# Linear Algebra/Changing Representations of Vectors/Solutions

## Solutions[edit]

*This exercise is recommended for all readers.*

- Problem 1

In **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): \mathbb {R} ^{2}**
, where

find the change of basis matrices from to and from to . Multiply the two.

- Answer

For the matrix to change bases from to **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\mathcal {E}}_{2}**
we need that **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\rm Rep}_{\mathcal{E}_2}(\mbox{id}(\vec{\delta}_1)) ={\rm Rep}_{\mathcal{E}_2}(\vec{\delta}_1)}**
and that . Of course, the representation of a vector in with respect to the standard basis is easy.

Concatenating those two together to make the columns of the change of basis matrix gives this.

The change of basis matrix in the other direction can be gotten by calculating and (this job is routine) or it can be found by taking the inverse of the above matrix. Because of the formula for the inverse of a **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): 2\!\times \!2**
matrix, this is easy.

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\rm Rep}_{\mathcal{E}_2,D}(\mbox{id})= \frac{1}{10}\cdot\begin{pmatrix} 4 &2 \\ -1 &2 \end{pmatrix} =\begin{pmatrix} 4/10 &2/10 \\ -1/10 &2/10 \end{pmatrix} }**

*This exercise is recommended for all readers.*

- Problem 2

Find the change of basis matrix for .

- ,
- ,
- ,
**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle D=\mathcal{E}_2 }** **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle B=\langle \begin{pmatrix} -1 \\ 1 \end{pmatrix},\begin{pmatrix} 2 \\ 2 \end{pmatrix} \rangle }**,

- Answer

In each case, the columns and are concatenated to make the change of basis matrix .

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{pmatrix} 1 &-1 \\ -1 &2 \end{pmatrix} }**

- Problem 3

For the bases in Problem 2, find the change of basis matrix in the other direction, from **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): D**
to .

- Answer

One way to go is to find and , and then concatenate them into the columns of the desired change of basis matrix. Another way is to find the inverse of the matrices that answer Problem 2.

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{pmatrix} 2 &1 \\ 1 &1 \end{pmatrix} }**

*This exercise is recommended for all readers.*

- Problem 4

Find the change of basis matrix for each **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle B,D\subseteq\mathcal{P}_2 }**
.

- Answer

The columns vector representations , and , and make the change of basis matrix .

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{pmatrix} 0 &0 &1 \\ 1 &0 &0 \\ 0 &1 &0 \end{pmatrix} }****Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{pmatrix} 1 &-1 &0 \\ 0 &1 &-1 \\ 0 &0 &1 \end{pmatrix} }**

E.g., for the first column of the first matrix, .

*This exercise is recommended for all readers.*

- Problem 5

Decide if each changes bases on . To what basis is changed?

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{pmatrix} -1 &4 \\ 2 &-8 \end{pmatrix} }****Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{pmatrix} 1 &-1 \\ 1 &1 \end{pmatrix} }**

- Answer

A matrix changes bases if and only if it is nonsingular.

- This matrix is nonsingular and so changes bases. Finding to what basis is changed means finding such that
**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{pmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \end{pmatrix} =5\begin{pmatrix} x_1 \\ y_1 \end{pmatrix}+0\begin{pmatrix} x_2 \\ y_1 \end{pmatrix} \qquad \begin{pmatrix} 0 \\ 1 \end{pmatrix} =0\begin{pmatrix} x_1 \\ y_1 \end{pmatrix}+4\begin{pmatrix} x_2 \\ y_1 \end{pmatrix} }**

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle D=\langle \begin{pmatrix} 1/5 \\ 0 \end{pmatrix}, \begin{pmatrix} 0 \\ 1/4 \end{pmatrix} \rangle }**

- Yes, this matrix is nonsingular and so changes bases. To calculate , we proceed as above with
- No, this matrix does not change bases because it is nonsingular.
- Yes, this matrix changes bases because it is nonsingular. The calculation of the changed-to basis is as above.

- Problem 6

Find bases such that this matrix represents the identity map with respect to those bases.

- Answer

This question has many different solutions. One way to proceed is to make up any basis **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): B**
for any space, and then compute the appropriate **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): D**
(necessarily for the same space, of course). Another, easier, way to proceed is to fix the codomain as and the codomain basis as . This way (recall that the representation of any vector with respect to the standard basis is just the vector itself), we have this.

- Problem 7

Conside the vector space of real-valued functions with basis . Show that is also a basis for this space. Find the change of basis matrix in each direction.

- Answer

Checking that is a basis is routine. Call the natural basis **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): D**
. To compute the change of basis matrix **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\rm Rep}_{B,D}(\mbox{id})}**
we must find and , that is, we need such that these equations hold.

Obviously this is the answer.

For the change of basis matrix in the other direction we could look for and **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\rm Rep}_{B}(\cos(x))}**
by solving these.

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{array}{rl} w_1\cdot (2\sin(x)+\cos(x))+z_1\cdot(3\cos(x)) &= \sin(x) \\ w_2\cdot (2\sin(x)+\cos(x))+z_2\cdot(3\cos(x)) &= \cos(x) \end{array}}**

An easier method is to find the inverse of the matrix found above.

- Problem 8

Where does this matrix

send the standard basis for ? Any other bases? *Hint.* Consider the inverse.

