Koine Greek/9

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to navigation Jump to search

9. The Noun[edit | edit source]

Nouns in Greek are inflected. Inflection means that a suffix which is appended to the stem is modified. In Greek the suffix is modified according to gender, case, and number.

There are three genders: Three Genders: Masculine (m.), Feminine (f.) and Neuter (n.). Substantives have grammatical gender, where gender is an inalienable property and often not correlated to physical sex. Pronouns and Adjectives modify their gender to match the gender of the substantive described.

In Greek, there are three numbers: singular, denoting a quantity of one; dual, denoting a pair; plural, denoting more than two.

In Greek there are five cases; the cases and their primary uses are tabulated below:

The Use of the Cases
(all words underlined are in the case specified in the first column)
CASE Answers the Question Example (English)
NOMINATIVE Who or what? Who gave? A man.
VOCATIVE Person called or addressed Oh, Cornelius!
ACCUSATIVE Whom or what? Whom I see? A boy.
GENITIVE Whose or whereof? Whose gift? A man's.
DATIVE To or for whom or what To whom given? To a man.

The Nominative Case singular is the form given in all vocabularies and dictionaries. The method of its formation from the Stem is therefore a matter of prime importance.