9. The Noun
Nouns in Greek are inflected. Inflection means that a suffix which is appended to the stem is modified. In Greek the suffix is modified according to gender, case, and number.
There are three genders: Three Genders: Masculine (m.), Feminine (f.) and Neuter (n.). Substantives have grammatical gender, where gender is an inalieable property and often not correlated to physical sex. Pronouns and Adjectives modify their gender to match the gender of the substantive described.
In Greek, there are three numbers: singular, denoting a quantity of one; dual, denoting a pair; plural, denoting more than two.
In Greek there are five cases; the cases and their primary uses are tabulated below:
(all words underlined are in the case specified in the first column)
|CASE||Answers the Question||Example (English)|
|NOMINATIVE||Who or what?||Who gave? A man.|
|VOCATIVE||Person called or addressed||Oh, Cornelius!|
|ACCUSATIVE||Whom or what?||Whom I see? A boy.|
|GENITIVE||Whose or whereof?||Whose gift? A man's.|
|DATIVE||To or for whom or what||To whom given? To a man.|
The Nominative Case singular is the form given in all vocabularies and dictionaries. The method of its formation from the Stem is therefore a matter of prime importance.