
nífetog braid
néf sack, bag ném box, némag case, poném suitcase, áznéfem basket
nóf film nóv ribbon
núf button núfec buttonhole (zéc hole)
fuf pipe fùf tube
tilfuf drinking straw
tiibuf artery (fub branch)
zúf post zúfet column, pimzúf mast, zézúf cross-beam
zúv stick zúvet cane, ágzúv pole
faof board faocéb barrel (fab tree + nof material + céb container)
mez crystal meg stone + naz value
zéf glass zév glass
cinzéf mirror, cimzéf window pane (zéteaser see through + nof material)
utaéf wool upet sheep
apeéf silk apeét worm
favof cotton favob cotton plant
fivof hemp fivob hemp plant
fuvof jute fuvob jute plant
favov cotton wool favob cotton plant
taóf leather taób skin + nof material
taéz fur taéb hair + naz value

Measures and dimensions (nag)

nog degree anoga primary
enoga secondary
inoga tertiary
unoga quaternary
henoga to what degree, how?
nogper to step, zànogper to advance, progress, step ahead, zònogper to step back, regress, ábnogper to step up, be promoted, advance, óbnogper to step down, be demoted, nogà by degrees
nòg grade, step, nogéna gradual, ujnògper to graduate, ujnògpud graduate
noog stage, level, status, enooga bi-level, two-staged, ábnooga high-status, dotnoog social status, class, óbdotnooga low-class, kódotnoog caste
nag dimension anaga one-dimensional
enaga two-dimensional
inaga three-dimensional
glanaga multi-dimensional

nàg measure, size', nàger to measure, genàga commensurate, onnàgeá immeasurable, zenayga moderate, ozenayga immoderate, zenaygaser to moderate, naygar meter (measuring device), nayga metric, naygpar taxi

neg level genega even, ogenega uneven, odd, glanega multiplanar, negar level (planing device), enega bi-level, ébnega interplanar
nég space néga spatial, onég void, glanéga spacious, ónanég interval, ónanégser to space out, tomnég Lebensraum, cf. néb container
nib row, rank nibser to arrange, nibcer to adapt, niber to array, oniber to disarray, óniber to topple, nibémer to dispose, ábniba high-ranking
nip order, turn, sequence, queue nipber to order, onip disorder, onipber to mess up, nipba ordered, orderly, neat, sequential, onipba out of sequence, out of order, messed up, Heta nip ce? Whose turn is it?, jonipa next, janipa prior, niper to queue up, to line up, to get in order, zínipber to sort, vánip proper order, order
nud column nuda columnar, nibnubi coordinates, nibnubcan grid, matrix, row-column format
nod point zenod mid-point, center, zénod hub, intersection, ábnod high-point, climax, apex, óbnod low-point, nadir, ijnod starting point, ujnod endpoint, butt, terminal, drenod period, dot
ned surface, plane, face neda superficial, planar, záned stretch
nedet facet, glaneda multifaceted
nid line
(cf. nif wire)
nida linear, teacnid light of sight, nidber to align, obnider to underline, nidar ruler, elánid rail, jopnid track, kunid edge, border, rim, zyunid circumference, boundary, zyeiznid perpendicular (line), zyeiznida perpendicular, mamnid horizon, yaztanida horizontal, yabtanida vertical, kinid diagonal, zeynid transversal, kinida diagonal, zenid midline, nidcer to line up, queue up, form a line, iznid straight line, geizana nid parallel line, ébnida interlinear, drenid line of text, zanid front-line, frontier, forward line, óznid limit, íbnid limit
nìd ray, radius, nìdcer to radiate, marnìd sun ray, nìda radial
niid trait
néd volume
(cf. néb container)
nédàa voluminous, zúnéd sphere
gekumnéd cube
cag number caga numeric, cager to number, cág count, cáger to count, cáag calculation, cágar computer, cáagar calculator, cágud accountant, cágán account
nan time (frequency) anan one time
enan twice
glanan often, glanana frequent
glonan seldom
henan how often?


kín weight  
azan strength  
igan velocity  
íban distance  
izan direction  
ágan length  
záan width  
óban depth  
ában height  
zúan girth  
bar pressure  
kítan gravity  
gáan thickness  
ígan solidity  
zeban density  
maan brightness  
nangan frequency egan repetition, nan time(s)
jag age  
voz color  
gan quantity  
fin quality  
cág number meaning count; number is cag
nog degree  
nébgan volume nég volume, meaning a solid
végan ratio  
nas cost  
naz value  
zènidgan diameter as a line: zènid
zúnidgan circumference  
ènzègan radius as a line: nìd
nag dimension  
neg level  
nib row  
nip order also: turn, sequence
nub column (on a grid)
can shape  
néd volume, solid zúnéd sphere, gekumnéd cube, zúfnéd cylinder, defábnéd cone, aginéd cone
nid line kunid border, zúnid contour, zénid transverse, zéiznid perpendicular, kinid diagonal, áztanid horizontal, ábtanid vertical, zenid midline, iznid vector, uznid curve, curved line, geizana nid parallel
gun angle gegun right angle, gagun obtuse angle, gogun sharp angle, igun triangle, ugegun rectangle, uogegun rhomboid
nod point zenod midpoint, zúnod turning point, zénod intersection
kum side ágkum hypotenuse, abkum topside, obkum bottom, gekuma equilateral, ekuma bilateral, glakuma multilateral, ugekum square
ned plane eneda biplane, glaneda multifaceted
zúc circle èzúc semi-circle, zûc oval
zúfuf cylinder  
gin tip, point aginéd cone

Instruments and Machines (-ar, -ir, -ur)

The -ar suffix is used for instruments and devices in general. The -ir suffix is used for machines, while -ur is used for motors and engines. The distinction is only made when necessary.

Vehicles (par)

zíp travel zíper to travel, zíptam hotel, zípem travel destination, zìpud traveler, ifzíp tourism, ifzípud tourist, zípdren passport, zípmep itinerary, zípém suitcase or zípa ném suitcase
par vehicle para vehicular, parupip traffic, parzíp traffic, pareper to park, parepam garage, parepem parking lot
nunpar truck
éspar truck
nunparet van
makabnifpar tram(electrified overhead wire car)
binifpar trolley, cable car (pulled cable car)
elánaadpar train (iron rail car), elánaadpar epam railway station
naadpar train
ágpar train
gorsémpar train (compartmented vehicle)
dompar bus (city vehicle), dompar epam bus station, bus stop dompar epem
tánpar bus (people vehicle)
zípar bus (roundabout vehicle)
ébdompar motorcoach (intercity vehicle)
paret cart, wagon
curezúcpar motorcycle, parizber to drive/pilot, parizbud driver/pilot, parizbuda vegdren driver's license, pilot's license
taxi, cab
mamp flight mamper to fly, mampud aviator, mampen aviation
mampar airplane mamparam hangar, mamparem airport, mamparet small plane, memparag jumbo jet, zípuda mampar passenger plane, nunkína mampar cargo plane, dropeka mampar warplane, zúptuba mampar helicopter ("rotating wing plane")
memp ride memper to ride
mempar car memparam carport, garage, meparem parking lot, nàga mempar taxi
mimp sea voyage mimper to sail, mimpena maritime
mimpar ship mimparem marina, mimparof sail, óbmimpar submarine, mimparud mariner, mimpartim ship cabin, mimzíp cruise, mimpareb ship captain, nunmimpar cargo ship
maimpar hydroplane  
meampar funicular  
mompar subway momparem subway station, mompar zémep subway tunnel


c- object car tool
carán toolset
tuábcar handtool
éscar work tool
carném toolbox
egcarser to retool, repair
egcarsud repair technician
c- object càr instrument
càrán instrumentation
càréna instrumental
càrcer to be instrumental
c- object cur device
curán equipment
curbàser to equip
dopcurán ordnance
c- object cúr apparatus, system
cúra systemic
cúraser to systematize
c- object cir machine
cirán machinery
cira mechanical
cirud mechanic
ciraser to mechanize
c- object cír motor, engine
círàa motorized
círàser to motorize
c- object cìr mecanism  
p- go par vehicle, car
para vehicular
parupip traffic
parepam garage
parepem parking lot
círpar motor vehicle
círezúcpar motorcycle (also: círezúc motorbike)
goper to cut gopar knife
goparer to stab
ígfagoper to saw ígfagopar saw
gofer to shear gofar scissors, shears
grorber to shave grorbar shaver, razor
úzbaler to pinch úzbalar pliers
úzbalaret tweezers
zúfod screw zúfodar screwdriver
apéner to hit apénar hammer
apénarer to hammer
mamil rain ovmamilar umbrella
póner to fall ovpónar parachute
mar sun ovmarar parasol
biner to pull binar handle
mobser to dig mobsar excavator
uklan hollow uklar shovel
zéc hole zécbar bore
nofázer to iron nofázar iron
nofázenfaof ironing board
aman heat amsar heater
oman cold omsar refrigerator
óm ice ómsar freezer
ánifer to sew ánifur sewing machine
nif thread nifar needle
nivar pin
mék powder mékar mill, grinder
taéb hair taébar comb
taébarer to comb
vícer to clean vícar brush, sweep
'vícarer to brush, sweep
albaner to wipe albanar mop
albanarer to mop
álber to lift álbur elevator
teler to eat telar fork
tiler to drink tilar spoon
iber to receive ibar receiver
uber to send ubar transmitter
íjer to open íjar key, opener
azújer to lock azújar lock
céb container cébíjar opener (for cans, bottles, etc.)
dopa military dopar weapon
doapar gun

dopur rifle
igdopur machine-gun
dopir canon
doapir bazooka

mageler to cook magelar cooker
magiler to boil magilar boiler
magler to roast maglar roaster, oven
abmagler to grill abmaglar grill
tel food + éber to hold telébar platter
telarán dishes telarán milbar dishwasher
il liquid + újer to close ilújar faucet
mip river + ugser to brake mipugsar dam
mil water + ukser to flush miluksar toilet
drer to write drar pen
drear pencil
uga slow ugsar brake
úgcra elastic úgcrar spring
eker to play ekar toy
cág count cágar calculator
cágir computer
mancin photo mancinar camera
panmancin movie panmancinar movie camera
ceus sound ceusdrar recorder
ceus sound + iber to receive ceusibar radio
cin image + iber to receive cinibar television
teuz voice + iber to receive teuzibar telephone
mak electricity + cyefet cell makcéfet teuzibar cellphone
nif wire onifa teuzibar wireless phone
pan motion paneá teuzibar mobile phone
tuúb finger + drer write tuúdrar keyboard, typewriter
tun datum + káls conversion ébtunkálsar modem

Animals (pot)

All animal terms contain the notions of mobile (p) and organism (t).


pot animal (in general)
pót wild beast
pat bird
pet animal (land)
pét reptile
pelt insect
pit fish

