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Attitudinals are markers of attitude or emotion, modifying the word (brivla, cmavo, cmene, sumti, or tanru) directly before it. For example, the simple << mlatu >> for "cat" can become << mlatu .ui >> for "cat (happiness!/:D)". At the beginning of a sentence (after the place of .i) they modify the entire sentence (bridi), and after the attitudinal beginning bracket << fu'e >>, they continue the emotion for all the statement until the closing bracket << fu'o >>.

Attitudinals can also affect vocatives, the same way a change in vocal tone can greatly affect a simple "hello". For example, << coi .ui >> means not a simple "Hello.", but something like "Hello! :D". Combined with the attitudinal question-maker pei, you can easily create more complex << coi .uipei >> may be thought of as "Hello - are you glad to see me?", while << co'o .uipei >> may be viewed as "Good-bye - are you happy that we part?".

Beyond mere emotion, they can mark prepositional ideas such as desire ("I want this to happen"), obligation ("This needs to happen"), and many other complex functions we take for granted - for example, << mi citka >> means "I eat", while << .au mi citka >> means "I want to eat", and << .e'e mi citka >> means "I am able to eat".

Emotional modifiers:[edit | edit source]

Modifier Modification
cai very strong
sai strong
(nothing) felt
ru'e weak
cu'i not felt
nairu'e weak negative
nai negative felt
naisai strong negative
naicai very strong negative

Attitudinal indicators and suffixes with examples of modifier use:[edit | edit source]

Attitudinals[edit | edit source]

Simple propositional emotions:[edit | edit source]

Attitudinal attitude -cu'i -nai
.a'a attentive inattentive avoiding
.a'e alertness exhaustion
.ai intent indecision refusal
.a'i effort lack of effort repose
.a'o hope despair
.au desire indifference reluctance
.a'u interest no interest repulsion

Complex propositional emotions:[edit | edit source]

Attitudinal attitude -cu'i -nai
.e'a permission prohibition
.e'e competence incompetence
.ei obligation freedom
.e'i constraint independence resistance to constraint
.e'o request negative request
.e'u suggestion no suggestion warning
.ia belief skepticism disbelief
.i'a acceptance blame
.ie agreement neutrality disagreement
.i'e approval non-approval disapproval

Miscellaneous pure emotions:[edit | edit source]

Attitudinal (nothing) -cu'i -nai
.ii fear nervousness security
.i'i togetherness privacy
.io respect lack of respect disrespect
.i'o appreciation lack of appreciation envy
.iu love lack of love hatred/fear
.i'u familiarity mystery

Complex pure emotions:[edit | edit source]

Attitudinal (nothing) -cu'i -nai
.o'a pride modesty shame
.o'e closeness detachment distance
.oi complaint/pain no complaints pleasure
.o'i caution boldness rashness
.o'o patience mere tolerance anger
.o'u relaxation composure stress

Simple pure emotions:[edit | edit source]

Attitudinal (nothing) -cu'i -nai
.ua discovery confusion
.u'a gain loss
.ue surprise no surprise expectation
.u'e wonder commonplace
.ui happiness unhappiness
.u'i amusement weariness
.uo completion incompleteness
.u'o courage timidity cowardice
.uu pity cruelty
.u'u repentance lack of regret innocence

Emotional categories:[edit | edit source]

Category (nothing) -cu'i -nai
ro'a social asocial antisocial
ro'e mental absentminded mindless
ro'i emotional emotionless denying emotion
ro'o physical intangible denying physical
ro'u sexual asexual sexual abstinence
re'e spiritual secular sacrilegious

Attitudinal modifiers:[edit | edit source]

Modifier (nothing) -cu'i -nai [gismu]
ga'i hauteur/rank equal rank meekness/lack of rank [galtu]
le'o aggressive passive defensive
vu'e virtue [zabna] sin [mabla] [vrude]
se'i self-orientation other-orientation [sevzi]
ri'e release restraint control [zifre]
fu'i easily/with help without help with difficulty/opposition [frili]
be'u lack/need presence/satisfaction satiation
se'a self-sufficiency dependency [sevzi]

Special:[edit | edit source]

cmavo (nothing) -cu'i -nai
pei attitude question
dai empathy
bu'o start emotion continue emotion end emotion

Evidentials:[edit | edit source]

Evidential (nothing) -cu'i -nai [gismu]
ja'o I conclude [jalge]
ca'e I define
ba'a I expect / I anticipate I experience I remember [balvi]
su'a I generalize I particularize [sucta]
ti'e I hear (hearsay) - not necessarily literally "hear" [tirna]
ka'u I know by cultural means [kulnu]
se'o I know by internal experience [senva]
za'a I observe [zgana]
pe'i I opine / It is my opinion that... [pensi]
ru'a I postulate / I presume [sruma]
ju'a I state (elliptical discursive) [jufra]

Consecutive discourse:[edit | edit source]

cmavo (nothing) [gismu]
ku'i however/but/in contrast [karbi]
ji'a additionally [jmina]
si'a similarly [simsa]
mi'u ditto [mintu]
po'o the only relevant case

Commentary on words:[edit | edit source]

cmavo (nothing) -nai [gismu]
va'i in other words in the same words [valsi]
ta'u expanding a tanru making a tanru [tanru]

Commentary on discourse:[edit | edit source]

cmavo (nothing) -cu'i -nai [gismu]
li'a clearly/obviously obscurely [klina]
ba'u exaggeration accuracy understatement [banli]
zo'o humorously dully seriously
sa'e precisely speaking loosely speaking [satci]
to'u in brief in detail [tordu]
do'a generously parsimoniously [dunda]
sa'u simply elaborating [sampu]
pa'e justice prejudice [pajni]
je'u truly/It is true that,... falsely [jetnu]

Knowledge:[edit | edit source]

cmavo (nothing) -cu'i -nai [gismu]
ju'o certainly uncertain certainly not [djuno]
la'a probably improbably [lakne]

Discourse management:[edit | edit source]

cmavo (nothing) -cu'i -nai [gismu]
ta'o by the way (sometimes: speaking of which,...) returning to point [tanjo]
ra'u chiefly equally incidentally [ralju]
mu'a for example omitting ex. end examples [mupli]
zu'u on the one hand on the other hand
ke'u repeating continuing [krefu]
da'i supposing in fact

Miscellaneous indicators:[edit | edit source]

Attitudinal (nothing) -nai
ki'a metalinguistic confusion
na'i metalinguistic negator
jo'a metalinguistic affirmer
li'o omitted text (quoted material)
sa'a material inserted by editor/narrator
xu true-false question
pau question premarker rhetorical question
pe'a figurative language literal language
bi'u new information old information
ge'e non-specific indicator

See also: Emotions

External links[edit | edit source]