JLPT Guide/JLPT N5 Grammar/と

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The Particle "To"text

Complete Listing

It connects only nouns and pronouns, never phrases and clauses. It translates into "and".

靴と帽子を買った。 --- Kutsu to boushi o katta.--- I bought shoes and a hat.

英語と日本語を話します。--- Eigo to nihongo o hanashimasu.--- I speak English and Japanese.

  • Contrast

It indicates a comparison or contrast between the two nouns.

猫と犬とどちらが好きですか。---Neko to inu to dochira ga suki desu ka.--- Which do you like better,cats or dogs?

  • Accompaniment

It translates into "together, with".

友達と映画に行った。---Tomodachi to eiga ni itta.--- I went to a movie with my friend.

由紀は来月一朗と結婚します。---Yuki wa raigetsu Ichiro to kekkon shimasu.--- Yuki is going to marry Ichiro next month.

  • Change/Result

It is commonly used in the phrase "~ to naru (~となる)", and indicates that something reaches a goal or new state.

ついにオリンピックの開催の日となった。---Tsuini orinpikku no kaisai no hi to natta.--- At last the opening day of the Olympics has come.

募金は全部で百万円となった。---Bokin wa zenbu de hyakuman-en to natta.--- The total amount of donations reached one million yen.

  • Quotation

It is used before such verbs as "~ iu(~言う)", "~ omou(~思う)", "~ kiku (~聞く)", etc to introduce a clause or a phrase. It is normally preceded by a plain form of a verb.

彼は明日来るといった。---Kare wa asu kuru to itta.--- He said that he will come tomorrow.

来年日本に行こうと思っている。---Rainen nihon ni ikou to omotteiru.--- I am thinking of going to Japan next year.

  • Conditional

It is placed after a verb or an adjective to form a conditional. It translates into "as soon as," "when," "if," etc. A plain form is usually used before the particle "to".

仕事が終わるとすぐうちに帰った。---Shigoto ga owaru to sugu uchi ni kaetta.--- I went home as soon as work was over.

あの店に行くとおいしいすしが食べられる。---Ano mise ni iku to oishii sushi ga taberareru.--- If you go to that restaurant, you can have great sushi.

  • Sound Symbolism

It is used after onomatopoeic adverbs.

星がきらきらと輝いている。---Hoshi ga kira kira to kagayaiteiru.--- The stars are twinkling.

子供立ちはバタバタと走り回った。---Kodomotachi wa bata bata to hashirimawatta.--- The children ran around making lots of noise.