Domesticated animals (pet)

male female child home noise other
pot animal pòt female animal potob baby animal potmet zoo poder to make an animal noise potun zoology
potuna zoological
potmet zoo
potuj hunt, potujud hunter, potujer tohunt
potaéb mane
poteub muzzle
poteib snout
potub paw
potuúb claw
tiúb tail
teúb horn
tampot pet, poténa animalistic, potán animalia, potan animality
apet horse apèt mare apetob foal apetam stable apeder to neigh apeta equine
apetapen equitation
apetigpek horse race
apetigpekam hippodrome
aopet gelding
epet bull epèt cow epetob calf epetam bull pen epeder to snort, epèder to moo epeta bovine
eapet buffalo
eopel beef
ipet ass ipèt she-ass ipetob donkey   ipeder to bray, hehaw iapet mule
upet ram upèt ewe upetob lamb   upeder to bleat uopet sheep, uopetbelud shepherd
utaef wool
íopel mutton
ópet goat ópèt nanny-goat ópetob kid     ópetbelud goatherder
ótaéf goat's hair
ápet hog ápèt sow ápetob piglet ápetam pigpen ápeder to squeal ápeta porcine
ápetôafud 'pig's foot
épet dog épèt bitch épetob pup épetam doghouse épeder to bark épeta canine, êpetob puppy
ípet cat ípèt she-cat ípetob kitten ípetam cathouse ípeder to meow, îpeder to purr ípeta feline, ípetobán litter
úpet rabbit úpèt doe rabbit ípetob baby rabbit úpetam rabbit cage   úpetôafud rabbit's foot
úlpet hare
tapet monkey tapèt female monkey     tapeder to make monkey noises taapet chimpanzee, tapetag ape
gapet elephant   gapetob elephant cub     gapeit hippopotamus
gepet rhinoceros          
vapet stag, hart vapèt doe, hind vapetob fawn      
vepet deer          
vipet roebuck          
vupet chamois          
vópet llama          
vápet antilope          
vépet gazelle          
vípet elk, moose          
fapet camel fapèt she-camel        
fepet dromadery          
kapet squirrel          
kepet polecat          
kipet badger          
kupet otter          
kópet weasel, stone marten          
kápet beaver          
képet ermine, stoat          
sapet hedgehog          
sepet porcupine          
sipet mole          
zapet tortoise         zapeit turtle
zataób turtle shell
klapet rat   klapetob baby rat klapetam rat's nest    
klepet mouse   klepetob young mouse   klapeder to squeek klepetar mouse (computer device)

Wild animals ( pyot )

male female child home noise other
ápót boar          
rapót lion rapôt lioness rapótob lion cub rapótam lion's den rapóder to roar  
repót tiger repôt tigress repótob tiger cub repótam tiger's den repóder to growl  
ripót leopard ripôt female leopard ripótob leopard dub     riapót panther
riepót jaguar
riipót puma
riupót lynx
rupót wolf rupôt she-wolf rupótob wolf cub rupótam wolf's lair rupóder to howl rupóta lupine
rópót fox rópôt vixen rópótob fox cub rópótam foxhole    
gápót hyena gâpót she-hyena gápótob baby byena   gápóder to laugh like a hyena gáapót jackal
tapót orang-utang          
tepót bear   tepótob bear cub tepótam bear cave tepóder to growl (like a bear)  

Reptiles (pyet) and amphibians (pyeit)

male female child home noise other
pyet reptile         pyeta reptilian
gapyet crocodile         gaypyet alligator
gepyet cayman          
kepyet lizard          
lopyet snake       lopyeder to hiss lopyeper to slither
lapyet boa          
lepyet cobra          
lipyet viper     lipyetam viper's nest    
sipet mole          
apyeat bat     apyeatam bat's cave    
epyeat vampire          
fapyet grass snake          
fepyet slug          
fipyet leech          
vapyet snail         vapyel escargot
vapyetigyena sluggish, at a snail's pace, vapyeper to move at a snail's pace
apyeit toad     apyeitam toadstool    
epyeit frog         epyeiper to leapfrog
ipyeit tree frog          

Insects (pelt)

male female child home noise other
pelt insect         peltán swarm, ovpeltil insecticide, peltujsil insecticide, pelteleat insectivore, pelper to crawl around
kopelt vermine          
kapelt louse         kapeltika lousy
kepelt flea         ovkepeltof flea collar, kepeltika flea-bitten
kipelt bug         ovkipeltil bug spray
apelat bee     apelatam beehive apelader to buzz apelatil honey, apelatél wax, apelatán swarm of bees
epelat wasp     epelatam wasp's nest    
ipelat horsefly          
upelat fly         ovupelatar fly-swatter
ópelat mosquito         ovópelanef mosquito net
lapelat maybug          
lepelat beetle          
tapelat cicada       tapelader to chirp  
gapelat butterfly         ápelaper to flit about
fapelt ant     fapeltam anthill   fapeltán swarm of ants
peét worm         peétéc wormhole
apeát silkworm          

Birds (pat)

male female child home noise other
pat bird     patam bird's nest pader to chirp patijob egg, patijser to hatch, patper to fly, patpier to fly off, pateub beak, patub wing, pataéb feather, patulob claw, patésun aviculture, patém farmyard, patán poultry
apat rooster, cock apàt hen apatob chick apatam chicken coop apader to crow apàtog chicken
epat duck, drake epàt hen epatob duckling   epader to quack epatob duckling
ipat turkey ipàt turkey hen     ipader to gobble
upat goose         upatijob goose-egg
ópat guinea-fowl          
ápat pigeon ápàt dove   ápatam pigeon house ápader to coo  
rapat eagle   rapatob eaglet      
repat vulture          
ripat kite          
rupat buzzard          
rópat hawk          
rápat falcon         rápatud falconer
fapat raven          
fepat crow          
fipat' magpie          
gapat ostrich          
gepat peacock          
dapat stork          
dapait heron          
depat marabou          
depait crane          
zapat swallow          
zepat martinet          
tapat parrot       tapader to parrot  
tepat budgie          
vapat nightingale          
vepat yellow canary          
'vipat canary          
vupat chaffinch          
vápat robin          
fapat thrush          
fepat warbler       fepader to warble, yodel  
fipat sparrow          
sapat partridge          
sepat quail          
sipat woodcock          
supat lark          
sópat pheasant          
sápat grouse          
lapait swan          
apait cormorant          
epait gull          
gapait penguin         gapaiper to strut like a penguin

Fish (pit)

pit fish pitán school of fish, pitub fin, pitaéb scale, pitésun pisciculture, pitun ichthyology, pitut ichthyologist, pitpin fishing, pitpinud fisherman
rapit shark  
repit dolphin  
ripit sperm whale  
rupit walrus  
rópit porpoise  
rápit swordfish  
répit tuna  
rípit sturgeon  
rúpit cod  
lapit ray  
lepit turbot  
lipit salmon  
lupit sole  
capit herring  
cepit barbel  
cipit anchovie  
cupit gilt-head  
apit sardine  
epit perch  
ipit pike  
upit carp  
ópit tench  
ápit gudgeon  
épit stickleback  
ípit marline  
gapit whale  
vapit eel  
apiet seal  
epiet sea-lion  

Crustaceans (piit)

piit shellfish  
apiit lobster  
epiit crayfish  
ipiit prawn  
upiit crawfish  
ópiit prawn  
ápiit shrimp ápiitpin shrimping
lapiit crab lapiitpin crabbing
apiét oyster piétaób shell, piéz pearl, piètésun ostreiculture
epiét mussle  
ipiét clam ipiétpinud clamdigger

Vegetation (fob)


fob vegetation
fab tree
fáb fruit
vob plant
vol legume
voc flower
voz color
vab grass

Trees and fruits

fob vegetation fobtun botany, fobtut botanist, fobéstun agronomy, fobésun agriculture, fobésuna agricultural, fobésud farmer, fobésem farm
fab tree fàb shrub, fàbet bush, fàbán shrubery, fabán forest, fabánésun forestry, fabánésud forester, fabánàca forested, fabánet woods, fabánog grove, copse, fàbánet scrub, fàbán thicket, fabmed orchard
fib trunk  
fub branch, limb fubet twig
faéb leaf faébán foliage, faébet bud
fáb fruit fábéna fruity, fábél jam, fâbél jelly, marmalade, fábóm sherbet, fábtul fruit cocktail, fábzeb pit (of fruit), fâob peel
fób root radicule, fóbober to deracinate
faob wood faoba wooden
faab sap  
faób bark  
afab apple tree afáb apple, afabet boxer tree
efab pear tree efáb pear, efabet spindle-tree
ifab cherry tree ifáb cherry, ifabet privet
ufab prune tree ufáb prune
ófab apricot tree ófáb apricot
áfab peach tree áfáb peach
éfab quince tree éfáb quince
ífab walnut tree ífáb walnut
úfab hazelnut tree úfáb hazelnut
alofàb blackberry vine alofáb blackberry
lafab orange tree lafáb orange
lefab mandarin tree lefáb mandarin
lifab lemon tree lifáb lemon
lufab grapefruit tree lufáb grapefruit
fefab date tree fefáb date
fifab banana tree fifáb banana
fufab cononut tree fufáb coconut
fófab pomegranite tree fófáb pomegranite
fífab fig tree fífáb fig
vafàb grape vine vafáb grape, vafàbem vineyard, vafábil grape juice, vafil wine, vafilsam winery, ígvafil vinaiger, vafilifud oinophile
cafàb tea plant cafaéb tea leaf, tea, cafil tea (drink), cafilam tea house
cefàb coffee plant cefáb coffee bean, coffee, cefil coffee (drink), cefilam cafe
cifàb blackcurrant bush cifáb blackcurrant
cufàb raspberry bush cufáb raspberry
cófàb currant bush cófáb currant
sifàb pepper plant sifáb pepper, sifáber to pepper, sifábika peppery
kafab olive tree kafáb olive, kafábél olive oil
rafab oak tree rafáb acorn
refab beech tree refaob beechwood
rifab chestnut tree rifáb chestnut
rufab plane tree  
rófab poplar tree 'rófaob poplar wood
ráfab birch tree ráfaob birchwood
réfab locust tree  
rífab chestnut tree fífáb chestnut
rúfab willow tree rúafab weeping willow
ralafab lime tree, linden ralafáb lime
ralefab maple tree ralefaob maplewood
ralofab elm tree ralofaob elmwood
dofab evergreen tree dofáb cone
dafab fir tree  
defab pine tree defáb pine cone, defaéb pine needle, defaob pine (wood)
dufab cypress tree dufaob cypress wood

