Japanese/Grammar/Sentence ending particles
The sentence ending particles (終助詞, しゅうじょし) are placed, unsurprisingly, at the end of sentences and apply to it as a whole. These include for example the question marker, か, and a host of others that express the speaker's emotions. Those emotion-indicating particles don't have any grammatical meaning, and, thus, used mostly in speech.
Question mark, used to indicate the sentence is a question. Note that か replaces だ instead of appearing after it, so you can either omit the copula at all, or use a full form (で ある).
|あのひと は だれ です か？||Who is that man?|
|たなかさん は せんせい です か？||Is Mr. Tanaka a teacher?|
The particle may also follow question pronouns with the meaning of some as in someone:
の (emphatic interrogative)
An emphatic question mark:
|いい の？||Is it okay?|
|どこに行くの?||Where are we going?|
ね (emphasis and confirmation)
Polite and expresses
- the speaker's desire to receive confirmation (rising intonation), or
- the speaker's agreement (falling intonation).
Often translated as "isn't it so", "don't you think so" or "don't you agree with me". Also used as a polite or friendly sentence ending. Some people end virtually every sentence with "ね".
|それ は むずかしい ね。↑||It's difficult, isn't it?|
|それ は むずかしい ね。↓||That sure is difficult.|
|たなかさん は すごい ひと だ ね...↓||Mr. Tanaka is a great guy...|
Also works as "phrase softener", i.e., it makes the phrase sound softer. Lengthening the syllable makes it more emphatic. The lengthening is usually indicated with a tilde:
|きれい だ ね~↓||It's so beautiful!|
Used when providing new information with emphasis, or like an exclamation mark, especially for commands:
|わかる よ||I understand.|
Similar to よ but more masculine.
|いく ぞ||I'm going.|
Informal, used when emphasizing an opinion. Male speakers tend to prefer using "な" instead of "ね".
|たなか は ばか だ な...||Tanaka's a fool...|
|さむい なあ||It's so cold.|
なあ also has other, polite, uses (to express deep thinking or rhetoric questions)
な can indicate prohibition when placed after verbs. In direct speech, this sounds rude and angry.
|いく な！||Don't go!|
|みる な！||Don't look!|
かな, かしら (uncertainty)
Indicate that speaker is not sure about something. かしら is used mostly by women.
|どこ に ある の かな||I wonder, where was it?|
Expresses agreement, used only by men in conversations . Also sometimes used as a vulgar よ.
|おい、にげる ぜ||Hey, I'm getting out of here!|
Like よ but softer. Used by women, but also by men in some parts of Japan.
|あした行くわ。||I will go tomorrow.|
Filler particle, used to emphasize the sentence (unlike よ, not implying any command or new information is communicated):