Latvian/Basic vocabulary

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Numerals[edit]

1 - viens
2 - divi
3 - trīs
4 - četri
5 - pieci
6 - seši
7 - septiņi
8 - astoņi
9 - deviņi
10 - desmit
100 - simts
1000 - tūkstotis
1000000 - miljons

Names for other numerals up to one million are coined using words above:

  • -teen numerals - second numeral + pa + desmit (10) i.e. 14 = četri (4) + pa + desmit (10) = četrpadsmit = four over ten (pa is a preposition which means over in this case). As you can see the e from the word "desmit" is omitted, as well as the ending of the second numeral. The ending (the very last letter), in case of numerals, is not omitted if a numeral used in coining of word is 3 (trīs) or the numeral is used as last part of the coined word.
  • decimal numerals - first numeral + desmit (10) + second numeral i.e. 41 = četri (4) + desmit (10) + viens (1) = četrdesmit viens. As you see ending of četri (4) is cast off again, desmit (10) doesn`t have ending, therefore it simply can`t be cast off. If second number is zero ("nulle") then it is not added, thus 30 = trīsdesmit = first nummeral (trīs) + desmit (10)
  • Hundreds - first number + simts (100) + decimal number or last number if middle number is zero ("nulle") i.e. 945 = deviņi (9) + simts (100) + četrdesmit pieci (45) = deviņsimt četrdesmit pieci or 802 = astoņi (8) + simts (100) + divi (2) + astoņsimt divi. If first number is 1 first numeral "viens" is cast off, thus 111 = simtvienpadsmit = simts (100) + viens (1) + pa + desmit (10) not vien + simt vienpadsmit. Again if last numbers are zeros they are not named.
  • Thousands - first numeral + tūkstoš (1000) + numeral naming hundred. Again - when naming numbers from 1000 to 1999 first numeral ("viens") is omitted. If numerals name tens or hundreds of toustands first decimal numeral naming hundred is used i.e. 20 000 = decimal numeral (20) + tūkstoš (1000) = divdesmit tūkstoš or 500 000 = hundred (500) + tūkstoš = piecsimt tūkstoši.