Plants, vegetables, grains, and legumes

vob plant vober to plant, vobem plantation, vobud planter, vobier to harvest, vobijob harvest (time), vobésam farm, vobyesud farmer
vab grass vabem grassland, prairie, vabema rural, vabgorcer to mow, vabemet lawn, vabán grass (lawn), vabij germ, vabóg moss, vabib crop, harvest, vabiber to reap, vabam barn
veb ear, tuft, spike  
vib stem  
vaob hay  
vub blade, sprig, twig  
váb seed vábet seedling, váber to seed
vâb grain, bean  
vulob thorn, spine vulobika thorny
ovob cereal  
avob wheat avol bread, avolek flour
evob rye  
ivob barley  
uvob buckwheat  
óvob oat óvolek oatmeal
ávob hop ávil beer
évob rapeseed, colza  
ívob rice  
gavob sunflower gaváb sunflower seed
gevob corn, maize geváb kernel, gevobek cornmeal
givob tobacco givoc cigar, givocet cigarette, givov tobacco smoke
favob cotton faváb cottonseed, favof cotton fabric
fevob flax  
fivob hemp fuvov marijuana, pot
fuvob jute  
zavob strawberry bush zaváb strawberry
cavob fern  
cevob thistle  
civob nettle  
savob mushroom  
zevob basil  
zivob thyme  
zuvob rosemary  
ováb legume, bean  
aváb green bean
eváb lentil  
iváb pea  
uváb broad bean  
óváb lima bean  
vol vegetable volinud vegetarian, volem vegetable garden, volcer to vegetate
lovol tuber  
lavol potato  
levol beet level sugar, levela sweet
livol radish  
luvol carrot  
lávol artichoke  
lóvol turnip  
favol leek  
fevol onion  
fivol shallot  
fuvol garlic  
pavol cabbage  
pevol cauliflower  
bavol tomato bavil tomato juice
bevol eggplant  
bivol squash  
buvol cucumber ígza buvol pickle
bávol artichoke  
bóvol gherkin  
vavol lettuce  
vevol spinach  
vivol sorrel  
vuvol dandelion  
vávol watercress  
vóvol chicory  
gavol pumpkin  
gevol melon  
givol watermelon  
zavol parsley  

Flowers and colors

voc flower voca floral, vocer to flower, vocen flowering, vocud florist, vocán bouquet, vocaéb petal, vocém flowerbed, vocésun horticulture
avoc lily avoza white
evoc narcissus evoza yellow
ivoc poppy ivoza red
uvoc rose uvoza pink
óvoc cornflower óvoza blue
ávoc hydrangea ávoza mauve
évoc lilac évoza lilac
ívoc violet ívoza violet
úvoc carnation  
lovoc daisy  
lavoc lily of the valley  
levoc jonquil  
livoc geranium  
luvoc forget-me-not  
lávoc tulip  
lévoc dahlia  
lóvoc hyacinthe  
elavoc iris  
elevoc primrose  
elivoc chrysanthemum  

Colors (voz)

Change -oza to -òza to get -ish as in whitish (avòza).
Change -oza to -óza to get dark ... as in dark red (ivóza).

   voz color vooz tint, hue
   avoza white from avoc lily
   evoza yellow from evoc narcissus
   ivoza red from ivoc poppy
   uvoza pink from uvoc rose
   óvoza blue from óvoc cornflower
   ávoza mauve from ávoc hydrangea
   évoza lilac from óvoca lilac
   ívoza violet, purple from ívoc violet
   vaza green from vab grass
   moza black from mon darkness or moj night
   maza sky blue from mam sky or maj day
   èmoza gray from è half + moza black
   meza khaki from mel soil
   lafáza orange from lafáb orange
   rifáza maroon from rifáb water chestnut
   rífyza brown from rífáb chestnut
   vápeza beige from vápet antilope

Some Cross-thematic Analogies in Vocabulary

human tree grass food material
taob faob vaob taol faof
flesh wood hay meat board
human tree plant fruit fish cloth
taób faób vaób vâob piétaób taóf
skin bark husk rind shell leather
human tree plant flower bird fish
taéb faéb vaéb vocaéb pataéb pitaéb
hair leaf twig petal feather scale
human tree plant bird fish government animal
tub fub vub patub pitub dub petub
arm branch blade wing fin minister forepaw
society human work plant fish
deb teb seb veb piteb
chief head boss tuft fish-head
form gesture knowledge action society citizen people person past+person person life speech
cén bén tén sén dotcén ditbén udánbén utbén ajutbén utcén tijbén dabén
style manner profession tradecraft civilization civility custom habit tradition genre lifestyle dialect
t-d t-z d-c d-z s-c s-z c-z c-s
teud teuz deuc deuz seuc seuz ceuz ceus
shout voice accent song noise melody tone sound
t-c t-s b-c t-p t-d c-c iz-c n-c ij-c
teacer teaser beacer teaper teader ceacer izeacer neacer ijeacer
to see to look to watch to visit to witness to seem to show to aim to perceive

mar mag man mak maz mav mal mam map maf maj
sun fire light electricity sparkle flame air sky wind cloud day

mer meg mek mez mef mev mel mem meb mep mej med met
planet rock dust gem brick porcelain soil land mountain road noon park garden

ij tij patij tobij atobij vobij tesij
beginning birth egg embryo germ seed idea


place name adjective inhabitant language
Asyam Asya Asyat n/a
Afrikam Afrika Afrikat n/a
Algeryam Algerya Algeryat Algerya Arabad
Albanyam Albanya Albanyat Albanyad
Amerikam Amerika Amerikat Amerikad
Armenyam Armenya Armenyat Armenyad
Afganam Afganya Afganat n/a
Argentinyam Argentinya Argentinyat Argentinya Spanyad
Arabam Araba Arabat Arabad
Balujam Baluja Balujat Balujad
Ciryam Cirya Ciryat Cirya Arabad
Cenegalam Cenegala Cenegalat Cenegalad
Ckotlandam Ckotlanda Ckotlandat Ckotlandad
Cpanam Cpana Cpanat Cpanad
Cwedam Cweda Cwedat Cwedad
Danmarkam Danmarka Danmarkat Danmarkad
Englandam Englanda Englandat Englandad
Europam Europa Europat n/a
Francam Franca Francat Francad
Finlandam Finlanda Finlandat Finlandad
Germanyam Germanya Germanyat Germanyad
Helvetyam Helvetya Helvetyat Helvetyad
Holandam Holanda Holandat Holandad
Italyam Italya Italyat Italyad
Irlandam Irlanda Irlandat Irlandad
Kanadam Kanada Kanadat Kanada Englandad/Francad
Lugandam Luganda Lugandat Lugandad
Nairobam Nairoba Nairobat Nairobad
Omir-Afrikam Omir-Afrika Omir-Afrikat Omir-Afrika Holandad
Pakistanam Pakistana Pakistanat n/a
Rodesyam Rodesya Rodesyat n/a
Setlandam Setlanda Setlandat n/a
Tailandam Tailanda Tailandat Tailandad
Ugandam Uganda Ugandat Ugandad
Vietnam Vietnama Vietnamat Vietnamad
Zululandam Zululanda Zululandat Zululandad



The author of Unilingua, Agapoff, uses a double quote to signal capitalization and thus dispenses with all majuscules. In this Mirad textbook, however, majuscules (upper case graphemes) are used and capitalization adheres to the American English model.
In this book, the mostly Cyrillic single-grapheme characters used by Agapoff for yodified vowels are replaced with the following system:
Pre-yodified vowels, that is, those preceded by a y-glide sound, take an acute accent:
plain vowel pre-yodified vowel
a á (ya)
e é (ye)
i í (yi)
o ó (yo)
u ú (yu)
Post-yodified vowels, that is, those followed by a y-glide sound, take a grave accent:
plain vowel post-yodified vowel
a à (ay)
e è (ey)
i ì (iy)
o ò (oy)
u ù (uy)
Circum-yodified vowels, that is those that are both preceded and followed by a y-glide sound, take a circumflex accent:
plain vowel circum-yodified vowel
a â (yay)
e ê (yey)
i î (yiy)
o ô (yoy)
u û (yuy)
A pre-yodified vowel always begins a new vowel syllabic nucleus, whereas a post-yodified vowel ends a vowel syllabic nucleus.
Upper-case vowels take the yodifying accents just as the lower-case values do (thus Á, È, Ô, etc.


The punctuation marks in Mirad are the same as in English. For example, a question mark (?) is used at the end of a sentence or sentence fragement to signal an interrogation.



All nouns in their base form end in a consonant. This distinguishes them from adjectives and conjugated verbs, which end in a vowel.


Nouns are made plural by adding the suffix -i.
singular plural
tob man tobi men
dat friend dati friends
car instrument cari instruments


Although nouns do not have inherent gender, the feminine or female-related counterpart of a noun can be formed by post-yodifying the ordinal (inner) vowel, that is, by adding the grave accent ` to the vowel. If the vowel is already pre-yodified (with an acute accent), then the acute accent is replaced with a circumflex (^) (circum-yodification) to show that it is both pre-yodified and post-yodified.

male-related female-related
tad father tàd mother
tob man tòb woman
tóáv sock tóâv stocking
epet bull epèt cow

Case Tagging

Nouns can take the following case endings, which are shortcuts for prepositional phrases:
case ending category base cased form
-a genetive/possessive/relative/ablative [origin] tob man toba of the man, human (adj.), man's, from the man
-u locative/dative [destination] tam house tamu to the house, (at) home, for the house
comitive [accompaniment] at I, me atà with me
instrumental [means] és work ésè through / by / via work
privative ["without"] tec meaning tecò without meaning, senseless

Examples of the genetive/possessive case:
Meira zem ce gra ama. = The earth's core is very hot.
Ata ted tome íbà. = My father lives far away.
Ed et te dad ifana? = Do you know the language of love?

Examples of the locative/dative case:
Pu tamu! = Go home!
Ít peé tamu. = She is staying at home / in the house / home.
At teaco et uda moju. = I'll see you this evening. (= at this evening)
Buu dén atu! = Give the book to me!
Ev ud ce atu? = Is this for me?

Examples of the comitive case:
Upu atà! = Come with me!
Ud ca ekpan tija tujà. = This was a life-and-death struggle.
At ubeé uda ébdren ifanà. = I am sending you this letter with love.

Examples of the instrumental case:
Et vege nacikcer anà esè. = You can get rich only through work.
It aksa koenè ván. = He succeded by hiding the truth.
Ágpar pa Parisè. = The train went through Paris.

Examples of the privative case:
Et vò vege akser nacò. = You cannot succeed without money.
Tij ifanò vò naze ser. = Life without love is not worth living.
Od et su atò? = What would you do without me.