- Answer

We start by taking the inverse of the matrix, that is, by deciding what is the inverse to the map of interest.

This is more tractable than the representation the other way because this matrix is the concatenation of these two column vectors

and representations with respect to are transparent.

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle \vec{\delta}_1=\begin{pmatrix} \cos(2\theta) \\ \sin(2\theta) \end{pmatrix} \qquad \vec{\delta}_2=\begin{pmatrix} \sin(2\theta) \\ -\cos(2\theta) \end{pmatrix} }**

This pictures the action of the map that transforms

This map reflects vectors over that line. Since reflections are self-inverse, the answer to the question is: the original map reflects about the line through the origin with angle of elevation . (Of course, it does this to any basis.)

*This exercise is recommended for all readers.*

- Problem 9

What is the change of basis matrix with respect to ?

- Answer

The appropriately-sized identity matrix.

- Problem 10

Prove that a matrix changes bases if and only if it is invertible.

- Answer

Each is true if and only if the matrix is nonsingular.

- Problem 11

Finish the proof of Lemma 1.4.

- Answer

What remains to be shown is that left multiplication by a reduction matrix represents a change from another basis to .

Application of a row-multiplication matrix translates a representation with respect to the basis **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle \langle \vec{\beta}_1,\dots,k\vec{\beta}_i,\dots,\vec{\beta}_n \rangle }**
to one with respect to **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): B**
, as here.

Applying a row-swap matrix translates a representation with respect to to one with respect to . Finally, applying a row-combination matrix changes a representation with respect to to one with respect to **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): B**
.

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle \vec{v}= c_1\cdot\vec{\beta}_1+\dots +c_i\cdot(\vec{\beta}_i+k\vec{\beta}_j) +\dots+c_j\vec{\beta}_j+\dots+c_n\cdot\vec{\beta}_n }**

(As in the part of the proof in the body of this subsection, the various conditions on the row operations, e.g., that the scalar is nonzero, assure that these are all bases.)

*This exercise is recommended for all readers.*

- Problem 12

Let be a nonsingular matrix. What basis of does change to the standard basis?

- Answer

Taking **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): H**
as a change of basis matrix **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle H={\rm Rep}_{B,\mathcal{E}_n}(\mbox{id})}**
, its columns are

and, because representations with respect to the standard basis are transparent, we have this.

That is, the basis is the one composed of the columns of .

*This exercise is recommended for all readers.*

- Problem 13

- In with basis we have this represenatation.
**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\rm Rep}_{D}(1-x+3x^2-x^3)= \begin{pmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \\ 2 \\ 0 \end{pmatrix}_D }**

- State and prove that any nonzero vector representation can be changed to any other.

*Hint.* The proof of Lemma 1.4 is constructive— it not only says the bases change, it shows how they change.

- Answer

- We can change the starting vector representation to the ending one through a sequence of row operations. The proof tells us what how the bases change. We start by swapping the first and second rows of the representation with respect to to get a representation with resepect to a new basis .
**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle -2 }**times the third row of the vector representation to the fourth row. - Here are three different approaches to stating such a result. The first is the assertion: where
**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): V**is a vector space with basis**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): V**and any nonzero vector , where are nonzero, there are bases such that and . The third is: for any nonzero member of any vector space (of dimension ) and any nonzero column vector (with components) there is a basis such that is represented with respect to that basis by that column vector. The first and second statements follow easily from the third. The first follows because the third statement gives a basis such that and then is the desired . The second follows from the third because it is just a doubled application of it. A way to prove the third is as in the answer to the first part of this question. Here is a sketch. Represent with respect to any basis with a column vector . This column vector must have a nonzero component because is a nonzero vector. Use that component in a sequence of row operations to convert to . (This sketch could be filled out as an induction argument on the dimension of .)

- Problem 14

Let be vector spaces, and let be bases for and be bases for . Where is linear, find a formula relating to .

- Answer

This is the topic of the next subsection.

*This exercise is recommended for all readers.*

- Problem 15

Show that the columns of an change of basis matrix form a basis for . Do all bases appear in that way: can the vectors from any basis make the columns of a change of basis matrix?

- Answer

A change of basis matrix is nonsingular and thus has rank equal to the number of its columns. Therefore its set of columns is a linearly independent subset of size in and it is thus a basis. The answer to the second half is also "yes"; all implications in the prior sentence reverse (that is, all of the "if ... then ..." parts of the prior sentence convert to "if and only if" parts).

*This exercise is recommended for all readers.*

- Problem 16

Find a matrix having this effect.

That is, find a that left-multiplies the starting vector to yield the ending vector. Is there a matrix having these two effects?

Give a necessary and sufficient condition for there to be a matrix such that and .

- Answer

In response to the first half of the question, there are infinitely many such matrices. One of them represents with respect to the transformation of with this action.

The problem of specifying two distinct input/output pairs is a bit trickier. The fact that matrices have a linear action precludes some possibilities.

- Yes, there is such a matrix. These conditions
**Failed to parse (Conversion error. Server ("https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_") reported: "Cannot get mml. Server problem."): {\displaystyle {\begin{pmatrix}-2/7&3/7\\-2/7&3/7\end{pmatrix}}}**

- No, because
- A sufficient condition is that be linearly independent, but that's not a necessary condition. A necessary and sufficient condition is that any linear dependences among the starting vectors appear also among the ending vectors. That is,