All animate pronouns (those referring to people) end in t in their base form, while all inanimate pronouns (those referring to things) end in d in their base form. Pronouns can be singular or plural. All plural pronouns take the plural suffix i.
animate animate
singular plural
ot? who?, whom? oti? who all?
at I, me ati we, us
et you eti* you (pl.), you all
it he, him, that person iti they, these persons
ìt she, her ìti they (fem.)
ut this person, he uti those persons, they
ót nobody, no one óti none
át everyone, everybody, each person áti all
ót another, someone else éti others
ít such a person íti such people
ét whoever, anyone óti any
út someone, somebody úti certain people
oát not a single person, nobody, no one  
get the same person geti the same ones
oget someone else ogeti others
gat another one gati several
singular plural
od what odi what things
ad that (relative), the one adi the things that
id that idi those things
ud this udi these things
ód nothing ódi nothing
ád everything, each ádi all things
ód something else, another édi other things
íd such a thing ídi such things
éd whatever, anything édi any
úd something údi some things, certain things
oád not a single thing, nothing oádi none
ged the same thing gedi the same things
oged something else ogedi other things
gad another one gadi several things

    • Note: Agapoff prefers ait, eit, iit for ati, eti, and iti.


All pronouns can take cases, just as nouns do:
genetive/possessive ("of")
ablative ("from")
dative ("to/in/on/at")
comitive ("with") instrumental ("by/through/via") privative ("without")
ata my, of me, from me atu to me atà with me atè by me atò without me
eta your, of you, from you etu to you età with you etè by you etò without you
ita his, of him, from him itu to him ità with you itè by him itò without him
ìta her, of her, from her ìtu to her ìtà with her ìtè by her ìtò without her
atia our, of us, from us atiu to us atià with us atiè by us atiò without us
ota whose?, of whom?, from whom? otu to whom otà with whom otè by whom otò without whom
áta everyone's átu to everyone átà with everyone átè by everyone átò without everyone
oda which, of what, from what odu to which, at which, in which odà with what? odè by what?, how? odò? without what?
ida that, of that, from that, those idu to that, at that, in that idà with that idè by that, thus idò' without that
uda this/these, of this, from this udu to/at this, therefore udà with this udè by this, thus udò without this
áda every, each, all ádu to everything, in everyting ádà with everything ádè by everything, by all means ádò without everything
óda not, not a ódu to nothing ódà with nothing ódè by nothing ódò without nothing
oáda not a single, no oádu in not a single one, to none oádà with nothing oádè by nothing, in no way --
éda any, whichever édu to anything édà with whatever édè by whatever, however édò without whatever
úda some, a certain údu at a certain thing údà with something údè by something, somehow údò without something
geda same, the same gedu to the same thing gedà with the same thing gedè by the same thing gedò without the same thing
ogeda different, the other, another ogedu to another thing ogedà with another thing ogedè by something else ogedò without another thing

Possessive Pronouns

Any of the above pronominal adjective forms can be substantivized by adding -c. The resulting possessive pronouns can then take the plural affix and case endings.
singular plural
atac mine ataci mine
etac yours etaci yours
itac his itaci his
ìtac hers ìtaci hers
atiac ours atiaci ours
etiac yours etiaci yours
itiac theirs itiaci theirs
ìtiac theirs ìtiaci theirs
utac one's utaci one's
otac? whose? otaci whose
átac everyone's átaci everyone's
ótac nobody's ótaci nobody's
odac? which one odaci which ones
ódac the other one ódaci the other ones
udac this one udaci these
idac that one idaci those
ádac each one ádaci all of them
édac any one, whichever one édaci whichever ones
Any of the above substantival pronouns can take case endings:
Mirad English
ataca of mine
otacà with whose
átacu to everyone's
udacò without this one

Mirad English
Uda tam ce atac. That house is mine.
Oda déni et dédaé? Which books have you read?
Ída tej aju vò teacâe. Such a life has not been seen before.
Buu atu udi! Give me those!
Áda tej nazace. Every life counts.
Ádac nazace. Each one counts.
Áta tej nazace. Everyone's life counts.
Átac nazace. Everyone's counts.
Áda évcunuti kode. All lawyers lie.
Áti kode. All of them lie.
Át kodeé. Everyone is lying.
Ád ce kod. Everything is a lie.
Mar ce zem áda. The sun is the center of everything.
Ót ége kaer if ádu. One can find pleasure in everything.
If ége uper bi éd. Pleasure can come from anything.
Ud ce ga fia vél id (or: ga fia idu). This is better than that.
Od ce eta dún? What is your name?
At vage éd et vage. I want what(ever) you want.
At vò ta ev it upo. I didn't know whether he would come.
At ta ad it upo. I knew (that) he would come.
Ad tej ce gúa vò vege vodé. That life is hard cannot be denied.
Ev it íztejo vò twe. Whether he will survive is unknown.
At vò te ev it íztejo. I don't know if he'll survive.
Ad ìt sa ce ota seun. What she did is nobody's business.
Atac ce ga aga vé etac. Mine is bigger than yours.
Odac ce etac. Which one is yours?
Édac cu fia atu. Whichever one would be fine for me.
Otac ce ud? Whose is this?
Otaci ce udi? Whose are these?
Ev et co ata dat? Are you going to be my friend?
Oádad ifca atu. I did not like a single one.
Odè ìt tujswa? How (by what) was she killed?
Otà et pa? With whom did you go?
...otacò ait vò vegu íztejer. ...without whose we could not survive.
Odu et sa id? Why (for what) did you do it (that)?
Iti údè kaa mep. They somehow found the way.
Ébdren drwa atà otè? The letter was written to me by whom?
Ota tamu et peé? To whose house are you going?
Otacu et peé? To whose are you going?


By "correlatives" is meant a set of functional words in the languages than can be arranged in a matrix, all sharing a set of "deictic" or "specifier" prefixes. For example, the English words "which, what, where, why, when, how, who, whether, etc." can be considered part of a matrix of correlatives, because they all ask a question about topics such as "place", "time", "manner", and are therefore called "interrogative correlatives." The situation is similar in Unilingua. Note, however, that some of the correlative words in the chart below are slightly different from those invented by the original author of Unilingua.

Deictic morphemes (specifiers)

category deictic morpheme
interrogative od- which, what
relative ad- the, the one which
proximal ud- this
distal id- that
intensive íd- so, such a
generic úd- some, a certain
distributive ád- all, every, each
indeterminate éd- any, whatever
negative ód- no, not any
identical ged- same, selfsame
non-indentical oged- different, other

Dimensional Classifiers

The above deictic morphemes combine with the following dimensional classifiers to form a whole matrix of functional deictic correlatives:
category classifier short version
person -t
thing -d
place -em m
time -job j
quality/kind -én
quantity -gan
degree -nog
frequency -jig

Matrix of Deictic Correlatives

thing person adjective place time manner kind frequency quantity degree
od what ot who oda which odmu where odju when odè how odéna what kind of odjigu how often odganu how much odnogu how
ud this ut this person uda this udmu here udju now udè this way udéna this kind of udjigu this often udganu this much udnogu to this extent
id that it that person, he ida that idmu there idju then idè that way, thus idéna that kind of idjigu that often idganu that much idnogu to that extent
íd such a thing ít such a person ída such, such a ídmu at such a place ídju at such a time ídè in such a way, so ídéna such a ídjigu so often ídganu so much ídnogu so
úd something út someone úda some, a certain údmu somewhere údju sometime údè somehow údéna some kind of údjigu sometimes údganu some údnogu somewhat
ád everything át everyone áda every, each ádmu everywhere ádju every time, always ádè in every way ádéna every kind of ádjigu at all times ádganu all of ádnogu completely
éd whatever, anything ét whoever, anyone éda whichever, any édmu wherever, anywhere édju whenever, anytime édè however, in any way édéna whatever kind of édjigu however often édganu however much, any édnogu to any extent
ód nothing ót nobody óda no, not a ódmu nowhere ódju never ódè in no way ódéna no kind of ódjigu not once ódganu not any, no ódnogu not at all
ged the same thing get the same person, self geda the same, the very gedmu at the same place gedju at the same time gedè in the same way gedéna the same kind of gedjigu as often gedganu, ge as much gednogu, ge to the same degree, as
oged something else oget someone else ogeda the other, another ogedmu elsewhere ogedju at another time ogedè elsewise ogedéna another kind of ogedjigu at a different frequency ogedganu not as much ogednogu otherwise

Basic deictic adjectives / Determiners

category determiner example
indefinite/unary a a a tam a house
definite/relative ada the ada tam the house, ada tami the houses
interrogative oda which oda dén which book, oda déni which books
proximal uda this, these uda pat this bird, uda pati these birds
distal ida that, those ida pat that bird, ida pati those birds
negative óda no óda mep no road, óda mepi no roads
totalative áda every, all, each áda mep every road, áda mepi all roads
indeterminate éda any, whichever éda voz any color, éda vozi whichever colors
intensive ída such a, such ída dún such a name, ída dúni such names
partitive úda some, a certain, certain úda tob some man, úda tobi certain men
identical geda same geda dún the same name
non-identical ogeda different, other ogeda dún different name, another name
quasi-identical gèda similar gèda ceus a similar sound
superior ga more ga nac vé at more money than I
equal ge as much, as many ge job vé et vage as much time as you want
inferior go less, fewer go és less work
majorative gla a lot, much gla if a lot of fun
quasi-majorative glà a goodly portion of, several glà jubi several days
excessive gra too much, too many gra tel too much food
maximal most gá poti most animals
sufficient enough, quite a bit gé job enough time
minorative glo very little, very few glo auti very few individuals
insufficient gro too little, too few gro ék too little effort
minimal the least gó ék the least effort

Note: Nouns in Mirad are not normally accompanied by a definite article (the) or an indefinite article (a/an). The word tob can mean man, a man, or the man, depending on circumstances. Where further definition is required, a, the numeric or deictic adjective one, can be used for the indefinite article, while ada, the deictic adjective the can be used for the definite article.

Deitic pronouns

Inanimate pronouns
singular plural
od? what? odi? what (things)
ad the thing (that) adi the things (that)
ud this udi these
id that idi those
ád everything ádi all things
éd anything, whatever édi any things
íd such, such a thing ídi such things
ód nothing ódi none
úd something údi certain things
ged the same thing gedi the same things
oged another, something else ogedi other things
gèlac a similar thing gèlaci similar things
gac more gaci more things
gec as much geci as many things
goc less goci fewer things
glac a lot, much glaci many things
glàc a goodly portion glàci several things
grac too much graci too many things
gác the most gáci most things
géc enough, quite a bit géci quite a few things
gloc very little gloci few things
groc too little groci too few things
góc the least góic as few things as possible
Animate pronouns
singular plural
ot? who? oti who (pl.)
at I ati we
et you eti you (pl.)
ut this person, this one uti these
it that person, that one iti those
át everyone áti all people
ét anyone, whoever éti any people
ít such a person íti such people
ót not a single person, noboby óti none
út somebody úti certain people
get the same person, self geti the same people, themselves
oget' the other person, someone else ogeti others, other people
ìt that female,she, her ìti they (f.), them
ùt this female, she, her ùti they (f.), them
aut person, individual auti persons, people
out nobody, no one outi no people, none
  ga auti more people
  ge auti as many people
  go auti fewer people
  gla auti many people
  glà auti several people
  gra auti too many people
  gá auti most people
  gé auti quite a few people
  glo auti few people
  gro auti too few people
  gó auti as few people as possible

Note: As with all pronouns and nouns, the above pronouns can appear in the genetive/ablative/possessive case (-a) or dative/locative case (u). For example: otu to whom, ota whose, áta everyone's, gla autia most people's, ata my, etu to you. The possessive adjective forms can, in turn, be substantivized by adding -c (thing): atac mine, atacu to mine, otac whose, getac the same person's, etc.

Determiners of Place

odmu? where?, whither? (also: odma? from where?, whence?)
udmu here (also: udma from here, hence)
idmu there (also: idma from there, thence)
admu at/in/to the place where (relative)
ódmu nowhere
ádmu everywhere
édmu anywhere, whereever
ídmu at/in/to such a place
ogedmu elsewhere (ogedem alibi)
údmu somewhere
gedmu at/in/to the same place (also: gedma from the same place)
gèdmu at/in/to a similar place (also: gèdma from a similar place)

Determiners of Time

odju? when? (also: odja whence?, ji odjob since when?, etc.)
udju now (also: udja hence)
idju then (also: idja thence)
adju when, at the time when (relative)
ódju never
ádju each time, everytime, always, ever
édju anytime, whenever
ídju at/in/to such a time
údju sometime
gedju at the same time
ogedju at another time

Determiners of Quality

odéna? what kind of?
udéna this kind of
idéna that kind of
adéna the/what kind of (relative)
ódéna no kind of
ádéna every kind of
édéna any/whatever kind of
ídéna such
údéna some kind of
gedéna the same kind of
gèdéna a similar kind of
ogedéna another kind of

Determiners of Degree

odnogu? how (...big, ...little, etc.)?, to what extent?
udnogu this, to this degree
idnogu that, to that extent
adnogu how, to what degree, to the extent (that...) (relative)
ódnogu not at all, to no extent
ádnogu completely, to the full extent
édnogu however, to whatever extent
ídnogu so, to such an extent
údnogu in some way, somehow
ge, genogu equally, to the same degree, as
oge, ogenogu unequally, to a different extent
gè, gènogu similarly, to a similar extent
ga, ganogu more, to a greater extent
gla, glanogu very, greatly, very much so
gra, granogu too, to too great an extent, overly, extremely
go, gonogu less, to a lesser extent
glo, glonogu slightly, to a small extent
gro, gronogu to too small a degree, under
gá, gánogu maximally, to the greatest extent possible
gó, gónogu minimally, to the smallest extent possible
gé, génogu enough, rather, pretty, sufficiently, quite
ogé, ogénogu insufficiently
fià, finogu to a good extent, well
fuà, funogu to a bad extent, poorly
végà, véga nogu proportionately
vácà, váca nogu to the right extent, properly, duly
vócà, vóca nogu to the wrong extent, disproportionately, unduly
anogu primarily
enogu secondarily
uja nogu ultimately

Determiners of Manner, Means

odè? how?, in what way?
udè this way, thus
idè that way, thus
adè how, in the way that, as
ódè in no way
ádè in every way
édè in whatever way, however
ídè so, in such a way
údè somehow'
gedè in the same way, also
ogedè otherwise
gèdè similarly, likewise

Determiners of Quantity

The noun following the determiner is in the singular if a mass noun (odganu dril how much ink) or in the plural if a countable noun (odganu jubi how many years).
odganu?* how much, how many
udganu this much, this many
idganu that much, that many
adganu how much, how many, the amount/number that
ódganu no, not any, no amount of
ádganu all
édganu any, however much, however many
ídganu so much, so many
údganu a certain amount of, some, some number of'
ge, geganu as much, as many
oge, ogeganu a different quanity of
ga more
go less, fewer
gla a lot (of), much, many
glà a goodly amount (of), quite a few
glo little, too many
glò barely, scarcely, hardly
gro too little, too few
as little/few as possible
a fair amount (of), enough, quite a lot (of)
* Literally: in what quantity, as in Odganu nac et àce? How much money do you have?. Used substantively, Odganu becomes Odgan, as in Odgan et àce? How much do you have? If followed by a mass noun, gla means much; if followed by a counting noun, gla means many; if followed by an adjective or adverb, it means very. All of the ga...ge...go words are multifunctional in this way.

Determiners of Frequency

frequency (jig = rate, frequency
odjigu? how often?(lit: on how many occasions)
udjigu this often
idjigu that often
adjigu as often as, the rate that
ódjigu never
ádjigu every time
édjigu however often, anytime
ídjigu so often
údjigu with some frequency, sometimes'
gejigu as often
ogejigu at a different rate
gajigu more often
gojigu less often
glajigu (very) often, frequently
glojigu seldom, rarely, not very often
grajigu too often
gájigu as often as possible
grojigu too seldom
gójigu as seldom as possible
géjigu quite often, rather often, frequently enough

Prepositions and relational adverbs

positive   middle   negative  
ab on, at the top of eb between ob off, at the bottom of
áb above, up éb amid, among ób below, down
with, along by, via without
ib away from ---   ub toward
íb far from ---   úb near to
bi from, of be at bu to
starting with, since ---   ending with, up to, as far as
án together ---   ón apart
za in front of ze in the middle of zo behind
forward across back
áz flush with éz in óz out
iza straight --- uza roundabout
íz beyond ---   úz around, about
zi right ---   zu left
all over through zúa round
ja before je during, while jo after
ahead (in time) throughout back (in time)
ji since --- ju until
av for ev if ov against

Compound prepositions

Prepositions can be compounded for more detailed senses:
compound preposition example
ézbu into It tôapa ézbu tim. He walked into the room.
ézbi in from At upa ézbi mamil. I came in from the rain.
ézbe in (location) Dén ce ézbe ném. The book is inside the box.
ózbu out to Po ózbu ekem. Go out to the playground.
ózbi out of, out from It upea ózbi ita ésim. He was coming out of his office.
ózbe out in (as in: out in the backyard) Potòg ce ózbe mamil. The pet is out in the rain.
ábzè over Mampar pa ábzè tam. The plane flew over the house.
óbzè under At tôapa óbzè domep. I walked under the highway.
zèbu across to At tôapa zèbu ogeda kum. I walked over to the other side.
zèbi across from It beme zèbi at. He sits across from me.
zòbu back to Ait pee zòbu Berlin. We are going back to Berlin.
zòbe back at Ait ce zòbe tom. We are back at home.
zòbi back from Ait ce zóbi Berlin. We are back from Berlin.
zàbu ahead to Teaso zàbu eta oj. Look forward to your future.
zàbi ahead of Ed et ce zàbi at? Are you ahead of me?
ónbi apart from Pa ónbi ogeti. It went apart from the others.
ánbe together with Upo ánbe at. Come along with me.
izbu straight to Po izbu ótotem! Go straight to hell!
izbi straight from Ìt upa izbi nunem. She came straight from the market.
izbe right at At ca izbe zem. I was right at the center.
zabi in front of At ce zabi et. I am in front of you.
zobi in back of Et ce zobi at.' You are in back of me.
abu onto Bo dén abu cem. Put the book onto the table.
abe on (at) Dén ce abe cem. The book is on the table.
obi off of Bio dén obi cem. Take the book off of the table.
obe on the underside of Ece úd obe cem. There is something on the underside of the table.
ábu up to Po ábi eta tim. Go up to your room.
ábe up in Od ce íd ábe mam? What is that up in the sky?
ábi up from It upa ábi aaned. He came up from the first floor.
ábè up (via) At tôapa ábè meb. I walked up the mountain.
óbu down to Upo óbu momtim. Come down to the basement.
óbe down in At ce óbe momtim. I am down in the basement.
óbi dowm from Upo óbi mamtim. Come down from the attic.
óbè down (via) It igpa óbè meb. He hurried down the mountain.
óbézbu down into Pa óbézbu mom. He went down into the underground.
úzbu around to Po úzbu ogeda kum tama. Go around to the other side of the house.
úzbè around (via) Par pa úzbè tam. The car went around the house.
ízbi past, beyond Par pa ízbi ait. The car went past us.
ízbu on to At pa ízbu Kanad. I went on to Canada.

Postpositions / Cases

The following case endings or postpositions are shortcuts for prepositions:

short form long form
-a of, from bi
-u to, on, at bu to or be at / in / on
by, via, through, per
For example, the following expressions are equivalent:
long form short form
be tam bi X at the house of X tamu Xa
bi dom bu dom from town to town doma domu
tej bò if life without pleasure tej ifò
bè Paris by way of Paris Parisè
bà at with me atà

Other Prepositional Constructions

vélu regarding, concerning, about, with respect to
gè ov despite
kumu next to, beside, along, on the side of
ón bi apart from
án bu together with
gal in addition to, plus, including, besides
gol minus, except
gar times, multiplied by
gor divided by
zamu...-a in the face of (also: be zamu bi)
cànu ...-a in the guise of
canu ...-a in the form of
debanu ...-a under the auspices of
ûb in the presence of, in the face of
dida ...-è at the request of
iju...-a at the end of
tecu...-a in the sense of
av búun...-a for the sake of
... thanks to
... along the lines of
izanu...-a in the direction of
zág along
kumnidu ...-a on the edge of, on the brink of
genidu ...-a in line with, parallel to
úbanu ...-a in the vicinity of, around
gáanu ...-a in excess of
bi abem...-a off the top of
bi kumnidu...-a from the brink of
dudea...-u in response to
ovbea in opposition to
... in contrast to
lovanu...-a in spite of
oejanu...-a in the absence of
usu ...-a because of
usu ...-a on account of
gè ov notwithstanding
...-è per
vél than, compared to, relative to
adju ...-a at the time of
admu ...-a at the place of

Using prepositions

Prepositions go between the two elements they link, just as in English. Here are some examples:
Mirad English
Odju et po bu déntam?(or: déntamu) When are you going to the library?
Uda bun ce av et (or: etu). This gift is for you.
Dyen ca ab cem (or: cemu). The book was on the table.
Upu bay at (or: atà). Come with me.
Iyt igpa ub titam. She ran toward the school.
Et co éz gela titim. You will be in the same class.
Tob tyoyapa ózbi tam. The man walked out of the house.
Mampar zaymampa ábzè dom. The plane flew over the city.
Nidpar pa bi him bu hum. The train went from here to there.
Et voy ibo bun ju zemoj. You won't receive the gift until midnight.

Prepositions prefixed to verbs

As adverbials, many prepositions can be prefixed to other words, especially to verb bases. The following is a list of per (go) and ber (put) verbs with prepositional prefixes. Note that prepositions ending in b drop the b before the verb bases per and ber.

intransitive   transitive  
aper get on aber put on
eper stop eber stop
oper get off ober take off
áper rise áber raise
éper intervene éber block
óper descend óber lower
iper go (away) iber receive
uper come uber send
úper approach úber bring near
íper go away íber take away
ézper enter ézber bring in
ízper surpass ízber take beyond
zéper go through zéber pull through
zèper transit zèber take across
ánper meet ánber unite
ónper separate ónber separate
izper go straight/ head (for) izber guide
zúper roll zúber turn
ózper exit ózber take out
zòper return, go back zòber take back
zòpuer arrive back zòbuer give back
zateaser look forward zoteaser look behind
zèteaser look across zíteaser look all around
zéteaser look through ízteaser look beyond
ézteaser look in ózteaser look out
ábteaser look up óbteaser look down
ibteaser look away izteaser look straight (ahead)
ziteaser look left zuteaser look right
uzteaser look askance úzteaser look around
avdaer speak for ovdaer speak against

Personal pronouns and pronominal adjectives

Personal pronouns have three persons (represented by the ordinal vowels a (1st), e (2nd), and i (3rd).
The plural forms have the suffix i.
There are also three case forms, which are alternate ways of expressing prepositional relations: Add -a for the genetive/possessive (of, from); -u for the locative/dative (to, at, 'for); (short for ) for with; è (short for ) for through/by, and ò (short for ) for without.
Note: These are the same case endings that can be added to any nouns. For example, tamu (to the house), taébò (without hair), teda (father's).
nominative/accusative genetive/possessive dative/locative comitive instrumental privative
at (I, me) ata (my, mine) atu (to/for me) atà (with me) atè (through/by me) atò (without me)
et (you) eta (your, yours) etu (to/for you) età (with you) etè (through/by you) etò (without you)
it (he, him) ita (his) itu (to/for him) ità (with him) itè (through/by him) itò (without him)
ìt (she,her) ìta (her, hers) ìtu (to/for her) ìtà (with her) ìtè (through/by her) ìtò (without her)
ati (we, our) atia (our, ours) atiu (to/for us) atià (with us) atiè (through/by us) atiò (without us)
eti (you [all]) etia (your, yours) etiu (to/for you) etià (with you) etiè (through/by you) etiò (without you)
iti (they, them (m. or m/f)) itia (their) itiu (to/for them) itià (with them) itiè (through/by them) itiò (without them)
ìt (they (f.)) ìtia (their) ìtiu (to/for them) ìtià (with them) ìtiè (through/by them) ìtiò (without them)

Possessive pronouns are expressed with the addition of -c to the genetive/possessive ending:
English Mirad
This book is mine. Uda dén ce atac.
Those books are ours. Ida déni ce atiaci.
Theirs has not arrived. Itiac vò puaé.
Theirs have arrived. Itiaci puaé.
Is this yours or mine? Ev ud ce etacatac?
Will you come to mine tomorrow? Ev et upo atacu zajubu?
Nothing will happen without yours. ód swo etacò.


Correlative Conjunctions/Adverbs

positive neutral negative
va yes ve maybe vo no
indeed possibly not
và...và both...and vè...vè either...or vò...vò neither...nor
av that, so that, for ev whether, if ov lest, against
à and è or ò but
with by, through, via without
ga more (than) ge as, equal to go less (than
most enough least
also, moreoever even, including except, but
gla very gle somewhat glo slightly, little, not very
gra too (much) gre just, exactly gro too little
Note: oev = unless; ad means that as the conjunction introducing a factual clause, not to be confused with av meaning so that introducing a subjunctive or unreal clause.
English Mirad
I do want to go, but I cannot. At vage per ò at vege.
Do you know whether he's coming. Ev et te ev it upo?
It will either rain or snow. mamilo màlómo.
If it rains, I'll not come. Ev mamilo at vò upo.
No, it's not true that he died. Vo, ce váa ad it tuja.
My father and mother are still alive. Ata ted à tèd gaju tejeé.
Is it true that you were you born here? Ev et tija udmu?
We did not know (that) you were married. Ati ta ad et ce tadca.
The fact that you work is not the issue. Ad et ése vò ce kos.
Whether you work or play is more important. Et ése eke ce ga kíta.
Unless you go to school you will never learn anything. Oev et po titamu et ódju tio úd.
In order to learn you must study more. Av ticer et ége ga tier.
Everyone except you is ready. Yat et ce perfia.
Did you want me to come long?' Ev et vaga av at àpu?
I want you not to leave. At vage ov et piu.
Don't tell her what I did. Ov du ìtu od at sa.
Are you for or against me? Ev et av è ov at?

Other Conjunctional Expressions

conjunction example
ad that Ati ta ad it upo. We knew (that) he would come.
av so that At egdo id av et tico. I will repeat it so that you'll understand.
avad because It tuja bi us avad it vò abá ígtef. He died because he was not wearing a helmet.
ju until Ju et uvdo at vò teapo et. Until you apologize, I will not visit you.
ji since Ji et pua at cee iva. Since you arrived, I've been happy.
ánad even though, although Ánad et oka, at gaju fítce et. Even though you lost, I still respect you.
ovad despite the fact that Ovad et zageda, et vò upa. Despite the fact that you agreed in advance, you didn't come.
igjo as soon as Igjo ìt pua at gafi teca. As soon as she arrived, I felt better.
váfà ge just as Váfà ge at jada, ija mamiler. Just as I predicted, it started raining.
ge ev as if Ìt teubozá ge ev ìt ca iva. She smiled as if she were happy.
ev whether At vò te ev mamilo. I don't know whether it will rain.
ev if Et zàpo ev et éko. You will advance if you try.
à and Et à at ce gá fia. You and I are the best.
è or Et vege jobier è kobier; ce eta kebi. You can borrow or steal; it's your choice.
kéà ad in the event that Kéà ad mamilo, aúbio eta mamilovar. In the event that it should rain, bring along your umbrella.
fiákea av in the hope that It nucbia drénet fiákea av it ako. He bought a ticket in the hope that he would win.
fúnea ov for fear that It ézpa fúnea ov mamilo. He went inside for fear that it might rain.
ov lest Bono ov et tíjso lopét. Stay calm lest you awake the snake.
ónad aside from the fact that Yonad gaijop mamile, doma mamecan ce gla fia. Aside from the fact that it rains occasionally, the city's weather is very nice.
tea ad knowing that At vage tujer tea ad at po totamu. I want to die knowing that I will go to heaven.


Verbs in Mirad are conjugated for tense (present, past, future), mood (indicative, conditional/imperative/subjunctive/jussive), voice (active, passive), and finiteness. The verbal system is perfectly regular and predictable.
The infinitive, which serves as the dictionary lookup form, always ends in -er. The stem, therefore, is the infinitive without the -er ending. For example, the stem of the verb buner (to push) is bun. The stem is used as the base of all conjugated verb forms.

Finite forms

Finite verb forms are modulated for tense based on the three-way vowel distinction a (present), e (past), and o (future).
A fourth ending, u is used for the equivalent of the English conditionals, subjunctives, and imperatives.
Verbs can be further modulated for progressive, anterior (perfect), and imminent senses through compounding.
Endings do not change depending on the subject person. For example, unlike in English where am, are, and is are used in the present depending on the subject, the Unilingua verb cer has one present indicative form of to be for all persons: ce.
Mirad English
at ce I am
et ce you are
it ce he is
ìt ce she is
id ce that is, it is
ud ce this is
ot ce who is?
ati ce we are
eti ce you (all) are
iti ce they are
íti ce they are
oti ce who are?
át ce everyone is
ét ce whoever/anyone is
ód ce nothing is
apeti ce horses are
Simple tense forms
The simple tense verb forms are generated by adding the tense markers a, e, o, or the conditional marker u to the stem of the verb. For example, the stem of the verb ter to know is t and the inflected forms of the simple tenses are as follows:
Active voice forms
ending meaning example
e present It te. He knows.
a past At ta. I knew.
o future Et to. You will know.
u conditional Iti tu. They would know.
Non-indicative forms
The u ending is not only used for the conditional as above, but also non-indicatives moods such as the imperative and and subjunctive. The conditional form without a subject is used for imperatives (direct commands). Positive subjunctives and jussives are expressed with the use of the affirmative jussive conjunction av (for, so that, let) followed by the subject and the verb in the conditional.
pattern meaning example
Vu direct command Aku! (short for Av et aku!) Win!.
av N Vu may N V Av ati aku! May we win!.
av N Vu let N V Av it upu. Let him come.
av N Vu wishes, etc. At vàge (av) et piu. I wish you would leave.
Negative subjunctives and jussives are expressed with the use of the negative jussive conjunction ov (against, lest) followed by the subject and the verb in the conditional.
pattern meaning example
ov Vu direct command Ov oku!. Don't lose!
ov N Vu may N V Ov ati oku! May we NOT lose!.
ov N Vu lest N V Ov it upu. Don't let him come.
ov N Vu wishes, etc. At vayge ov et piu. I wish you would NOT leave (lit: I wish lest you leave).
Unreal conditionals are expressed with the conditional conjunction ev (if, whether) followed by the subject and the verb in the conditional (-u) in both the main and subordinate clause..
pattern meaning example
ev N Vu, N Vu... if N were..., N would... Ev at cu edeb, at ívsu it. If I were king, I would free him.
Illative patterns
Beginning a sentence with the conditional conjunction ev (whether, if) makes the sentence into a yes/no question:
pattern meaning example
ev + VP Is it true that...? Ev et aka? Did you win?
Use the negative adverb voy (not) in front a verb to negate it:
pattern meaning example
vò + V negative Et vò ako. You will not win.
ev + negVP negative interrogative Ev et vò akeé? Aren't you winning?
Similary, the positive adverb vay' (indeed) is used in various combinations to qualify verbs. Like (not), this adverb immediate preceeds the verb form.
ending meaning example
và + V affirmative At và aka. I did win. / I won indeed.
Used the potential adverb (maybe) in front of a verb to qualify it as potential or possible (like English may):
ending meaning example
vè + V potential It vè ako He may win!.
ev + VP negative potential interrogative Ev et vè vò akaú? Might'nt you have won?
Passive voice forms
The passive voice is formed by preceding the tense endings with w.
ending meaning example
w+e present It twe. He is known.
w+a past It twa. He was known.
w+o future It two. He will be known.
w+u conditional It twu. He would be known.

Progressive aspect forms

The progressive or continuous tenses, which are optional and used only where the distinction is useful, are formed from the simple present forms by compounding with pre-yodified tense vowels.
ending meaning example
e+é present continuous active At akeé. I am winning. (pronounced: a-KE-ye)
e+á past continuous active At akeá I was winning. (pronounced: a-KE-ya)
e+ó future continuous active At akeó. I will be winning.
e+ú conditional continuous active At akeú. I would be winning.
we+é present continuous passive At akweé. I am being beaten.
we+á past continuous passive At akweá I was being beaten.
we+ó future continuous passive At akweó. I will be in the process of being beaten.
we+ú conditional continuous passive At akweú. I would be in the process of being beaten.

Anterior tense forms

The anterior or perfect tenses, which are also optional, are formed from the simple past tense form by compounding with pro-yodified tense vowels.
ending meaning example
a+é present perfect active At akaé. I have won.
a+á past perfect active Ati akaá We had won.
a+ó future perfect active Ati akaó. We will have won.
a+ú conditional perfect active Ati akaú. We would have won.
wa+é present perfect passive Iti akwaé. They have been beaten.
wa+á past perfect passive Iti akwaá. They had been beaten.
wa+ó future perfect passive Iti akwaó. They will have been beaten.
wa+ú conditional perfect passive Iti akwaú. They would have been beaten.

Imminent aspect forms

The so-called imminent tenses are formed from the simple future active tense forms in the same way.
ending meaning example
o+é present imminent active At akoé. I am going to win.
o+á past imminent active At akoá I was about to win.
wo+é present imminent passive Et akwoé. You are going to be beaten.
wo+á past imminent passive Et akwoá. You were about to be beaten.

Non-finite forms

ending meaning example
er active infinitive Et ége aker You must win.
wer passive infinitive Et vò vagu akwer You would not want to be defeated.
en active verbal noun Aken ce ád. Winning is everything.
wen passive verbal noun At vò ife akwen. I do not like being beaten.
ea active present participle Akea ekut The winning player
aa active past participle Akaa ekut The player who won.
oa active future participle Tob ce tujoa. Man is mortal (about to die).
ua active conditional participle Tob cua deb. The man who would be king.
wea passive present participle Akwea ekut The player being beaten
waa passive past participle Magelwaa taol Cooked meat.
woa passive future participle Teacwoa pancin the film to be seen
wua passive conditional participle Oteacwua tob the invisible man
present affirmative gerundive At teacibso pueà. I will call upon arriving.
present negative gerundive At ija teò éd. I started without knowing anything.
past affirmative gerundive Teacaà at pia. Having seen, I left.
past negative gerundive At pila dom teacaò ád. I left the town without having seen everything.
enè present instrumental gerundive Et akso gla ésenè. You will succeed by working hard.
    • Note: The -ua/wua ending approximates the English -able ending. oteacwua = invisible, íztijua = survivable, ogorwua = 'indivisible, vegua = capable, opanua = immobile. Adding an -n forms the substantive, eg. ogorwuan = indivisibility.

Conditional constructions

In sentences with conditional clauses the conditional clause is in the same tense as the main clause, contrary to the practice in English:
  • Ev mamilo at co uva. If it rains (= will rain), I will be sad.
  • Ev mamilaú at caú uva. If it had rained (= would have rained), I would have been sad.
  • Ev at cu nasika at ga zípu. If I were (=would be) rich, I'd travel more.
  • Ev et tu dud, (av et) du id atu. If you (= would) know the answer, (= that you would) tell it to me.

Sequence of tenses

Unlike in English, the tense of a consecutive clause is a real tense, not an adjusted tense relative to the main clause:
  • It da ad it tadco at. He said he would (= will) marry me.
  • It da ad it teaca it ejipu. He said he had seen (= saw) it twice.

Impersonal constructions

Impersonal verbs are conjugated without the subject personal pronoun:
  • Mamileé. It is raining.
  • Amco. It will warm up.
  • Eco dropek. There will be a war.
  • Ége av et upu já. It is necessary that you come early.
  • Ce fia. It's ok.

The verb "to be"

In Mirad, the verb cer (to be) is not suppressed in the present tense as in some languages like Russian or Agapoff's original version of Unilingua. Also, there is no existential distinction as in Spanish between ser and estar. Furthermore, the progressive forms ceá and ceé can be used at times as in some of the examples below:
  • Ati ce íva! We are free.
  • At co idmu. I'll be there.
  • Déni ca ab cem. The books were on the table.
  • Cayo e jubi ji at ca dopu. It will have been two days since I was in the army.
  • Cer ey voy cer. To be or not to be.
  • At caú uva ev et vò upaú. I would have been sad if you hadn't


  • Et ceé gla fua. You are being very bad.
  • At vò ceá ivcla. I was not being funny.

Reflexive constructions

Verbs can be made reflexive by adding the direct object get (self).
  • At vímila get ja per majtulu. I washed up (washed myself) before going to breakfast.
  • Tobet tuja get. The boy killed himself.
  • At teasa get cinzéfu. I looked at myself in the mirror.
  • Tu get! Know thyself!

Modal or auxiliary verbs

Mirad English Meaning Example
íver may permission Et íve iper. You may leave.
úver must requirement Et úve iper. You must leave.
ûver should obligation Et ûve iper. You should leave.
éger have to necessity At ége iper. I have to leave.
êger should obligation Et êge iper. You ought to leave.
vager want to volition At vage iper. I want to leave.
vaager long to yearning At vaage iper. I long to leave.
vàger would like to preference At vàge iper. I would like to go.
vagrer be eager to eagerness At vagre iper. I am eager to leave.
valter intend to intention At valte iper. I intend to leave.
veger can ability At vege ser id. I can do that.
voger refuse to refusal At voge ser id. I refuse to do that.
áker expect to expectation At áke aker. I expect to win.
áaker hopeto aspiration At áake aker. I hope to win.
éker try to attempt It vò éko iper. He won't try to leave.
ékler dare to dare It vò éklo iper. He will not dare leave.
óker to be surprised to surprise At óka aker. I was surprised to win.
ifer to love to love It ife eker. He loves to play.
ìfer to like to liking It ìfe eker. He likes to play.
ufer to hate to hate It ufe eker. He hates to play.
ùfer to dislike to dislike It ùfe eker. He dislikes playing.
iver to be glad to gladness At ivo iper. I shall be glad to leave.
uver to regret to regret At uva der id. I regretted saying it.
aver to favor espousal At ave iper. I favor leaving.
over to be opposed to opposition At ove eker. I am opposed to playing.
As you see in the examples above, modal verbs are followed by the infinitive form (-er) of the main verb.

Subordinate clauses introduced by ad

The positive complementizer particle ad (the fact that) is used to introduce a subordinate clause:

  • At ta (ad) it upo. I knew THAT he would come.
  • At ce vala (ad) et vádeé. I'm sure THAT you are telling the truth.
  • Ad mamilo ce valan. THAT it will rain is a certainty.
  • Ata tèd da (ad) iyt co tamu ojo èmaj. My mother said THAT she would be home by noon.
As in English, if the that can be dropped without any loss of meaning, it can be:
  • At da at dro. I said I'd (= I'll) write.
  • Et ta it sa id. You knew he had done (= did) it.
Unlike in English, a relative sequence of tenses is not applied. For example, English "I knew he would come." is rendered in Unilingua as "I knew he will come."
Do not confuse the particles ad and av. Clauses following ad are facts, whereas clauses following av are unreal wishes. Av should be thought of as so that.
  • At pana av it ábtu. I moved so that he could (= would) sit down.
  • At ta ad it ábto. I knew that he would (= will) sit down.

Subordinate clauses introduced by ev

The conditional complementizer particle ev (whether) is used to introduce a subordinate clause of the type "whether...":
  • At vò ta ev it upo. I did not know whether he would come.
  • Ev it upo ca teskía atu. whether he would or would come was not important to me.


Adjectives end in the suffix -a. They are invariable in form:
  • aga big
  • oga small
  • aza strong
  • oza weak
  • taba bodily
  • teaba ocular
  • tea aware
  • otea unaware

Adjectives used substantively to describe persons end in -t, while those used to describe things end in -c:

adjective animate substantive inanimate substantive
yoga young / new yogat youth yogac novelty
tuja dead tujat dead person tujac dead thing
fia good fiat good person fiac good thing

Adjectives always preceed the noun they modify:

  • aga tam a big house
  • yaga drun the long sentence
  • aza tob the strong man
  • mona maf a dark cloud

Serial adjectives usually go in the same order as in English:

  • ujna via jeeba jub the last beautiful summer day

Degrees of Comparison in Adjectives and Adverbs

Summary of Comparison Constructions
Note: vél is a preposition that comes from the verb véler to relate and is used to signal the object against which a relative comparison is being made (than, relative to).
Mirad English
ga...vél more...than
ge...vél as...as
go...vél less...than
gá...vél the most...in/of
gé...vél rather...compared to
gó...vél the least...in/of
The Comparative of Superiority
More than is expressed by the adverb ga, followed by the adjective, adverb, or verb and the preposition vél (in relation to, than, as) preceding the noun, pronoun, or predicate being compared:
Mirad English
Ata tadet ce ga aza vél et. My brother is stronger than you.
At ga ése vél et. I work more than you.
Ita tedet ga aga vél ata. His son is taller than mine.
Uda dén ce ga ketlea vél idac. This book is more interesting that that one.
Mam ce ga aga vél et tese. The sky is bigger than you think.
The Comparative of Equality
As...as' is expressed by the adverb ge, following by the adjective, adverb, or verb and the preposition vél (in relation to, than, as) preceding the noun, pronoun, or predicate being compared.
Mirad English
Ìt ge te vél at. She knows as much as I do.
At ge fi deuze vél et. I sing as well as you do.
Ata tam ce ge aga vél eta. My house is as big as yours.
Ece ge tobi vél tobomi. There are as many grownups as babies.
The Comparative of Inferiority
Less...than' is expressed by the adverb go, following by the adjective, adverb, or verb and the preposition vél (in relation to, than, as) preceding the noun, pronoun, or predicate being compared.
Mirad English
Ìt go te vél at. She knows less than I do.
At go fi deuze vél et. I sing less well than you do.
Ata tam ce go aga vél etac. My house is less big than yours.
Ece go tobi vél tobomi. There are fewer grownups than babies.
The Superlative of Superiority
The most...of/in' is expressed by the adverb gya, followed by the adjective, adverb, or verb, and the compared noun or pronoun preceded by the preposition vyel.
Mirad English
Ud ce gya yobaga miam vyel mir. This is the deepest lake in the world.
At gya fi deuze. I sing the best.
Gya fia ticudi vyel ticudyan akbuyo. The best students in the class will be rewarded.
At ce gya ivat vyel yati. I am the happiest person of all.
The Superlative of Inferiority
The least...of/in' is expressed by the adverb gyo, followed by the adjective, adverb, or verb, and the compared noun or pronoun preceded by the preposition vyel.

Mirad English
Uda ticud ce gó tepaza vél áda ticudi. This student is the least intelligent of all the students.
At gó fi deuze. I sing the least well.
Gó fia ticudi vél ticudyan uóvfuso. The worst students in the class will be punished.
At ce gó ivat vél áti. I am the least happy person of all.
Idioms Using Adjectival/Adverbial Comparison Constructions
Mirad English example
ga...ga the more...the more Ga mamile ga ilirke. The more it rains, the more it floods.
ga...go the more...the less Ga iva at ce ga azà at dae. The happier I am the louder I speak.
go...ga the less...the more Go et tile ga fia ce. The less you drink the better.
go...go the less...the less Go et ézbue go et ózbie. The less you put in the less you get out.
gá... as much as possible... At tele gá ida telamu. I eat as much as possible in that restaurant.
gá veá... the most possible Puo gá já veá. Arrive as early as possible.
gó veá... the least possible Bookco gó veá. Tire yourself out the least possible.
vòga...vél no more...than At tila oga vél jubénà. I drank no more than usual.

Note: vél, as a preposition, originates from a verb, much like the prepositions gal plus and gar times:

verb preposition
galer to add gal plus
garer to multiply gar times
goler to subtract gol minus
gorer to divide gor divided by
véler to relate vél relative to, than



Adverbs can be formed from adjectives by post-yodifying the adjectival ending, that is, by changing -a to , for example:
adjective adverb
fia good fià well
ana single anà only
gía easy gíà easily
The adverbial ending is really the same as the comitive ending, meaning with. So, in effect, nouns in the comitive case are really adverbs. The same holds true for the instrumental ending by means of, through, by.
noun adverb
gúan difficulty gúanà with difficulty
ágan length áganè lengthwise, by length
bik care bikà with care, carefully
at me atè by me
Similarly, a noun in the dative case (-u) can amount to an adverbial expression.
noun adverb
uda job this day udjobu today
oda em which place od(e)mu where?
tam house tamu (at) home
mep way mepu en route
Some words are inherently adverbs:
  • áb up as in go up
  • ób down as in come down
  • ahead as in run ahead
  • back as come back
  • úz around as in spin around
  • ga more as in eat more
  • go less as in eat less
  • ge same, as as in as big or do the same
  • gla very as in very good
  • glo not so as in not so bad
  • indeed as in He is indeed our leader.
  • not as in He is not our leader.
  • possibly as in It's possibly true.


Adverbs are compared in the same way as adjectives:
normal equalitive degree comparitive degree maximal degree
igà quickly ge igà (vél) as quickly (as) ga igà more quickly gá igà as quickly as possible
ugà slowly ge ugà (vél) as slowly (as) go ugà less slowly gá ugà as slowly as possible


Adverbs, like adjectively, normally precede the element in the sentence which they modify, however, this rule is a loose one and can be bent without peril in most cases.
  • Igà upu! Come quickly!'
  • At anà go te. I know only a little.
  • Uda tam fià ceswa. This house was built well.
  • Et vò sa ge fuà. You did not do as badly.
  • Upu gá ubà. Come as closely as possible.
  • At vò te ev it pa áb è ób. I don't know whether he went up or down.


Adverbs formed from adjectives ending in -ia or -ua can be shorted to -i and -u, respectively:
  • Pu fi! Fare well!'
  • vi swa beautifully done
  • ésu gú! Work hard!

Conversation Lessons

Lesson 1: Greetings (Dotsini)

Mirad English
Cu baka! Hello! [Lit: "Be healthy."]
Gè et. Hi. (in return) [Lit: "Equally you."]
Fijub! Good day!
Fimaj! Good morning!
Fiumaj! Good evening!
Fimoj! Good night.
Upu và!! Welcome! [Lit: "Come indeed"]
Et ce odéna? How are you? [Lit: "You are what-like"]
Et ce odbéna? How are you? [Lit: "You are in-what-situation."]
At ce baka. I'm fine. [Lit: "I am well."]
At ce fibéna. I'm fine. [Lit: "I am in-good-situation."]
At ce ficana. I'm fine. [Lit: "I am in-good-form."]
Ev coni fipe? How are things? [Lit: "Are things going well?"]
Ád fipe. Everything is going well.
Et se odà? How are you doing? [Lit: "You do how?"]
At se fià. I'm doing well. [Lit: "I do well."
Vò fia vò fua. So-so. [Lit: "Not good not bad."]
Naztwe! Thanks! [Lit: "It is appreciated."][naz = value]
Atu ifca. You're welcome. [Lit: "It was a pleasure for me."]
À ev et? And you? [Lit: "And whether you?"]
At gè ce baka. I'm fine, too. [Lit: "I likewise am healthy."]
Od ce joga? What's new. [Lit: What is new?"]
Ód. Nothing.
Eta tod ce odéna? How is your family? [Lit: "You family is what-way?"]
Ata tod ce ficana. My family is fine. [Lit: "My family is in good shape."]
Cu baka!! Goodbye!, Farewell! [Lit: "Be healthy."]
Gè et!! Goodbye to you, too! [Lit: "Likewise you."]

Vocabulary Notes

  • bak = health
  • baka = healthy
  • cer = to be
  • cer baka = to be healthy, to be well
  • Cu baka!! [future/imperative] = Be well! Farewell! Hello!
  • At ce baka. = I'm fine. (= I am well.)
  • = equally, also, too, likewise
  • gè at = me too; I, as well
  • gè fia = equally good, also good
  • gebénu = in the same situation/manner
  • ev = Whether?; Is it true that?
  • od? = What?
    • odà? = How? ( = adverbial ending/"with")
    • odéna? = How?, (Lit: what-wise?)
    • odbéna? = How? (Lit: what-mannered?)
    • odcana? = How? (Lit: what-shaped?)
  • av = for (prep), let, so that (conj.)
    • Av it bakcu. = Let him be well. [Lit: "So that he be healthy."]
  • à = and (ò = but, è = or)
  • vo = no (va = yes, ve = maybe)
    • = not ( = indeed, certainly, = possibly, may)
    • vò fua = not bad
    • At vè ce boka. = I may be ill.
    • It và ce ficana. = He is really in good shape.
  • ód = nothing (ád = everything)
  • at = I, me
  • atu = to me, for me
  • ata = my, mine
  • et = you
  • etu = to you, for you
  • eta = your
  • it = he, him
  • itu = to him, for him
  • ita = his
  • can = shape, form, condition, state, status
  • fican = good shape, good form, good condition
  • ficana = in good shape, well, in good condition
  • ficana cer / fincancer = to be in good shape, to be fine
  • fucan = bad shape, bad condition
  • fucana cer / fucancer = to be in bad shape, to be unwell
  • odcana = in what shape, how
  • odcana ce... = How is...
  • bén = manner, situation
  • fia = good (fua = bad)
  • fibéna = in a good situation, fine
  • odbéna? = in what situation?, in what manner?, how?
  • ge = equal, same, as
  • gebéna = in the same situation, unchanged
  • naz = value
  • ter = to know
  • twer = to be known
  • nazter = to appreciate, to know the value, to be thankful
    • naztwe. = (It) is appreciated [passive voice], thank-you, thanks
    • Gla naztwe. = Much appreciated; Thank-you very much.
  • der = to say (...to [someone] = ...-u)
  • nazder = to express appreciation, to thank (+ ...-u)
    • At nazda itu av ita és. = I thanked him for his work.
  • nazden = thanks, expression of appreciation

Lesson 2: Getting Acquainted

Mirad English
At vàge [ad] et ijtu ata dat Ivan. I'd like you to meet my friend, Ivan. [Lit: "I'd like that you be acquainted with..."]
Ce gla if ijter et. Very pleased to meet you. [Lit: "It is a great pleasure to..."]
Od ce eta dún? What's your name?
Ata dún ce Maria. My name is Mary.
Odmu et tome? Where do you live?
At tome New Yorku/erozáki udma. I live in New York/two kilometers from here.
Et tome idmu ji od? How long have you lived there? [Lit: "You live there since what?"]
At tome ida domu ji alo jabi. I have lived in that city for 10 years. [Lit: I live in that city since...]
Od ce eta és? What do you do for a living? [Lit: "What is your work?"]
At ése ge biktut. À ev et? I work as a nurse. And you?
At eju keé és. I am currently looking for work.
Ev et aé aga tod? Do you have a big family?
Ata tedeti ce odjaga? How old are your children? [Lit: "What-aged are..."]
Gajagat ce ale jaga à gajogat ce ú jaga. The elder is twelve years old and the younger is nine. [Lit: "...is 12 of age...is 9 of age."]
Ev et gè ce tadca (or: tadaá)? Are you also married?
Vo. At ce tadokca/tadónca/tadoá. No. I'm widowed/divorced/unmarried. [Lit: "mate-lost/mate-separated/mate-less"]
Odmu et tija? Where were you born?
At tija úb udem. I was born near here.
Odju et emkála udmu? When did you move here. [Lit: "....change location..."]
At pua ji e jabi. I arrived four years ago. [Lit: "...since four years"]

Vocabulary Notes

  • ijter = to get to know, to become acquainted with, to meet (for the first time) (ijtat acquaintance)
  • ifcer/uifcer = to please/be pleased
  • tomer = to reside, to live, to make one's home
  • éser = to work
  • aér = to have
  • vàger = to wish, to like to (At vàge --er = I'd like to --)
  • dúncer = to be named, to be called
  • ser = to do, to make
  • keer = to seek, to look for (kaer = to find, koer = to hide)
  • tijer = to be born (tujer = to die)
  • tadcer = to get married
  • tadokcer = to be widowed
  • tadòcer = to be unmarried
  • emkáler = to relocate, to move (emkóler = to settle down)
  • puer = to arrive (pier = to depart)
  • jagcer = to get old, to age (jogcer = to get young)
  • dat = friend
  • tad = spouse, mate (tàd = wife, tadca married)
    • tadokcat = widow(er)
    • tadóncat = divore(e)
    • tadoát = bachelor/bachelorette
  • tedet = offspring, son, daughter, child
  • tod = family
  • tom = residence, home = (tomu = at home)
  • dom = city (domu = in the city, in town)
  • és = work (ésu = at work)
  • jag = age (jaga = old, joga = young)
  • tij = birth (tuj = death, tej = life)
  • dún = name
  • job = time
  • jab = year (jabi = years, e jabi two years, udjabu this year)
  • ej = the present (eju at present, eja present)
  • em = place, space (emkáer to relocate)
  • jagat = young person (gajagat = cadet, younger one)
  • jogat = old person (gajogat = elder)
  • if = pleasure (Ca if. It was a pleasure.)
  • ja = before (jo = after, je = during)
    • ja ej = ago [Lit: before the present]
  • ji = since (ju = until)
    • ji od = since when, for how long (ji e jabi = for two years)
  • ga = more (go = less, ge = equal)
  • gla = very, much, many (glo = little, few, slightly)
  • úb = near to (íb = far from, úbem vicinity)
  • bu = to (bi = from)
  • udem = this place (ud(e)mu = here, ud(e)ma from here, od(e)mu? = where?
  • idem = that place (id(e)mu = there, id(e)ma from there)
  • udjob = the present (udj(ob)u = now, odj(ob)u? when?)
  • idjob = that time (idj(ob)u = then, ji id since then)